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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Conservation Genetics, 2015, Vol.16(1), pp.247-251
    Description: The endangered freshwater snail Theodoxus fluviatilis is a widely distributed European member of the gastropod family Neritidae. This taxon was abundantly found in the River Rhine until the end of the 20th century, and was considered to be extinct there since the late 1990s. Since 2006, a new, but morphological different form of T. fluviatilis has been recorded in the Upper Rhine region. Our aim was to identify the source of the recent populations by analysing individuals from five sites throughout the current known distribution along the River Rhine. Therefore, we sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, and compared the data with those from individuals collected in the early 1990s and 40 already known haplotypes from a pan-European study. Our results show that all studied recent Rhine individuals harbour only one COI haplotype that corresponds to an already known haplotype described from the River Danube and the Ukraine region near the Black Sea. This suggests that a re-colonisation of the River Rhine by T. fluviatilis from the River Danube is the most likely scenario of the re-establishment of the species. This route of invasion is known for other freshwater taxa that originate from the Ponto-Caspian region. Even though the current Rhine populations belong to T. fluviatilis their invasion may have consequences for the native Central European populations. Therefore, we recommend considering the current Rhine population as ‘ cryptic invader ’.
    Keywords: Invasion ; mtDNA ; COI ; Main-Danube canal ; Neritidae
    ISSN: 1566-0621
    E-ISSN: 1572-9737
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 2
    In: Freshwater Biology, December 2014, Vol.59(12), pp.2645-2655
    Description: Biodiversity is globally threatened by the replacement of native species by invasive species and ensuing changes in ecosystem functioning. Although trophic linkages between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems have received attention, effects of aquatic invasive species on the flow of resource subsidies have been considered only recently. We examined how the effects of one of the most invasive macroinvertebrate species in European waterways, the amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus, extend from streams to the terrestrial food web. We quantified aquatic emergence and the contribution of aquatic resources to the diets of two riparian spider taxa in relation to the density of D. villosus. Our results indicated that the effects of this invasive species carry over to the terrestrial system via cross‐ecosystem flow of resource subsidy. The contribution of aquatic resources to the diet of the terrestrial web‐building spider Tetragnatha decreased from 60% at low densities of D. villosus to 10% at a D. villosus density 〉5000 individuals m−2. This correlates with a decreasing emergence rate of merolimnic midges (species with an aquatic larval phase) from 12 to 〈3 mg dry biomass m−2 day−1 at the respective densities of D. villosus. The magnitude of biomass flow from the aquatic to the terrestrial ecosystem is most likely decreased by D. villosus, and this decrease extends to the diet of riparian web‐building spiders. Effects of this aquatic invader may also extend to a decoupling of the terrestrial ecosystem from the aquatic ecosystem in terms of subsidy flux.
    Keywords: Aquatic–Terrestrial Interaction ; Dikerogammarus Villosus ; Riparian Spider ; Stable Isotopes ; Tetragnatha
    ISSN: 0046-5070
    E-ISSN: 1365-2427
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 3/2015, Vol.746(1), pp.245-254
    Description: The composition of benthic macroinvertebrate communities is influenced by a variety of factors, including the introduction of invasive species. However, only few analyses of factors influencing benthic community structure exist, especially those including invasive species. Our aim was to examine the importance of biotic factors on spatial and temporal variations in the benthic community within one system (Lake Constance, Germany). We examined the dependence of benthic community structure on invasive species by non-metric multidimensional scaling and distance-based redundancy analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarities. The three significant biotic factors explained 40% of the community variability. The mayfly Centroptilum luteolum and the snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum were positively associated with the amount of Chara, whereas some caddisfly taxa and Chironomidae were positively associated with the density of Dreissena polymorpha, which is a pattern most likely caused by their different habitat preferences. Several benthic taxa especially indigenous gammarids and Asellus aquaticus tended to decline with increased densities of the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus. Furthermore, density of D. villosus explained 26% of the benthic variability, demonstrating the strong impact of this species. Overall, our study demonstrates the large impact of invasive species on the composition of benthic macroinvertebrates. Keywords Zebra mussel * Dreissena * Dikerogammarus * Distance-based redundancy analyses * Macroinvertebrates * Non-indigenous
    Keywords: Ecosystem Components – Analysis ; Introduced Species – Analysis;
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, July 2013, Vol.92(5), pp.483-489
    Description: ► The invasive aquatic amphipod is more tolerant to lambda-cyhalothrin than the native one. ► Predation success on Baetis nymphs is substantially higher for than ► may contribute substantially to leaf litter decomposition. Invasive species are considered as one of the major threats for biodiversity worldwide. The Ponto-Caspian species , for instance, spread throughout continental Europe and was recorded for the first time also within Lake Constance in 2003. Although is a highly competitive species it was not capable of replacing the native completely in this ecosystem, especially in the riparian zones of the highly agriculturally used island “Reichenau”. As differences in pesticide sensitivity between both amphipod species may explain their distribution, the present study assessed the implication of the highly toxic pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, which is authorized for application in the Lake Constance region, assuming the invasive species being more sensitive than the native one. However, both the feeding activity bioassays, which measured the leaf consumption over 7 d ( = 20), as well as the predation bioassay, which measured the predation rate upon nymphs in concert with the feeding activity on leaf material over 96 h ( = 13), revealed an up to 5-fold higher tolerance of towards lambda-cyhalothrin. These results suggest the investigated insecticide not being the trigger for the observed distribution pattern of both amphipod species. Hence, other factors like the diversity of habitat structures or the levels of ammonia may have facilitated the coexistence. Nevertheless, the present study uncovered a high leaf-shredding efficacy of the invasive species suggesting that its role in the leaf decomposition process may have been underestimated in the past.
    Keywords: Functional Feeding Group ; Insecticide ; Leaf Litter Decomposition ; Ecosystem Function ; Predator–Prey Interaction ; Freshwater Biodiversity ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biological Invasions, 2011, Vol.13(12), pp.2727-2738
    Description: Invasive species often influence existing biocenoses by altering their environment or facilitating the ecology of other species. Here we combined stable isotope analysis with quantitative benthic community sampling to investigate temporal variation in the influence of biodeposition of organic material (biodeposits) by the zebra mussel ( Dreissena polymorpha ) on the benthic food web in hard substrate habitats of Lake Constance, Germany. The accumulation of organic material excreted by zebra mussels (faeces and pseudofaeces) is hypothesised to implement a biodeposition based food web. By means of stable isotope analyses, we found that the feeding strategy of amphipods was dependent on the availability of zebra mussel biodeposits. The proportion of pelagic resources contributing to the diet (by δ 13 C) and trophic position (by δ 15 N) of amphipods were significantly and positively correlated to the production of zebra mussel biodeposits. Also, the benthic community in Lower Lake Constance showed a shift towards higher densities of the mayfly Caenis spp., Chironominae, and the caddisfly Ecnomus tenellus , which might act as links to higher trophic levels when more zebra mussel biodeposits were available. These results demonstrate that temporal variation in zebra mussel density, and thus in organic biodeposition, have a strong impact on the benthic communities and food web structure associated with hard substrates to the extent that there may be dependence on zebra mussel occurrence in such habitats in Lake Constance.
    Keywords: Stable isotope analysis ; Biodeposition ; Amphipods ; Invasive species ; Food web ; Benthic-pelagic coupling
    ISSN: 1387-3547
    E-ISSN: 1573-1464
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2016, Vol.768(1), pp.299-313
    Description: Communities and food web structures of aquatic ecosystems can be strongly affected by the establishment of alien macroinvertebrate species. In many European waters, the invasion of the Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus has led to displacement of other macroinvertebrates. Predation by D. villosus is often assumed to be the key driver of the displacement based on results of laboratory studies, but this has not been verified in the field. Here, we report our investigation of the relevance of D. villosus predation in the River Rhine system using both stable isotope analyses of δ 13 C and δ 15 N, and molecular analyses of D. villosus gut contents with group-specific primers aiming at macroinvertebrate prey taxa. Stable isotope analyses of D. villosus from ten sites showed mean δ 15 N values comparable to those of primary consumers. Overall, only approximately 1% of all tested primer/gut content combinations revealed DNA of the respective taxa. Both indicate minor importance of predation by D. villosus as a driver of the observed macroinvertebrate displacement. Conceivably, competitive strength due to opportunistic feeding, indicated by different niche widths between and a strong intraspecific variation of δ 13 C values of D. villosus within sites of our study, is much more important for its invasion success.
    Keywords: Invasive amphipod ; Stable isotopes ; SIBER ; Gut content ; Group-specific primers
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2011, Vol.673(1), pp.193-204
    Description: The mysid Limnomysis benedeni , one of the most important ponto-caspian invaders, was found in Lake Constance (southern Germany) in 2006. As part of larger studies to evaluate the effects of L. benedeni on the ecosystem, we studied its life-cycle strategies over an entire seasonal cycle in intervals of 3–5 weeks, addressing factors (predation, temperature) which we expected to be most important triggers of the observed changes. The size class distribution and the reproductive pattern indicated that the life cycle of L.   benedeni changes seasonally. During winter (November to March), the mysid invested energy in growth and delayed reproduction until April, when the population was dominated by adults. In summer (June to September), the adults reproduced at a smaller body size and the population was disproportionately dominated by juveniles. In a mesocosm experiment that excluded fish predators, the mysids followed the same seasonal patterns of growth and energy investment as in the field population, but the size class distribution differed. Even in summer, the population in the mesocosm was dominated by adults. Stomach analyses of fish showed that L. benedeni is preyed upon by juvenile Perca fluviatilis , which fed size selectively on larger mysids. In conclusion, our results suggest predation was the reason for the dominance of juveniles and the observed size class distribution in summer. In contrast, the smaller adults in summer were most likely a physiological adaptation, perhaps evolved to avoid predation or as a reaction on metabolic losses at higher temperatures.
    Keywords: Invasive species ; Life history ; Body size ; Littoral zone ; Fish predation ; Temperature
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 8
    In: Freshwater Biology, July 2009, Vol.54(7), pp.1379-1391
    Description: 1. The zebra mussel () is one of the most successful invasive species; it has colonised many aquatic systems in Europe and North America with strong impacts on various ecosystem processes. The effect of filtration on pelagic seston concentrations has been quantified in several studies, but the magnitude and stoichiometry of the transfer of sestonic biomass into benthic detritus by and the accompanying enrichment of the benthic habitat is still under‐investigated. 2. We studied biodeposition by zebra mussels in two series of laboratory experiments with the food algae and . We also measured the year‐round biodeposition rate under natural conditions in the oligotrophic Lake Constance. 3. In all experiments, zebra mussel biodeposition was linearly related to seston concentration. In the field, the relationship changed with a seasonal shift in algal composition and lower biodeposition rates during the spring algal bloom. 4. For both algal species in laboratory experiments, biodeposited material was depleted in phosphorous at an algal concentration ≤0.6 mg ash‐free dry mass L, but not at higher concentrations. This effect was not observed in the field, probably because of high variation in C : N : P stoichiometry. 5. By mediating the transfer of pelagic resources into the benthos zebra mussels provide a sufficient amount of detritus for benthic invertebrates, especially during summer. Thus, material biodeposited by the mussels might increase benthic secondary production from pelagic resources, and zebra mussels are important mediators of this flux of organic matter from the pelagic zone into the benthos.
    Keywords: Dreissena Polymorpha ; Food Web ; Invasive Species ; Organic Matter ; Pseudofaeces
    ISSN: 0046-5070
    E-ISSN: 1365-2427
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  • 9
    In: Freshwater Biology, December 2008, Vol.53(12), pp.2494-2503
    Description: 1. Accumulation of organic material by the zebra mussel is assumed to be the source of a biodeposition‐based food web. However, only little is known about the importance of the biodeposited material as a food source and its contribution to increased abundances of macroinvertebrates in the presence of . 2. Feeding, assimilation and growth of the amphipods and on food sources directly and indirectly associated with (biodeposited material and chironomids) and on conditioned alder leaves were measured. The stoichiometry of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus of the diets was measured as an important determining factor of food quality. 3. Chironomids had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents, alder leaves were depleted in nitrogen and phosphorus, and the stoichiometry of biodeposited material was intermediate. 4. Both amphipod species had highest feeding rates and assimilation efficiencies on chironomids. fed more on biodeposited material than on alder leaves, but assimilation efficiencies were similar; also had similar feeding rates and assimilation efficiencies on the two diets. 5. Both amphipod species had highest growth rates on chironomids and lowest growth rates on alder leaves. Both grew at intermediate rates on biodeposited material of . The growth rates of the amphipod species were related to food stoichiometry. Overall, the invasive grew faster than the indigenous . 6. Food resources directly and indirectly associated with are potential diets for amphipods, providing further evidence for a biodeposition‐based food web.
    Keywords: Dikerogammarus Villosus ; Feeding Strategy ; Food Quality ; Food Web ; Gammarus Roeselii
    ISSN: 0046-5070
    E-ISSN: 1365-2427
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  • 10
    In: Aquatic Invasions, 11/2014, Vol.9(4), pp.489-497
    Description: The establishment of non-indigenous aquatic invertebrates may strongly affect community and food web structures in invaded systems. The invasion of the Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus in European waterways, has led to the displacement of other macroinvertebrates, especially other amphipod species. The key factor for the decline of both native and invasive amphipods is assumed to be strong intraguild predation (IGP) by D. villosus, as observed in laboratory studies. Here, we investigated the trophic annidation of the invasive D. villosus in a benthic food web in one season in 2011, focusing especially on the relevance of IGP at an invasion front in Switzerland. Nevertheless our results indicated that IGP is not the key factor in the displacement of native amphipods and does not seem to play an important role in invasion of the investigated Swiss water body. Hence, factors other than IGP seem to be the driving forces for the observed displacement of native amphipods.
    Keywords: Predation ; Species Interactions: General ; Amphipods ; Invasion Process ; Stable Isotope Analyses ; Siber ; Trophic Niche Width ; Genetic Gut Content Analyses;
    ISSN: Aquatic Invasions
    ISSN: 17986540
    E-ISSN: 18185487
    Source: CrossRef
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