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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 03 July 2019, Vol.141(26), pp.10236-10246
    Description: Molecular switches such as GTPases are powerful devices turning "on" or "off" biomolecular processes at the core of critical biological pathways. To develop molecular switches de novo, an intimate understanding of how they function is required. Here we investigate the thermodynamic parameters that define the nucleotide-dependent switch mechanism of elongation factor (EF) Tu as a prototypical molecular switch. EF-Tu alternates between GTP- and GDP-bound conformations during its functional cycle, representing the "on" and "off" states, respectively. We report for the first time that the activation barriers for nucleotide association are the same for both nucleotides, suggesting a guanosine nucleoside or ribose-first mechanism for nucleotide association. Additionally, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that enthalpic stabilization of GDP binding compared to GTP binding originates in the backbone hydrogen bonding network of EF-Tu. In contrast, binding of GTP to EF-Tu is entropically driven by the liberation of bound water during the GDP- to GTP-bound transition. GDP binding to the apo conformation of EF-Tu is both enthalpically and entropically favored, a feature unique among translational GTPases. This indicates that the apo conformation does not resemble the GDP-bound state. Finally, we show that antibiotics and single amino acid substitutions can be used to target specific structural elements in EF-Tu to redesign the thermodynamic landscape. These findings demonstrate how, through evolution, EF-Tu has fine-tuned the structural and dynamic features that define nucleotide binding, providing insight into how altering these properties could be exploited for protein engineering.
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Analytical Biochemistry, 15 November 2017, Vol.537, pp.106-113
    Description: Fluorescently labeled phosphate-binding proteins can be used as biomolecular tools to measure the release of inorganic phosphate (P ) from enzymes in real time, enabling the detailed kinetic analysis of dephosphorylating enzymes using rapid-kinetics approaches. Previously reported methods to purify fluorescently labeled phosphate-binding proteins (PhoS) from are laborious, and a simplified approach is needed. Here, we report the characterization of a cytosol-localized variant (A197C) of PhoS that allows a streamlined purification for subsequent covalent conjugation with a fluorescent dye. We show that export of PhoS into the periplasmic space is not required for the fluorescence-based detection of P binding. Furthermore, we report the addition of a C-terminal His-tag, simplifying the purification of PhoS from the cytosol via Ni -affinity chromatography, yielding a fully functional fusion protein (HC PhoS A197C). We demonstrate the utility of fluorescently labeled HC PhoS A197C for rapid-kinetics applications by measuring, using stopped-flow, the P release kinetics from LepA/EF4 following 70S ribosome-stimulated GTP hydrolysis. Altogether, the approach developed here allows for the high-yield and simplified in-house production of a P detection system suitable for rapid-kinetics approaches with comparable sensitivity to the commercially available Phosphate Sensor.
    Keywords: Phosphate-Binding Protein (Phos) ; Fluorescence ; Phosphate Release ; Phosphate Sensor ; Rapid-Kinetics ; Lepa/Ef4 ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0003-2697
    E-ISSN: 1096-0309
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  • 3
    In: Scientific Reports, 2015, Vol.5
    Description: The phosphate-binding loop (P-loop) is a conserved sequence motif found in mononucleotide-binding proteins. Little is known about the structural dynamics of this region and its contribution to the observed nucleotide binding properties. Understanding the underlying design principles is of great interest for biomolecular engineering applications. We have used rapid-kinetics measurements in vitro and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in silico to investigate the relationship between GTP-binding properties and P-loop structural dynamics in the universally conserved Elongation Factor (EF) Tu. Analysis of wild type EF-Tu and variants with substitutions at positions in or adjacent to the P-loop revealed a correlation between P-loop flexibility and the entropy of activation for GTP dissociation. The same variants demonstrate more backbone flexibility in two N-terminal amino acids of the P-loop during force-induced EF-Tu · GTP dissociation in Steered Molecular Dynamics simulations. Amino acids Gly18 and His19 are involved in stabilizing the P-loop backbone via interactions with the adjacent helix C. We propose that these P-loop/helix C interactions function as a conserved P-loop anchoring module and identify the presence of P-loop anchors within several GTPases and ATPases suggesting their evolutionary conservation.
    Keywords: Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Peptide Elongation Factor Tu -- Chemistry;
    ISSN: 20452322
    E-ISSN: 20452322
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, 06 April 2018, Vol.46(6), pp.3232-3244
    Description: Archaea and eukaryotes have ribosomal P stalks composed of anchor protein P0 and aP1 homodimers (archaea) or P1•P2 heterodimers (eukaryotes). These P stalks recruit translational GTPases to the GTPase-associated center in ribosomes to provide energy during translation. The C-terminus of the P stalk is known to selectively recognize GTPases. Here we investigated the interaction between the P stalk and elongation factor 2 by determining the structures of Pyrococcus horikoshii EF-2 (PhoEF-2) in the Apo-form, GDP-form, GMPPCP-form (GTP-form), and GMPPCP-form bound with 11 C-terminal residues of P1 (P1C11). Helical structured P1C11 binds to a hydrophobic groove between domain G and subdomain G' of PhoEF-2, where is completely different from that of aEF-1α in terms of both position and sequence, implying that such interaction characteristic may be requested by how GTPases perform their functions on the ribosome. Combining PhoEF-2 P1-binding assays with a structural comparison of current PhoEF-2 structures and molecular dynamics model of a P1C11-bound GDP form, the conformational changes of the P1C11-binding groove in each form suggest that in response to the translation process, the groove has three states: closed, open, and release for recruiting and releasing GTPases.
    Keywords: Archaeal Proteins -- Metabolism ; Peptide Elongation Factor 2 -- Metabolism ; Pyrococcus Horikoshii -- Metabolism ; Ribosomal Proteins -- Metabolism ; Ribosomes -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 03051048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Description: Understanding RNA processing and turnover requires knowledge of cleavages by major endoribonucleases within a living cell. We have employed TIER-seq (transiently inactivating an endoribonuclease followed by RNA-seq) to profile cleavage products of the essential endoribonuclease RNase E in Salmonella enterica. A dominating cleavage signature is the location of a uridine two nucleotides downstream in a single-stranded segment, which we rationalize structurally as a key recognition determinant that may favor RNase E catalysis. Our results suggest a prominent biogenesis pathway for bacterial regulatory small RNAs whereby RNase E acts together with the RNA chaperone Hfq to liberate stable 3′ fragments from various precursor RNAs. Recapitulating this process in vitro, Hfq guides RNase E cleavage of a representative small-RNA precursor for interaction with a mRNA target. In vivo, the processing is required for target regulation. Our findings reveal a general maturation mechanism for a major class of post-transcriptional regulators.
    Description: This study was funded by DFG ( Vo875/14-1 ) and BioSysNet grants. B.F.L. is supported by the Wellcome Trust. K.P. was supported by the Human Frontiers Science Program (CDA00024/2016-C) .
    Source: DSpace@Cambridge
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 05 January 2017, Vol.65(1), pp.39-51
    Description: Understanding RNA processing and turnover requires knowledge of cleavages by major endoribonucleases within a living cell. We have employed TIER-seq (transiently inactivating an endoribonuclease followed by RNA-seq) to profile cleavage products of the essential endoribonuclease RNase E in . A dominating cleavage signature is the location of a uridine two nucleotides downstream in a single-stranded segment, which we rationalize structurally as a key recognition determinant that may favor RNase E catalysis. Our results suggest a prominent biogenesis pathway for bacterial regulatory small RNAs whereby RNase E acts together with the RNA chaperone Hfq to liberate stable 3′ fragments from various precursor RNAs. Recapitulating this process in vitro, Hfq guides RNase E cleavage of a representative small-RNA precursor for interaction with a mRNA target. In vivo, the processing is required for target regulation. Our findings reveal a general maturation mechanism for a major class of post-transcriptional regulators. Chao et al. discover that the essential bacterial RNase E cleaves numerous transcripts at preferred sites by sensing uridine as a 2-nt ruler. RNase E processing of various precursor RNAs produces many small regulatory RNAs, constituting a major small-RNA biogenesis pathway in bacteria.
    Keywords: Rnase E ; RNA Degradome ; Non-Coding RNA ; Hfq ; 3′ Utr ; Arcz ; Rpra ; Srna Maturation ; Uridine Ruler ; Tier-Seq ; Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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  • 7
    Description: Understanding RNA processing and turnover requires knowledge of cleavages by major endoribonucleases within a living cell. We have employed TIER-seq (transiently inactivating an endoribonuclease followed by RNA-seq) to profile cleavage products of the essential endoribonuclease RNase E in Salmonella enterica. A dominating cleavage signature is the location of a uridine two nucleotides downstream in a single-stranded segment, which we rationalize structurally as a key recognition determinant that may favor RNase E catalysis. Our results suggest a prominent biogenesis pathway for bacterial regulatory small RNAs whereby RNase E acts together with the RNA chaperone Hfq to liberate stable 3′ fragments from various precursor RNAs. Recapitulating this process in vitro, Hfq guides RNase E cleavage of a representative small-RNA precursor for interaction with a mRNA target. In vivo, the processing is required for target regulation. Our findings reveal a general maturation mechanism for a major class of post-transcriptional regulators....
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    Source: DataCite
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Description: Understanding RNA processing and turnover requires knowledge of cleavages by major endoribonucleases within a living cell. We have employed TIER-seq (transiently inactivating an endoribonuclease followed by RNA-seq) to profile cleavage products of the essential endoribonuclease RNase E in Salmonella enterica. A dominating cleavage signature is the location of a uridine two nucleotides downstream in a single-stranded segment, which we rationalize structurally as a key recognition determinant that may favor RNase E catalysis. Our results suggest a prominent biogenesis pathway for bacterial regulatory small RNAs whereby RNase E acts together with the RNA chaperone Hfq to liberate stable 30 fragments from various precursor RNAs. Recapitulating this process in vitro, Hfq guides RNase E cleavage of a representative small-RNA precursor for interaction with a mRNA target. In vivo, the processing is required for target regulation. Our findings reveal a general maturation mechanism for a major class of post-transcriptional regulators.
    Source: Open Access LMU (Universitätsbibliothek der LMU München)
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