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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2012, Vol.146(1), pp.81-92
    Description: ► We found fungicides frequently in-stream, also in community-relevant concentrations. ► Median copper concentrations in water and sediment were 5.4 μg l and 32.3 mg kg dw. ► Runoff transport via field paths reduced pesticide reduction capacity of buffers. ► In-stream pesticide spectrum was clearly attributed to entries via erosion rills. ► Vegetated field paths or wetlands are suggested to reduce entries via erosion rills. The present study was performed to characterise in-stream pesticide exposure within the Palatinate vineyard region in south-west Germany, evaluate the influence of buffer strip widths and identify mitigation measures for the relevant entry pathways. In-stream water and sediment samples that were taken at nine sampling sites of different buffer widths following intense rainfall, and edge-of-field runoff that were sampled in erosion rills were analysed regarding 28 active ingredients of pesticides including copper. In-stream samples contained a mix of 8 ± 4 pesticide compounds, resulting in total pesticide concentrations of 1.4–8.9 μg l for water and 16–670 μg kg dw for sediment. Following an exceptional rainfall event with a previous 34-day drought period, pesticide concentrations reached 7.0–83.4 μg l . Fungicides were the most important pesticides found and were significantly correlated with the pesticide application frequency and rate. The calculated toxicity values per sample (TU ) indicated that both organic pesticides and copper concentrations likely cause ecotoxicological effects in the field. The buffer strip width was of little importance for pesticide in-stream concentrations because pesticide entry occurred mainly via the field path network and erosion rills. Pesticide in-stream concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations detected in erosion rills ( = 0.56). As possible risk mitigation measures, we suggest the implementation of grassed field paths and vegetated ditches or wetlands.
    Keywords: Fungicide ; Copper ; Buffer Strips ; Surface Water ; Monitoring ; Exposure ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 01 June 2013, Vol.172, pp.49-50
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2017, Vol.793(1), pp.213-224
    Description: Small water bodies (SWB) are freshwater ecosystems of high ecological relevance. However, they receive considerably higher inputs of pesticides compared to larger water bodies owing to their close connection to adjacent agricultural fields in combination with their low water volume or discharge. Monitoring of the pesticide contamination of lentic and lotic SWB is a challenging task as various spatial and temporal factors affect pesticide’s maximum peak concentrations in the water bodies. We present an overview of the major challenges that can complicate the detection of exceedances of regulatory acceptable concentrations. Pesticide data from streams encompassed by the Danish pesticide monitoring program show that the highest pesticide concentrations are found in SWB. A ditch monitoring in a German orchard reveals that event-driven sampling following spray application outperforms the widely used automatic water sampling at fixed intervals, and we therefore suggest that the latter should replace the former in SWB. Furthermore, we suggest that gathering of quantitative data on pesticide pollution of lentic SWB should be given priority in future research.
    Keywords: Chemical and ecological status ; Pesticide monitoring ; Regulatory acceptable concentration ; Risk assessment
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 4
    Language: German
    In: Gesunde Pflanzen, 2018, Vol.70(3), pp.155-166
    Description: Die allgemeinen Grundsätze des Integrierten Pflanzenschutzes aus dem Anhang III der Pflanzenschutzrahmenrichtlinie der EU (2009/128/EG) beschreiben die Basisstrategie des integrierten Pflanzenschutzes. Danach müssen eingesetzte Pflanzenschutzmittel soweit zielartenspezifisch wie möglich sein und die geringsten Nebenwirkungen auf die menschliche Gesundheit, Nichtzielorganismen und die Umwelt haben. Daher ist eine Abschätzung des Umweltrisikos unerlässlich und ein wesentlicher Bestandteil in der Bewertung von Pflanzenschutzverfahren. In dieser Studie wurden die in den Vergleichsbetrieben von 2007 bis 2016 erfassten Pflanzenschutzmaßnahmen in den Kulturen Winterweizen (WW), Wintergerste (WG) und Winterraps (WR) mit dem Indikator SYNOPS-GIS in einer deutschlandweiten räumlichen Risikoanalyse bewertet. Die dafür notwenigen Umwelt- und Flächenparameter wurden auf der Basis von Landschaftsmodellen mit Hilfe von GIS- und Datenbankprozeduren flächenspezifisch ermittelt. Die erhobenen Anwendungsmuster wurden per Zufallsverteilung den Flächen kulturspezifisch zugeordnet und die Anwendungsbestimmungen der angewandten Mittel einschließlich der Auflagen zur Risikominderung und den physikochemischen Eigenschaften der Wirkstoffe aus relevanten Datenbanken entnommen. Auf dieser Datenbasis wurde eine flächenspezifische Risikoanalyse für einzelne Jahre durchgeführt, die über weitere Aggregationsschritte als Risikoindizes für Anwendungsmuster oder als räumliche Risikoindizes zusammengefasst wurden. Für alle Anwendungsmuster konnte eine hohe Variabilität des Umweltrisikos dargestellt werden. Eine Korrelation der Risikoindizes mit dem Behandlungsindex konnte für keine der drei Kulturen festgestellt werden. Des Weiteren zeigte die Risikoanalyse, dass in allen drei Kulturen der Einsatz von Herbiziden maßgeblich zum Gesamtrisiko für aquatische Organismen beitrug. Dagegen wurde das Risiko für Nichtziel-Arthropoden (NTA) überwiegend durch Insektizide bestimmt. Der Risikotrend der 90.-Perzentile für Winterweizen und Wintergerste zeigte über den gesamten Bewertungszeitraum von 2007–2016 eine Abnahme des aquatischen Risikos (WW: −29 % und WG: −43 %) und des Risikos für NTA (WW: −59 % und WG: −77 %). Im Winterraps wurde dagegen eine Zunahme beider Risikoindizes (aquatisch: 44 % und NTA: 35 %) beobachtet. The general principles of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) set out in Annex III of Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC) describe the basic strategy of integrated pest management. Thereafter plant protection products must be used as species specific as possible and have the least side effects on human health, non-target organisms and the environment. Therefore environmental risk assessment is essential and an integral part of the analysis and rating of IPM crop protection practices. In this study, the crop protection measures recorded in the reference farms between 2007 and 2016 in the three crops winter wheat (WW), winter barley (WG) and winter rape (WR) were evaluated with the risk indicator SYNOPS-GIS in a Germany wide spatial risk analysis. The required environmental and field specific parameters were determined on the basis of landscape models using GIS and database procedures. The surveyed application calendars were randomly and crop specific distributed to the fields. The application rules, including the labeled risk mitigation measures of the applied pesticides and the physico-chemical properties of the active substances were derived from relevant databases. Based on these datasets, a field specific risk analysis was conducted for each year and further summarized by aggregation procedures resulting in risk indices for each application calendar or spatial risk indices. For all application calendars a high variability of the environmental risk could be demonstrated. A correlation of the risk indices with the treatment index could not be determined for any of the three crops. Furthermore, the risk analysis showed in all three crops that the use of herbicides contributed significantly to the overall risk to aquatic organisms. The risk for non-target-arthropods (NTA) was largely determined by insecticides. The trend of the 90th percentile risk scores from 2007 to 2016 showed for winter wheat and winter barley a decrease in the aquatic risk (WW: −29% and WG: −43%) and in the risk for NTA (WW: −59% and WG: −77%). On the other hand, an increase in both risk indices was observed in winter rape (aquatic: 44% and NTA: 35%).
    Keywords: Integrated Pest Management ; Risk assessment ; Reference farms ; Pesticides ; GIS ; SYNOPS
    ISSN: 0367-4223
    E-ISSN: 1439-0345
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Insects, 01 September 2018, Vol.9(4), p.125
    Description: Over the last decade, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruits, gradually established itself in Europe, often resulting in significant economic losses. In 2011, when D. suzukii was first described for Germany, the Julius Kühn Institut (JKI) started a monitoring program in southwest Germany to study the occurrence and activity of the fly. Capture data from late 2011-early 2018 from 100 traps were analyzed for the effect of weather and immediate habitat on trap captures at different times of the year. We identified five phases in the annual population development cycle of D. suzukii. We found that the mild winter of 2013/2014 helped the thorough establishment of D. suzukii in Germany. Habitat types in the immediate vicinity of the trap and local weather conditions had a strong influence on trap captures. Forest borders and hedges were found to provide adequate overwintering shelter for the flies. Trap captures in forests and hedges were generally higher than those of vineyards and orchards, even during the fruiting seasons. Summer capture rates were correlated with the number of heat days and precipitation. We also discuss briefly the limitations of using trap captures as representative of fly density in the field.
    Keywords: Drosophilidae ; Host Plants ; Insect Behavior ; Insect Traps ; Invasive Species ; Online Db ; Population Dynamics ; Zoology
    E-ISSN: 2075-4450
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  • 6
    Language: German
    In: Julius-Kühn-Archiv, 01 February 2014, Issue 444, pp.41-41
    Description: Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Ausbreitung des Westlichen Maiswurzelbohrers in Deutschland bis 2021 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normale Tabelle"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}
    Keywords: Agriculture
    ISBN: 9783955470036
    ISSN: 1868-9892
    E-ISSN: 1868-9892
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  • 7
    Language: German
    In: Julius-Kühn-Archiv, 01 November 2015, Issue 451, pp.1-150
    Keywords: Agriculture
    ISSN: 1868-9892
    E-ISSN: 1868-9892
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 8
    Language: German
    In: Landbauforschung, 2014, Vol.64(1), p.1(16)
    Description: This article presents selected results of the Thunen-Baseline as well as the assumptions upon which these results are based. The Thunen-Baseline is established using and combining several models of the Thunen model network. It provides a reference scenario for the analysis of the impacts of alternative policies and developments. The projections are based on data and information available as of winter 2013/14. The baseline assumes a continuation of the current policy framework and the implementation of already decided policy changes. For the Thunen-Baseline 2013 to 2023, this implies the implementation of the EU-CAP reform decided in 2013 and its national implementation according to the decisions made at the German Ministers of Agriculture conference. Overall, the Thunen-Baseline 2013 to 2023 draws a picture of a competitive agricultural sector in Germany, which adapts well to the changes of the latest policy reform and seizes the opportunities for expanding production, especially in the dairy sector. On the other hand, the projections also highlight that - under the assumptions made and with unchanged policy conditions - the problems that may accompany intensive livestock production will not simply dissolve. In contrast, in view of the projected high profitability of intensive pig and poultry production the related challenges could increase. Keywords: agricultural policy, impact assessment, modelling, Germany Die Thunen-Baseline 2013 bis 2023 ist eine auf den deutschen Agrarsektor fokussierte modellgestutzte Projektion der erwarteten Entwicklungen auf der Grundlage der im Winter 2013/14 vorliegenden Daten und Informationen. Sie stellt eine Referenzsituation fur die Analyse von Auswirkungen alternativer Politiken und Entwicklungen dar. Die ThunenBaseline geht von einer Beibehaltung der derzeitigen Agrarpolitik bzw. der Umsetzung bereits beschlossener Politikanderungen aus. Fur die vorliegende Baseline bedeutet dies im Wesentlichen die Umsetzung der 2013 beschlossenen Reform der Europaischen Agrarpolitik und ihrer nationalen Umsetzung entsprechend des Beschlusses der deutschen Agrarministerkonferenz. Insgesamt zeichnet die Thunen-Baseline 2013 bis 2023 das Bild einer wettbewerbsstarken Landwirtschaft in Deutschland, die sich gut an die Veranderungen der jungsten Agrarreform anpasst und die Moglichkeiten zur Produktionsausdehnung, minsbesondere im Milchbereich, wahrnimmt. Auf der anderen Seite zeigen die Projektionen, dass sich unter den getroffenen Annahmen und unveranderten politischen Rahmenbedingungen die Probleme, die sich aus der intensiven Tierproduktion ergeben konnen, nicht im Zeitablauf "von selbst" losen, sondern im Gegenteil angesichts der projizierten Rentabilitat der Veredlungsproduktion weiter an Bedeutung gewinnen konnten. Schlusselworter: Agrarpolitik, Politikfolgenabschatzung, Modellierung, Deutschland
    Keywords: Agricultural Industry – Industry Forecasts ; Agricultural Policy – Analysis ; Agriculture – Economic Aspects
    ISSN: 2194-3605
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Agricultural Systems, November 2012, Vol.113, pp.1-15
    Description: ► A new methodology for sustainability rating of future pest management strategies is presented. ► This includes a target-based system description for chemical and non-chemical pest control measures. ► A rating procedure is proposed for aggregating results from different quantitative assessments. ► The usefulness of the methodology is evaluated in a case study with apple orchards in five European regions. Crop protection in general and apple crop protection in particular often rely on pesticides, although several alternative pest management measures are available. In this context European agricultural policy requires the implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) by 2014. Within IPM, more than one strategy can be practiced but selecting the most sustainable strategy is difficult because it requires simultaneous assessment of multiple environmental and economic aspects or attributes. Here, we introduce the methodology for sustainability assessment of orchard systems, and we evaluate its usefulness in a case study involving four crop protection strategies in apple orchards of five European regions. is an iterative, multi-attribute approach for defining and rating the sustainability of crop protection strategies in comparative studies. It consists of a transparent system-description tool including context, target, and crop protection parameters. The parameters are used as input data for life cycle assessment, environmental risk assessment, and full-cost calculations. The various results from these quantitative assessments are used to generate a multi-attribute rating with respect to ecological and economic sustainability. We demonstrate how the quantitative results can be translated into rating classes. By applying the methodology, we show that the ecological sustainability for all five regions can potentially be improved by implementing alternative crop protection measures currently available. We also report that, by increasing yield, yield stability, and fruit quality, implementation of IPM can improve the economic situation of apple growers. Because of its transparency, facilitated the collaborative development and comparison of crop protection strategies for sustainable orchard systems by an international network of agronomists, economists, and environmental scientists.
    Keywords: Sustainability Assessment ; Integrated Pest Management (Ipm) ; Multi-Attribute Assessment ; Life Cycle Assessment ; Full-Cost Calculation ; Environmental Risk Assessment ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0308-521X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2267
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Agricultural systems, 2012, Vol.113, pp.1-15
    Description: Crop protection in general and apple crop protection in particular often rely on pesticides, although several alternative pest management measures are available. In this context European agricultural policy requires the implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) by 2014. Within IPM, more than one strategy can be practiced but selecting the most sustainable strategy is difficult because it requires simultaneous assessment of multiple environmental and economic aspects or attributes. Here, we introduce the SustainOS methodology for sustainability assessment of orchard systems, and we evaluate its usefulness in a case study involving four crop protection strategies in apple orchards of five European regions. SustainOS is an iterative, multi-attribute approach for defining and rating the sustainability of crop protection strategies in comparative studies. It consists of a transparent system-description tool including context, target, and crop protection parameters. The parameters are used as input data for life cycle assessment, environmental risk assessment, and full-cost calculations. The various results from these quantitative assessments are used to generate a multi-attribute rating with respect to ecological and economic sustainability. We demonstrate how the quantitative results can be translated into rating classes. By applying the SustainOS methodology, we show that the ecological sustainability for all five regions can potentially be improved by implementing alternative crop protection measures currently available. We also report that, by increasing yield, yield stability, and fruit quality, implementation of IPM can improve the economic situation of apple growers. Because of its transparency, SustainOS facilitated the collaborative development and comparison of crop protection strategies for sustainable orchard systems by an international network of agronomists, economists, and environmental scientists. ; p. 1-15.
    Keywords: Plant Protection ; Growers ; Economists ; Economic Sustainability ; Life Cycle Assessment ; Scientists ; Economic Outlook And Situation ; Agronomists ; Case Studies ; Fruit Quality ; Alternative Crops ; Orchards ; Risk Assessment ; Apples ; Pesticides ; Agricultural Policy ; Integrated Pest Management
    ISSN: 0308-521X
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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