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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 2010, Vol.26(2), pp.243-259
    Description: Incidence rates for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in dairy cattle have remained essentially unchanged over the last 20 years. Dairy calves are more commonly affected than adult animals, with BRD being the principal cause of death in weaned dairy calves. The lack of progress in controlling respiratory disease demonstrates that there continues to be significant room for improvement in controlling this multifactorial syndrome, and that dairy producers need assistance in applying evolving husbandry practices to improve the health of dairy cattle. Therefore, it seems prudent to focus the management strategies on preventing disease through sound management of the transition period, along with sound vaccination and biosecurity programs.
    Keywords: Bovine Respiratory Disease ; Control ; Management ; Dairy Calves ; Dairy Cows ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0749-0720
    E-ISSN: 1558-4240
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Dairy Science, May 2016, Vol.99(5), pp.3718-3731
    Description: Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle in the United States, with prevalence estimates as high as 30%. Whereas clinical lesions have been well described, little is known about the morphologic changes that are associated with the early stages of lesion development from normal skin to clinical lesions. This study used the Iowa DD scoring system to evaluate the epidemiology of natural lesion development by digitally photographing the rear legs of a cohort of dairy cows over a 3-yr period. Sixty-one adult Holstein dairy cows were monitored for 1,032 cow foot-months. The incidence rate of lesion development was 4 lesions per 100 cow foot-months, with the average time for a lesion to develop being 133 d. Whereas 20% of the 1,678 foot observations exhibited clinical DD lesions, an additional 55% of all observations exhibited preclinical stage 1 and 2 lesions that were indicative of DD lesion development. Utilizing the dichotomous categorization of preclinical lesions in the Iowa DD scoring system, it was found that first-lactation heifers had a higher rate of the thickened and crusted “B” type lesions, whereas the ulcerative “A” type lesions were more likely to be identified in multiparous animals. For clinical DD lesions that received topical treatment, scoring of the post-treatment lesions using the Iowa DD scoring system was found to be useful in prognosticating both the risk of recrudescence and the time until recrudescence. Systemic disease, systemic antibiotic therapy, and periparturient stress were not associated with an increase or decrease in DD lesion scores. Treatment with a single topical tetracycline wrap was associated with a significant decrease (−1.17) in DD lesion score. The results of this study demonstrate that the complex morphologic changes associated with digital dermatitis can be readily classified using the Iowa DD scoring system and the scores can be used to predict and monitor the effects of treatment and prevention measures.
    Keywords: Bovine Digital Dermatitis ; Lameness ; Epidemiology ; Lesion Scoring ; Dairy Cattle ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0022-0302
    E-ISSN: 1525-3198
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, February 2016, Vol.175, pp.50-55
    Description: Compromised dairy cows, such as those suffering from illness or injury, are likely to have different behavioral priorities and needs compared to healthy cows. Although hospital pens are typically required in animal welfare standards and assessment programs, there is surprisingly little information on best practices for housing and management of compromised cows. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive information about management and husbandry practices of compromised cows on dairy farms in Iowa. A questionnaire-based survey was designed to examine demographic information, design and management of hospital pens, as well as decisions concerning humane endpoints when euthanasia is considered. The survey was sent to 300 Iowa dairy farmers including organic, large (〉500 cows) and ordinary (≤500 cows) dairy farms, with overall response rate of 41%. Eighty-two percent of respondents had the possibility to house a sick or injured cow away from her normal pen. Hospital areas typically involved pen housing (89% of farms), and bedded pack was the most common flooring used (88%). Compromised cows were frequently housed in the same enclosure as fresh cows (45%), calving cows (36%), close up cows that are soon to calve (35%), dry cows (15%), or other cattle (8%), including heifers, calves and bulls. Half of the farms had standard management protocols for non-ambulatory cows. Calving difficulties, injury, milk fever, lameness and displaced abomasum were the most frequently cited conditions for moving cows into hospital pens. The present data can be used to formulate hypotheses and design experiments in order to examine relationships between the behavior of compromised cows under different management strategies. Research is needed to formulate recommendations for effective design and management of special needs areas and hospital pens, notably with respect to social groupings and behavioral needs of ill and injured cows.
    Keywords: Animal Welfare ; Dairy Cattle ; Hospital Pens ; Sickness Behavior ; Veterinary Medicine ; Zoology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0168-1591
    E-ISSN: 1872-9045
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, August 2014, Vol.82(8), pp.3359-73
    Description: Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle throughout the world. Despite 35 years of research, the definitive etiologic agent associated with the disease process is still unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that multiple bacterial species are associated with lesions, with spirochetes being the most reliably identified organism. This study details the deep sequencing-based metagenomic evaluation of 48 staged DD biopsy specimens collected during a 3-year longitudinal study of disease progression. Over 175 million sequences were evaluated by utilizing both shotgun and 16S metagenomic techniques. Based on the shotgun sequencing results, there was no evidence of a fungal or DNA viral etiology. The bacterial microbiota of biopsy specimens progresses through a systematic series of changes that correlate with the novel morphological lesion scoring system developed as part of this project. This scoring system was validated, as the microbiota of each stage was statistically significantly different from those of other stages (P 〈 0.001). The microbiota of control biopsy specimens were the most diverse and became less diverse as lesions developed. Although Treponema spp. predominated in the advanced lesions, they were in relatively low abundance in the newly described early lesions that are associated with the initiation of the disease process. The consortium of Treponema spp. identified at the onset of disease changes considerably as the lesions progress through the morphological stages identified. The results of this study support the hypothesis that DD is a polybacterial disease process and provide unique insights into the temporal changes in bacterial populations throughout lesion development.
    Keywords: Microbiota ; Digital Dermatitis -- Microbiology
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, San Francisco: Public Library of Science
    Description: Article discussing a study that was conducted to understand the basis of a bacterial infection that is common among dairy cows.
    Keywords: Dairy ; Cows ; Pyrosequencing ; Amplicons ; Bacteria ; Microbiology
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2016, Vol.11(4), p.e0154481
    Description: Bovine Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. DD is reportedly increasing in prevalence in beef cattle feedlots of the US. The exact etiologic agent(s) responsible for the disease have yet to be determined. Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of a variety of Treponema spp. within lesions. Attempts to reproduce clinically relevant disease using pure cultures of these organisms has failed to result in lesions that mirror the morphology and severity of naturally occurring lesions. This manuscript details the systematic development of an experimental protocol that reliably induces digital dermatitis lesions on a large enough scale to allow experimental evaluation of treatment and prevention measures. In total, 21 protocols from five experiments were evaluated on their effectiveness in inducing DD lesions in 126 Holstein calves (504 feet). The protocols varied in the type and concentration of inoculum, frequency of inoculation, duration the feet were wrapped, and type of experimental controls need to validate a successful induction. Knowledge gained in the first four experiments resulted in a final protocol capable of inducing DD lesions in 42 of 44 (95%) feet over a 28 day period. All induced lesions were macroscopically and microscopically identified as clinical DD lesions by individuals blinded to protocols. Lesions were also located at the site of inoculation in the palmer aspect of the interdigital space, and induced clinically measurable lameness in a significant portion of the calves. Collectively these results validate the model and provide a rapid and reliable means of inducing DD in large groups of calves.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    In: Journal of Animal Science, 2018, Vol. 96(8), pp.3089-3101
    Description: Remote drug delivery ( RDD ) using pneumatic darts has become more prevalent in situations where cattle handling facilities are not available. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of pneumatic dart delivery and subcutaneous injection of tulathromycin on plasma pharmacokinetics and biomarkers of inflammation, stress, and muscle injury in calves. Twenty-three castrated-male Holstein calves, approximately 10 mo of age with an average weight of 378 ± 6.49 kg, were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Calves in the RDD group (n = 15) received 10 mL of tulathromycin (2.42 to 2.93 mg/kg) delivered into the left neck using a Type U 10.0 mL 1.9-cm 14 G Needle pneumatic dart administered with a breech loading projector. With the exception of 1 light weight calf that received 7 mL (2.53 mg/kg), calves in the injection group (INJ) (n = 8) also received 10 mL of tulathromycin (2.34 to 2.68 mg/kg) administered as a single subcutaneous injection in the left neck using a 14 G, 1.9-cm needle and a 12-mL syringe. Serum tulathromycin, cortisol, creatine kinase ( CK ), and aspartate aminotransferase ( AST ) concentrations were determined in combination with other biomarkers of inflammation including mechanical nociceptive threshold ( MNT ), infrared thermography ( IRT ), and swelling at the injection site over 432 h after administration. Pneumatic darts failed to deliver the required dose of tulathromycin in 4 of 15 calves evidenced by heavier dart weights post-administration (24 vs. 13.5 g). When these 4 calves were removed from the analysis, calves in the RDD group were found to have a smaller area under the tulathromycin concentration curve ( AUC ) ( P = 0.005) and faster clearance ( P = 0.025) compared with the INJ group. Furthermore, the RDD group recorded a greater difference in MNT between the treated and contralateral neck compared with the INJ group at 12 h ( P = 0.016), 216 h ( P = 0.024), and 288 h ( P = 0.0494) after administration. Serum CK was elevated at 24 h ( P = 0.03) and AST was greater at 24 h ( P = 0.024) and 48 h ( P = 0.037) after RDD. Serum cortisol concentrations were also greater at 0.5 h ( P = 0.02) after RDD. These findings suggest that RDD is associated with reduced total body exposure to tulathromycin and increased acute stress, muscle damage, and pain at the injection site. Furthermore, the failure of darts to consistently deliver antimicrobial therapy has a negative impact on the welfare of sick animals treated with RDD technologies.
    Keywords: Animal Welfare ; Muscle Damage ; Remote Drug Delivery ; Stress ; Tulathromycin
    ISSN: 0021-8812
    E-ISSN: 1525-3163
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, November 2018, Vol.45(6), pp.849-857
    Description: To study the influence of pain on the pharmacokinetics and anti-inflammatory actions of transdermal flunixin administered at dehorning. Prospective, crossover, clinical study. A total of 16 male Holstein calves, aged 6–8 weeks weighing 61.3 ± 6.6 kg. Calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: transdermal flunixin and dehorning (PAIN) or transdermal flunixin and sham dehorning (NO PAIN). Flunixin meglumine (3.33 mg kg ) was administered topically as a pour-on concurrently with hot iron dehorning or sham dehorning. The calves were subjected to the alternative treatment 14 days later. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time points up to 72 hours for measurement of plasma flunixin concentrations. Pharmacokinetics parameters were determined using noncompartmental analysis. Prostaglandin E (PGE ) concentration was determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The 80% inhibition concentration (IC ) of PGE was determined using nonlinear regression. Pharmacokinetic data were statistically analyzed using paired tests and Wilcoxon rank sums for nonparametric data. Flunixin and PGE concentrations were log transformed and analyzed using repeated measures. A total of 15 calves completed the study. Plasma half-life of flunixin was significantly longer in PAIN (10.09 hours) than NO PAIN (7.16 hours) (  = 0.0202). Bioavailability of transdermal flunixin was 30% and 37% in PAIN and NO PAIN, respectively (  = 0.097). Maximum plasma concentrations of flunixin were 0.95 and 1.16 μg mL in PAIN and NO PAIN, respectively (  = 0.089). However, there was a treatment (PAIN NO PAIN) by time interaction (  = 0.0353). PGE concentrations were significantly lower in the PAIN treatment at 48 and 72 hours (  = 0.0092 and  = 0.0287, respectively). The IC of PGE by flunixin was similar in both treatments (  = 0.88). Pain alters the pharmacokinetics and anti-inflammatory effects of transdermally administered flunixin.
    Keywords: Cattle ; Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug ; Pain ; Pharmacokinetics ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 1467-2987
    E-ISSN: 1467-2995
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: American journal of veterinary research, May 2018, Vol.79(5), pp.568-575
    Description: OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of flunixin meglumine following IV and transdermal administration to calves. ANIMALS 8 healthy weaned Holstein bull calves. PROCEDURES At 2 months of age, all calves received an injectable solution of flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV); then, after a 10-day washout period, calves received a topical formulation of flunixin (3.33 mg/kg, transdermally). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times before and for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, after IV and transdermal administration. At 8 months of age, the experimental protocol was repeated except calves received flunixin by the transdermal route first. Plasma flunixin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. For each administration route, pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental methods and compared between the 2 ages. Plasma prostaglandin (PG) E concentration was determined with an ELISA. The effect of age on the percentage change in PGE concentration was assessed with repeated-measures analysis. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of flunixin on PGE concentration was determined by nonlinear regression. RESULTS Following IV administration, the mean half-life, area under the plasma concentration-time curve, and residence time were lower and the mean clearance was higher for calves at 8 months of age than at 2 months of age. Following transdermal administration, the mean maximum plasma drug concentration was lower and the mean absorption time and residence time were higher for calves at 8 months of age than at 2 months of age. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of flunixin on PGE concentration at 8 months of age was significantly higher than at 2 months of age. Age was not associated with the percentage change in PGE concentration following IV or transdermal flunixin administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In calves, the clearance of flunixin at 2 months of age was slower than that at 8 months of age following IV administration. Flunixin administration to calves may require age-related adjustments to the dose and dosing interval and an extended withdrawal interval.
    Keywords: Administration, Cutaneous ; Administration, Intravenous ; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal -- Pharmacokinetics ; Clonixin -- Analogs & Derivatives
    ISSN: 00029645
    E-ISSN: 1943-5681
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  • 10
    In: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, December 2018, Vol.41(6), pp.848-860
    Description: Ceftiofur (CEF) is a third‐generation cephalosporin that is the most widely used antimicrobial in the dairy industry. Currently, violative meat residues in cull dairy cattle are commonly associated with CEF. One potential cause for violative residues is altered pharmacokinetics of the drug due to disease, which could increase the time needed for the residue to deplete. The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the absolute bioavailability of CEF crystalline‐free acid (CFA) in healthy versus diseased cows; (b) to compare the plasma and interstitial fluid pharmacokinetics and plasma protein binding of CEF between healthy dairy cows and those with disease; and (c) to determine the CEF residue profile in tissues of diseased cows. For this trial, disease was induced through intramammary infusion. Following disease induction and CEF CFA administration, for plasma concentrations, there was not a significant effect of treatment ( = 0.068), but the treatment‐by‐time interaction ( = 0.005) was significant. There was a significantly greater concentration of CEF in the plasma of the DIS cows at T2 hr ( = 0.002), T8 hr ( 〈 0.001), T12 hr ( = 0.001), and T16 hr ( = 0.002). For PK parameters in plasma, the slope of the terminal phase of the concentration versus time curve was significantly lower ( = 0.007), terminal half‐life was significantly longer ( = 0.014), and apparent volume of distribution during the elimination phase was significantly higher ( = 0.028) diseased group. There was no difference in plasma protein binding of CEF and interstitial fluid pharmacokinetics. None of the cows had kidney CEF residues above the US tolerance level following observation of the drug's withdrawal period, but one cow with a larger apparent volume of distribution and longer terminal half‐life had tissue residues slightly below the tolerance. Whereas these findings do not support the hypothesis that severely ill cows need longer withdrawal times, alterations in the terminal half‐life suggest that it is theoretically possible.
    Keywords: Ceftiofur Crystalline‐Free Acid ; Dairy Cattle ; Drug Residues ; Pharmacokinetics
    ISSN: 0140-7783
    E-ISSN: 1365-2885
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