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  • 1
    UID:
    b3kat_BV048265313
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (45 p)
    Content: The focus of trade policy has shifted in recent years from economy-wide reductions in tariffs and trade restrictions toward targeted interventions to facilitate trade and promote exports. Most of these latter interventions are based on the new mantra of "aid-for-trade" rather than on hard evidence on what works and what does not. On the one hand, rigorous impact-evaluation is needed to justify these interventions and to improve their design. On the other hand, rigorous evaluation is feasible because unlike traditional trade policy, these interventions tend to be targeted and so it is possible to construct treatment and control groups. When interventions are not targeted, such as in the case of customs reforms, some techniques, such as randomized control trials, may not be feasible but meaningful evaluation may still be possible. Theis paper discusses examples of impact evaluations using a range of methods (experimental and non-experimental), highlighting the particular issues and caveats arising in a trade context, and the valuable lessons that are already being learned. The authors argue that systematically building impact evaluation into trade projects could lead to better policy design and a more credible case for "aid-for-trade
    Additional Edition: Cadot, Olivier Impact Evaluation of Trade Interventions
    Language: English
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 2
    UID:
    b3kat_BV048266165
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (27 p)
    Content: The demand for accountability in aid-for-trade is increasing but monitoring has focused on case studies and impressionistic narratives. The paper reviews recent evidence from a wide range of studies, recognizing that a multiplicity of approaches is needed to learn what works and what does not. The review concludes that there is some support for the emphasis on reducing trade costs through investments in hard infrastructure (like ports and roads) and soft infrastructure (like customs). But failure to implement complementary reform-especially the introduction of competition in transport services-may erode the benefits of these investments. Direct support to exporters does seem to lead to diversification across products and destinations, but it is not yet clear that these benefits are durable. In general, it is difficult to rely on cross-country studies to direct aid-for-trade. More rigorous impact evaluation is an underutilized alternative, but situations of clinical interventions in trade are rare and adverse incentives (because of agency problems) and costs (because of the small size of project) are a hurdle in implementation
    Additional Edition: Cadot, Olivier Evaluating Aid for Trade
    Language: English
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 3
    UID:
    b3kat_BV040618586
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource
    Edition: Online-Ausgabe World Bank E-Library Archive Sonstige Standardnummer des Gesamttitels: 041181-4
    Edition: Also available in print.
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 3981
    Content: "Using tariffs as a measure of openness, the authors find consistent evidence that the conditional effects of trade liberalization on inequality are correlated with relative factor endowments. Trade liberalization is associated with increases in inequality in countries well-endowed in highly skilled workers and capital or with workers that have very low education levels and in countries relatively well-endowed in mining and fuels. Trade liberalization is associated with decreases in inequality in countries that are well-endowed with primary-educated labor. Similar results are also apparent when decile data are used instead of the usual Gini coefficient. The results are strongly supportive of the factor-proportions theory of trade and suggest that trade liberalization in poor countries where the share of the labor force with very low education levels (likely employed in nontradable activities) is high raises inequality. In the sample, countries with low education levels also have relatively scarce endowments of capital. Quantitatively capital scarcity is the dominating effect so that trade liberalization is accompanied by reduced income inequality in low-income countries. Within-country inequality is also positively correlated with measures of macroeconomic instability. Simulation results suggest that relatively small changes in inequality as measured by aggregate measures of inequality like the Gini coefficient are magnified when estimates are carried out using decile data. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references. - Title from PDF file as viewed on 8/21/2006 , Erscheinungsjahr in Vorlageform:[2006] , Weitere Ausgabe: Gourdon, Julien : Openness, inequality, and poverty
    Additional Edition: Reproduktion von Gourdon, Julien Openness, inequality, and poverty 2006
    Language: English
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
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  • 4
    UID:
    b3kat_BV048265731
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (45 p)
    Content: This paper evaluates the effects of the FAMEX export promotion program in Tunisia on the performance of beneficiary firms. While much of the literature assesses only the short-term impact of such programs, the paper considers also the longer-term impact. Propensity-score matching, difference-in-difference, and weighted least squares estimates suggest that beneficiaries initially see faster export growth and greater diversification across destination markets and products. However, three years after the intervention, the growth rates and the export levels of beneficiaries are not significantly different from those of non-beneficiary firms. Exports of beneficiaries do remain more diversified, but the diversification does not translate into lower volatility of exports. The authors also did not find evidence that the program produced spillover benefits for non-beneficiary firms. However, the results on the longer-term impact of export promotion must be interpreted cautiously because the later years of the sample period saw a collapse in world trade, which may not have affected all firms equally
    Additional Edition: Cadot, Olivier Are the Benefits of Export Support Durable?
    Language: English
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 5
    UID:
    b3kat_BV048265407
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (30 p)
    Content: This paper builds on theoretical predictions that show that gains from regional integration are unevenly distributed between resource rich and poor countries. It explores the effects of different integration schemes in the Middle East and North Africa. The results suggest that within the Pan Arab Free Trade Agreement, there is significant trade creation for resource poor countries associated with regional integration, and no evidence of trade diversion. In resource rich countries, however, there is evidence of pure trade diversion in both resource-rich/labor-abundant countries and resource-rich/labor-importing countries. This underscores the idea that regional integration can help to spread the benefits of unevenly distributed resource wealth among the region's economies
    Additional Edition: Carrère, Céline Regional Integration and Natural Resources
    Language: English
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 6
    UID:
    gbv_895012111
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (circa 42 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: OECD trade policy papers no. 199
    Content: A number of countries used discriminatory government procurement policies as part of stimulus packages designed to alleviate the effects of the global economic crisis. This paper collates and updates the evidence related to the size of procurement markets, the level of home bias they exhibit, and the effectiveness of multilateral and bilateral procurement agreements in reducing that bias. The share of procurement in GDP has been increasing gradually since 1995 with clear spikes during 2000-2002 and 2008-2010, the latter in response to the global economic crisis. The analysis presents evidence of domestic bias in government procurement markets, bias which has been increasing over recent years. The analysis in this paper suggests that the results of international efforts to address home bias in government procurement have been mixed to date. The World Trade Organisation's Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) is found to reduce discrimination in procurement markets, although available -- but limited -- evidence does not indicate a significant effect for bilateral agreements. The evidence suggests liberalisation of investment barriers undertaken in parallel with trade agreements increases the ability of those agreements to reduce discrimination. This suggests that countries negotiating procurement agreements could also benefit from negotiating investment agreements in parallel.
    Language: English
    Keywords: Amtsdruckschrift ; Arbeitspapier ; Graue Literatur
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  • 7
    UID:
    gbv_1747692654
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (circa 20 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: OECD food, agriculture and fisheries papers no. 147
    Content: Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) provisions and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) generally raise trade costs, but by providing a positive signal to consumers that enhances confidence in imported products they can also expand trade. This paper seeks to identify which specific elements of SPS and TBT measures are particularly trade enhancing. It investigates the trade cost and trade enhancing effects of SPS and TBT measures along with other types of NTMs in agricultural trade. It provides estimations on the quantity and price effects on 34 SPS and 24 TBT measures. The econometric results show that technical measures can increase import prices of agricultural products by nearly 15%, most of which comes from restriction or special authorisation for TBT or SPS reasons, such as registration requirements. Conformity assessment also tends to significantly increase the cost of trade. Trade enhancing effects are identified for labelling and packaging requirements, which are also the measures with relatively low associated trade costs
    Language: English
    Keywords: Amtsdruckschrift ; Graue Literatur
    Author information: Tongeren, Frank W. van 1961-
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  • 8
    UID:
    gbv_1664513124
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (circa 43 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: OECD trade policy papers no. 222
    Content: Concerns are growing about policies and measures that restrict market access with the effect of “forcing” technology transfer. Efforts to target forced technology transfer are complicated by the sometimes blurred line between voluntary and mutually agreed upon technology transfers and that which is perceived to be, or is in fact, compelled. This study presents a discussion of the continuum of measures related to international technology transfer (ITT) and aims to identify those measures that pose the greatest concern over their potential to compel disclosure of commercially valuable and sensitive technology. It then briefly presents information on provisions in international trade and investment agreements that are relevant to ITT. The last section presents the perspective from the private sector in order to better understand how firms engage in technology transfers through research collaboration, licensing, joint ventures, and equity investments. The analysis in this report indicates that involuntary technology transfer is a complex issue, and it aims to provide a way for policy makers to think through the issues, to apply a systematic and analytical approach to assessing which policies are of the greatest concern.
    Language: English
    Keywords: Amtsdruckschrift ; Graue Literatur
    URL: Volltext  (lizenzpflichtig)
    URL: Volltext  (lizenzpflichtig)
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  • 9
    UID:
    gbv_876655908
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (circa 94 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: OECD trade policy papers no. 192
    Content: This paper characterises the extent of GVC participation in selected countries of Latin America. It looks deeper into certain key trade policy-related aspects of Latin American trade integration with the potential to improve GVC participation. Latin America has a dense web of intra and extra-regional preferential trade agreements (PTAs). Nevertheless, the overlap, duplication and conflicts among the different rules and standards governing trade under these PTAs are likely reducing the benefits of these agreements. This is prompting renewed interest in the idea of linking or harmonising the various Latin American PTAs. To help inform this debate, this study analyses the impact of rules of origin (RoO) and non-tariff measures (NTMs) on GVC integration in the region, and examines relevant harmonisation initiatives.
    Language: English
    Keywords: Amtsdruckschrift ; Arbeitspapier ; Graue Literatur
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  • 10
    UID:
    gbv_895012006
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (circa 34 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: OECD trade policy papers no. 198
    Content: This paper develops a taxonomy of government procurement (GP) measures to provide a basis for further analysis. It aims to undertake a more comprehensive, albeit not exhaustive, collection of GP barriers across countries, and to develop a classification system of GP measures to facilitate further data collection and analysis. The output is a taxonomy of different GP measures, policies and procedures which can impact cross-border public procurement.
    Language: English
    Keywords: Amtsdruckschrift ; Arbeitspapier ; Graue Literatur
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