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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary International
    Description: This paper describes a personal journey in ESR dating and gives some insights of the progress made over 35 years in ESR dating of tooth enamel. When I started, samples were irradiated with four additive dose steps of 5, 10, 15 and 20 krad and the linear extrapolation yielded the dose value. An assumed dose rate of 100 mrad/a yielded the age of the sample. Since then I learned that one actually has to measure the dose rate. I also learned that the dose response can be described by a single saturating function, or perhaps two, and that errors can be appropriately calculated. Rather than having a single anisotropic CO radical, tooth enamel consists of two anisotropic CO radicals and two isotropic CO radicals, one stable, one unstable. Also, the dose response shows spatial differences in the production of these different radicals in response to beta and gamma rays. Then there is the problem of uranium uptake over time. We solved this by combining ESR and U-series analyses. We can even measure appropriate beta attenuation factors including sequential laser ablation U-series analyses. Even better, all analyses can be carried out on small enamel fragments, which can be glued back into their original position with little to no visible damage. Still, when using the most sophisticated dose rate calculations, they're often close to 1000 μGy a .
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 1040-6182
    E-ISSN: 1873-4553
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 7/2010, Vol.466(7303), pp.189-190
    Description: By 1.3 million years ago, humans were established in the Mediterranean as indicated by fossils from Sima del Elefante, near Burgos, Spain5, and several archaeological sites in Spain, southern France and Italy6. [...] the Happisburgh site was found and described, it was thought that these early humans were reluctant to live in the lesshospitable climate of northern Europe, which frequently fell into the grip of severe ice ages.
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological–History ; Animals–Chemistry ; Archaeology–History ; Climate–Instrumentation ; Emigration & Immigration–Instrumentation ; Fossils–Instrumentation ; Geologic Sediments–Instrumentation ; Great Britain–Instrumentation ; History, Ancient–Instrumentation ; Hominidae–Instrumentation ; Humans–Instrumentation ; Magnetics–Instrumentation ; Paleontology–Instrumentation ; Seasons–Instrumentation ; Technology–Instrumentation ; Technology–Instrumentation ; Temperature–Instrumentation ; Fossils ; Nonfiction ; Soil Erosion ; Environmental Conditions;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Publishing Group (via CrossRef)
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  • 3
    In: Nature, 2010, Vol.466(7303), p.189
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological–History ; Animals–Chemistry ; Archaeology–History ; Climate–Instrumentation ; Emigration and Immigration–Instrumentation ; Fossils–Instrumentation ; Geologic Sediments–Instrumentation ; History, Ancient–Instrumentation ; Hominidae–Instrumentation ; Humans–Instrumentation ; Magnetics–Instrumentation ; Paleontology–Instrumentation ; Seasons–Instrumentation ; Technology–Instrumentation ; Temperature–Instrumentation ; United Kingdom–Instrumentation;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
    Source: Nature Publishing Group
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 26 October 2018, Vol.362(6413)
    Description: Our original claim, based on three independent numerical dating methods, of an age of ~185,000 years for the Misliya-1 modern human hemi-maxilla from Mount Carmel, Israel, is little affected by discounting uranium-series dating of adhering crusts. It confirms a much earlier out-of-Africa expansion than previously suggested by the considerably younger (90,000 to 120,000 years) Skhul/Qafzeh hominins.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Fossils
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 5
    In: Nature, 2017, Vol.546(7657), p.293
    Description: The timing and location of the emergence of our species and of associated behavioural changes are crucial for our understanding of human evolution. The earliest fossil attributed to a modern form of Homo sapiens comes from eastern Africa and is approximately 195 thousand years old1,2, therefore the emergence of modern human biology is commonly placed at around 200 thousand years ago3,4. The earliest Middle Stone Age assemblages come from eastern and southern Africa but date much earlier5-7. Here we report the ages, determined by thermoluminescence dating, of fire-heated flint artefacts obtained from new excavations at the Middle Stone Age site of Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, which are directly associated with newly discovered remains of H. sapiens8. A weighted average age places these Middle Stone Age artefacts and fossils at 315 34 thousand years ago. Support is obtained through the recalculated uranium series with electron spin resonance date of 286 32 thousand years ago for a tooth from the Irhoud 3 hominin mandible. These ages are also consistent with the faunal and microfaunal9 assemblages and almost double the previous age estimates for the lower part of the deposits10,11. The north African site of Jebel Irhoud contains one of the earliest directly dated Middle Stone Age assemblages, and its associated human remains are the oldest reported for H. sapiens. The emergence of our species and of the Middle Stone Age appear to be close in time, and these data suggest a larger scale, potentially pan-African, origin for both.
    Keywords: Morocco ; Artifacts ; Fossils ; Origins ; Uranium ; Electron Paramagnetic Resonance ; Emergence ; Stone Age ; Series (Mathematics) ; Age ; Evolution ; Dating ; Uranium ; Chronology ; Mandible ; Evolution ; Resonance ; Fossils ; Artefacts ; Uranium ; Thermoluminescence ; Teeth ; Stone ; Estimates ; Electron Spin ; Spin Resonance ; Thermoluminescence ; Teeth ; Fossils ; Human Behavior ; Biology ; Stone Age ; Evolution ; Fossils ; Paleontology ; Hominids ; Time Measurement;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(9), p.e24024
    Description: In recent years the Later Stone Age has been redated to a much deeper time depth than previously thought. At the same time, human remains from this time period are scarce in Africa, and even rarer in West Africa. The Iwo Eleru burial is one of the few human skeletal remains associated with Later Stone Age artifacts in that region with a proposed Pleistocene date. We undertook a morphometric reanalysis of this cranium in order to better assess its affinities. We also conducted Uranium-series dating to re-evaluate its chronology. ; A 3-D geometric morphometric analysis of cranial landmarks and semilandmarks was conducted using a large comparative fossil and modern human sample. The measurements were collected in the form of three dimensional coordinates and processed using Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Principal components, canonical variates, Mahalanobis D and Procrustes distance analyses were performed. The results were further visualized by comparing specimen and mean configurations. Results point to a morphological similarity with late archaic African specimens dating to the Late Pleistocene. A long bone cortical fragment was made available for U-series analysis in order to re-date the specimen. The results (∼11.7–16.3 ka) support a terminal Pleistocene chronology for the Iwo Eleru burial as was also suggested by the original radiocarbon dating results and by stratigraphic evidence. ; Our findings are in accordance with suggestions of deep population substructure in Africa and a complex evolutionary process for the origin of modern humans. They further highlight the dearth of hominin finds from West Africa, and underscore our real lack of knowledge of human evolution in that region.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Social And Behavioral Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary Geochronology, 2012, Vol.7, pp.1-1
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 1871-1014
    E-ISSN: 1878-0350
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Human Evolution, August 2017, Vol.109, pp.22-29
    Description: Laser ablation U-series dating results on a human cranial bone fragment from Apidima, on the western cost of the Mani Peninsula, Southern Greece, indicate a minimum age of 160,000 years. The dated cranial fragment belongs to Apidima 2, which preserves the facial skeleton and a large part of the braincase, lacking the occipital bone. The morphology of the preserved regions of the cranium, and especially that of the facial skeleton, indicates that the fossil belongs to the Neanderthal clade. The dating of the fossil at a minimum age of 160,000 years shows that most of the Neanderthal traits were already present in the MIS 6 and perhaps earlier. This makes Apidima 2 the earliest known fossil with a clear Neanderthal facial morphology. Together with the nearby younger Neanderthal specimens from Lakonis and Kalamakia, the Apidima crania are of crucial importance for the evolution of Neanderthals in the area during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. It can be expected that systematic direct dating of the other human fossils from this area will elucidate our understanding of Neanderthal evolution and demise.
    Keywords: Apidima ; Greece ; Neanderthal ; U-Series Dating ; Taxonomy ; Anthropology ; Biology
    ISSN: 0047-2484
    E-ISSN: 1095-8606
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 15 December 2014, Vol.416, pp.150-167
    Description: Over the past decade, we have applied laser ablation ICP mass spectrometry U-series analysis to a large number of bones and teeth. The method is fast and provides high-resolution data of U-series isotopes, which give insights into the complexity of uranium migration into, within and out of bones. In this paper, we present our laser ablation approach in detail, from the experimental set up, to data reduction and uranium diffusion modelling. Laser ablation analysis can now be applied with minimum damage. Complete diffusion data sets can be obtained by laser drilling which leaves a hole of around 200 μm in diameter and 1–2 mm depth. If the natural U-diffusion follows a simple single-stage process, valuable age information can be obtained. In other cases, highly complex U-migrations have been observed, which make any age assessment impossible. Two examples from Wadjak and Callao illustrate the potential of nearly non-destructive laser ablation U-series analysis of human skeletal tissues. The results demonstrate the physical presence of modern humans in south-east Asia at a time when our species just started to migrate into Europe.
    Keywords: U-Series Dating ; Laser Ablation Analysis ; Human Fossils ; Wajak ; Callao ; Garba III Melka Kunture ; Geology
    ISSN: 0031-0182
    E-ISSN: 1872-616X
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  • 10
    In: Nature, 2016, Vol.529(7585), p.208
    Description: Sulawesi is the largest and oldest island within Wallacea, a vast zone of oceanic islands separating continental Asia from the Pleistocene landmass of Australia and Papua (Sahul). By one million years ago an unknown hominin lineage had colonized Flores immediately to the south (1), and by about 50 thousand years ago, modern humans (Homo sapiens) had crossed to Sahul (2,3). On the basis of position, oceanic currents and biogeographical context, Sulawesi probably played a pivotal part in these dispersals (4). Uranium-series dating of speleothem deposits associated with rock art in the limestone karst region of Maros in southwest Sulawesi has revealed that humans were living on the island at least 40 thousand years ago (ref. 5). Here we report new excavations at Talepu in the Walanae Basin northeast of Maros, where in situ stone artefacts associated with fossil remains of megafauna (Bubalus sp., Stegodon and Celebochoerus) have been recovered from stratified deposits that accumulated from before 200 thousand years ago until about 100 thousand years ago. Our findings suggest that Sulawesi, like Flores, was host to a long-established population of archaic hominins, the ancestral origins and taxonomic status of which remain elusive.
    Keywords: Uranium Series Disequilibrium Dating – Usage ; Uranium – Research ; Uranium – Health Aspects ; Hominids – Research;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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