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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 03 September 2013, Vol.110(36), pp.14735-40
    Description: Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of acute inflammatory lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. This disruption may precede and facilitate the infiltration of encephalitogenic T cells. The signaling events that lead to this BBB disruption are incompletely understood but appear to involve dysregulation of tight-junction proteins such as claudins. Pharmacological interventions aiming at stabilizing the BBB in MS might have therapeutic potential. Here, we show that the orally available small molecule LY-317615, a synthetic bisindolylmaleimide and inhibitor of protein kinase Cβ, which is clinically under investigation for the treatment of cancer, suppresses the transmigration of activated T cells through an inflamed endothelial cell barrier, where it leads to the induction of the tight-junction molecules zona occludens-1, claudin 3, and claudin 5 and other pathways critically involved in transendothelial leukocyte migration. Treatment of mice with ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with LY-317615 ameliorates inflammation, demyelination, axonal damage, and clinical symptoms. Although LY-317615 dose-dependently suppresses T-cell proliferation and cytokine production independent of antigen specificity, its therapeutic effect is abrogated in a mouse model requiring pertussis toxin. This abrogation indicates that the anti-inflammatory and clinical efficacy is mainly mediated by stabilization of the BBB, thus suppressing the transmigration of encephalitogenic T cells. Collectively, our data suggest the involvement of endothelial protein kinase Cβ in stabilizing the BBB in autoimmune neuroinflammation and imply a therapeutic potential of BBB-targeting agents such as LY-317615 as therapeutic approaches for MS.
    Keywords: CNS ; Eae ; Enzastaurin ; Blood-Brain Barrier -- Drug Effects ; Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental -- Prevention & Control ; Indoles -- Pharmacology ; Protein Kinase C Beta -- Antagonists & Inhibitors
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, Sept 3, 2013, Vol.110(36), p.14735(6)
    Description: Disruption of the blood--brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of acute inflammatory lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. This disruption may precede and facilitate the infiltration of encephalitogenic T cells. The signaling events that lead to this BBB disruption are incompletely understood but appear to involve dysregulation of tight-junction proteins such as claudins. Pharmacological interventions aiming at stabilizing the BBB in MS might have therapeutic potential. Here, we show that the orally available small molecule LY-317615, a synthetic bisindolylmaleimide and inhibitor of protein kinase C[beta], which is clinically under investigation for the treatment of cancer, suppresses the transmigration of activated T cells through an inflamed endothelial cell barrier, where it leads to the induction of the tight-junction molecules zona occludens-1, claudin 3, and claudin 5 and other pathways critically involved in transendothelial leukocyte migration. Treatment of mice with ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with LY-317615 ameliorates inflammation, demyelination, axonal damage, and clinical symptoms. Although LY-317615 dose-dependently suppresses T-cell proliferation and cytokine production independent of antigen specificity, its therapeutic effect is abrogated in a mouse model requiring pertussis toxin. This abrogation indicates that the anti-inflammatory and clinical efficacy is mainly mediated by stabilization of the BBB, thus suppressing the transmigration of encephalitogenic T cells. Collectively, our data suggest the involvement of endothelial protein kinase C[beta] in stabilizing the BBB in autoimmune neuroinflammation and imply a therapeutic potential of BBB-targeting agents such as LY-317615 as therapeutic approaches for MS. EAE | enzastaurin | CNS www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1302569110
    Keywords: Protein Kinases -- Physiological Aspects ; Protein Kinases -- Health Aspects ; Blood-brain Barrier -- Physiological Aspects ; Blood-brain Barrier -- Health Aspects ; Encephalomyelitis -- Physiological Aspects
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Neuroimmunology, 15 October 2014, Vol.275(1-2), pp.65-65
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.08.171 Byline: Tobias V. Lanz, Simon Becker, Simeon Iwantscheff, Carl Grabitz, Laura-Ines Bohler, Wolfgang Wick, Michael Platten
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0165-5728
    E-ISSN: 1872-8421
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  • 4
    In: Scientific Reports, 2017, Vol.7
    Description: The catabolism of tryptophan to immunosuppressive and neuroactive kynurenines is a key metabolic pathway regulating immune responses and neurotoxicity. The rate-limiting step is controlled by indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). IDO is expressed in antigen presenting cells during immune reactions, hepatic TDO regulates blood homeostasis of tryptophan and neuronal TDO influences neurogenesis. While the role of IDO has been described in multiple immunological settings, little is known about TDO's effects on the immune system. TDO-deficiency is neuroprotective in C. elegans and Drosophila by increasing tryptophan and specific kynurenines. Here we have determined the role of TDO in autoimmunity and neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis. We created reporter-TDO mice for in vivo imaging to show that hepatic but not CNS TDO expression is activated during EAE. TDO deficiency did not influence myelin-specific T cells, leukocyte infiltration into the CNS, demyelination and disease activity. TDO-deficiency protected from neuronal loss in the spinal cord but not in the optic nerves. While this protection did not translate to an improved overt clinical outcome, our data suggest that spatially distinct neuroprotection is conserved in mammals and support TDO as a potential target for treatment of diseases associated with neurodegeneration.
    Keywords: Biology;
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Pediatrics, January 2018, Vol.192, pp.136-143.e4
    Description: Somatic development is impaired in children with congenital heart defects (CHDs), and head circumference seems to be a strong predictor of neurodevelopmental prognosis. The aim of this study was to generate up-to-date reference values for the somatic development (head circumference, body weight, and length/height) of children with CHDs. Our study population consisted of all patients included in the PAN study (Prävalenz angeborener Herzfehler bei Neugeborenen in Deutschland), which was conducted prospectively over a 3-year study period by the Competence Network for Congenital Heart Defects. All children with mild, moderate, and severe CHDs born in 2006-2009 in Germany were enrolled. For computing of -scores, only children with the following characteristics were included: appropriate for gestational age, nonsyndromic disease, term or post-term delivery, and no cardiac surgery. There were 2818 patients included. New -scores for the described somatic measures of children with mild, moderate, and severe CHDs were computed. Comparisons with the KiGGS study (Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland) and the Berlin Longitudinal Study revealed significantly lower measurements for all measures—most notably in children with severe CHDs and/or cardiac surgery. In our cohort, no catch-up growth was seen after cardiac surgery. Children with severe CHDs demonstrated the most abnormal pattern in growth, including head circumference before and after cardiac surgery, which is indicative of accompanying brain pathology unrelated to operative injury.
    Keywords: Congenital Heart Defects ; Somatic Development ; Microcephaly ; Z-Score ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-3476
    E-ISSN: 1097-6833
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