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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Psychological Bulletin, 2006, Vol.132(6), pp.920-945
    Description: A basic problem of visual perception is how human beings recognize objects after spatial transformations. Three central classes of findings have to be accounted for: (a) Recognition performance varies systematically with orientation, size, and position; (b) recognition latencies are sequentially additive, suggesting analogue transformation processes; and (c) orientation and size congruency effects indicate that recognition involves the adjustment of a reference frame. All 3 classes of findings can be explained by a transformational framework of recognition: Recognition is achieved by an analogue transformation of a perceptual coordinate system that aligns memory and input representations. Coordinate transformations can be implemented neurocomputationally by gain (amplitude) modulation and may be regarded as a general processing principle of the visual cortex.
    Keywords: Alignment ; Coordinate Transformations ; Gain Modulation ; Object Recognition ; Reference Frames
    ISSN: 0033-2909
    E-ISSN: 1939-1455
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: 2011, Vol.23(8), pp.1864-1874
    Description: Perception and action are classically thought to be supported by functionally and neuroanatomically distinct mechanisms. However, recent behavioral studies using an action priming paradigm challenged this view and showed that action representations can facilitate object recognition. This study determined whether action representations influence object recognition during early visual processing stages, that is, within the first 150 msec. To this end, the time course of brain activation underlying such action priming effects was examined by recording ERPs. Subjects were sequentially presented with two manipulable objects (e.g., tools), which had to be named. In the congruent condition, both objects afforded similar actions, whereas dissimilar actions were afforded in the incongruent condition. In order to test the influence of the prime modality on action priming, the first object (prime) was presented either as picture or as word. We found an ERP effect of action priming over the central scalp as early as 100 msec after target onset for pictorial, but not for verbal primes. A later action priming effect on the N400 ERP component known to index semantic integration processes was obtained for both picture and word primes. The early effect was generated in a fronto-parietal motor network, whereas the late effect reflected activity in anterior temporal areas. The present results indicate that action priming influences object recognition through both fast and slow pathways: Action priming affects rapid visuomotor processes only when elicited by pictorial prime stimuli. However, it also modulates comparably slow conceptual integration processes independent of the prime modality.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0898-929X
    E-ISSN: 1530-8898
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  • 3
    In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2007, Vol.30(2), pp.210-211
    Description: Abstract Somewhat in contrast to their proposal of two separate somatosensory streams, Dijkerman & de Haan (D&dH) propose that tactile recognition involves active manual exploration, and therefore involves parietal cortex. I argue that interactions from perception for action to object recognition can be found also in vision. Furthermore, there is evidence that perception for action and perception for recognition rely on similar processing principles.
    Keywords: Sensory Perception ; Senses ; Brain ; Psychobiology;
    ISSN: 0140-525X
    E-ISSN: 1469-1825
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Neuropsychologia, 2010, Vol.48(7), pp.2051-2067
    Description: Prosopagnosia is classically defined as a disorder of visual recognition specific to faces, following brain damage. However, according to a long-standing alternative view, these patients would rather be generally impaired in recognizing objects belonging to visually homogenous categories, including faces. We tested this alternative hypothesis stringently with a well-documented brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient (PS) in three delayed forced-choice recognition experiments in which visual similarity between a target and its distractor was manipulated parametrically: novel 3D geometric shapes, morphed pictures of common objects, and morphed photographs of a highly homogenous familiar category (cars). In all experiments, PS showed normal performance and speed, and there was no evidence of a steeper increase of error rates and RTs with increasing levels of visual similarity, compared to controls. These data rule out an account of acquired prosopagnosia in terms of a more general impairment in recognizing objects from visually homogenous categories. An additional experiment with morphed faces confirmed that PS was specifically impaired at individual face recognition. However, in stark contrast to the alternative view of prosopagnosia, PS was relatively more impaired at the easiest levels of discrimination, i.e. when individual faces differ clearly in global shape rather than when faces were highly similar and had to be discriminated based on fine-grained details. Overall, these observations as well as a review of previous evidence, lead us to conclude that this alternative view of prosopagnosia does not hold. Rather, it seems that brain damage in adulthood may lead to selective recognition impairment for faces, perhaps the only category of visual stimuli for which holistic/configural perception is not only potentially at play, but is strictly necessary to individualize members of the category efficiently.
    Keywords: Acquired Prosopagnosia ; Face Recognition ; Object Recognition ; Specificity ; Visual Similarity ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0028-3932
    E-ISSN: 1873-3514
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2001, Vol.24(3), pp.483-484
    Description: Humphreys and Forde conceptualize object representations as structural descriptions, without discussing the implications of structural description models. We argue that structural description models entail two major assumptions a part-structure assumption and an invariance assumption. The invariance assumption is highly problematic because it contradicts a large body of findings which indicate that recognition performance depends on orientation and size. We will delineate relevant findings and outline an alternative conception.
    Keywords: Mental Representations -- Models ; Neuropsychology -- Models;
    ISSN: 0140-525X
    E-ISSN: 14691825
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Experimental brain research, January 2010, Vol.200(3-4), pp.251-8
    Description: Observing an action activates action representations in the motor system. Moreover, the representations of manipulable objects are closely linked to the motor systems at a functional and neuroanatomical level. Here, we investigated whether action observation can facilitate object recognition using an action priming paradigm. As prime stimuli we presented short video movies showing hands performing an action in interaction with an object (where the object itself was always removed from the video). The prime movie was followed by a (briefly presented) target object affording motor interactions that are either similar (congruent condition) or dissimilar (incongruent condition) to the prime action. Participants had to decide whether an object name shown after the target picture corresponds with the picture or not (picture-word matching task). We found superior accuracy for prime-target pairs with congruent as compared to incongruent actions across two experiments. Thus, action observation can facilitate recognition of a manipulable object typically involving a similar action. This action priming effect supports the notion that action representations play a functional role in object recognition.
    Keywords: Pattern Recognition, Visual -- Physiology ; Psychomotor Performance -- Physiology ; Recognition (Psychology) -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00144819
    E-ISSN: 1432-1106
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  • 7
    In: Cerebral Cortex, 2015, Vol. 25(9), pp.2907-2918
    Description: Recent evidence suggests an interaction between the ventral visual-perceptual and dorsal visuo-motor brain systems during the course of object recognition. However, the precise function of the dorsal stream for perception remains to be determined. The present study specified the functional contribution of the visuo-motor system to visual object recognition using functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potential (ERP) during action priming. Primes were movies showing hands performing an action with an object with the object being erased, followed by a manipulable target object, which either afforded a similar or a dissimilar action (congruent vs. incongruent condition). Participants had to recognize the target object within a picture–word matching task. Priming-related reductions of brain activity were found in frontal and parietal visuo-motor areas as well as in ventral regions including inferior and anterior temporal areas. Effective connectivity analyses suggested functional influences of parietal areas on anterior temporal areas. ERPs revealed priming-related source activity in visuo-motor regions at about 120 ms and later activity in the ventral stream at about 380 ms. Hence, rapidly initiated visuo-motor processes within the dorsal stream functionally contribute to visual object recognition in interaction with ventral stream processes dedicated to visual analysis and semantic integration.
    Keywords: Dynamic Causal Modeling ; Event - Related Potentials ; Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri) ; Object Recognition ; Visuo - Motor System
    ISSN: 1047-3211
    E-ISSN: 1460-2199
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(4), p.e0174620
    Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a voxel-wise analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values may differentiate between progressive disease (PD) and pseudoprogression (PsP) in patients with high-grade glioma using the parametric response map, a newly introduced postprocessing tool.Twenty-eight patients with proven PD and seven patients with PsP were identified in this retrospective feasibility study. For all patients ADC baseline and follow-up maps on four subsequent MRIs were available. ADC maps were coregistered on contrast enhanced T1-weighted follow-up images. Subsequently, enhancement in the follow-up contrast enhanced T1-weighted image was manually delineated and a reference region of interest (ROI) was drawn in the contralateral white matter. Both ROIs were transferred to the ADC images. Relative ADC (rADC) (baseline)/reference ROI values and rADC (follow up)/reference ROI values were calculated for each voxel within the ROI. The corresponding voxels of rADC (follow up) and rADC (baseline) were subtracted and the percentage of all voxels within the ROI that exceeded the threshold of 0.25 was quantified.rADC voxels showed a decrease of 59.2% (1st quartile (Q1) 36.7; 3rd quartile (Q3) 78.6) above 0.25 in patients with PD and 18.6% (Q1 3.04; Q3 26.5) in patients with PsP (p = 0.005). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed the optimal decreasing rADC cut-off value for identifying PD of 〉 27.05% (area under the curve 0.844±0.065, sensitivity 0.86, specificity 0.86, p = 0.014).This feasibility study shows that the assessment of rADC using parametric response maps might be a promising approach to contribute to the differentiation between PD and PsP. Further research in larger patient cohorts is necessary to finally determine its clinical utility.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Emergency Medicine Journal, 17 September 2013, Vol.30(9), p.754
    Description: The aim of this study was to determine the best airway device among the laryngeal mask, I-gel and the laryngeal tube used by healthcare professional groups with different levels of experience with paediatric airway management.
    Keywords: Paediatric Resuscitation ; Airway ; Resuscitation ; Emergency Care Systems, Advanced Practitioner
    ISSN: 1472-0205
    ISSN: 14720205
    E-ISSN: 1472-0213
    E-ISSN: 14720213
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  • 10
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