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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2012, Vol. 78(2), p.536
    Description: Because of the tradition of using honey as an antimicrobial medicament, we investigated the effect of natural honey (NH) on Streptococcus mutans growth, viability, and biofilm formation compared to that of an artificial honey (AH). AH contained the sugars at the concentrations reported for NH. NH and AH concentrations were obtained by serial dilution with tryptic soy broth (TSB). Several concentrations of NH and AH were tested for inhibition of bacterial growth, viability, and biofilm formation after inoculation with S. mutans UA159 in 96-well microtiter plates to obtain absorbance and CFU values. Overall, NH supported significantly less (P 〈 0.05) bacterial growth than AH at 25 and 12.5% concentrations. At 50 and 25% concentrations, both honey groups provided significantly less bacterial growth and biofilm formation than the TSB control. For bacterial viability, the results for all honey concentrations except 50% NH were not significantly different from those for the TSB control. NH was able to decrease the maximum velocity of S. mutans growth compared to AH. In summary, NH demonstrated more inhibition of bacterial growth, viability, and biofilm formation than AH. This study highlights the potential antibacterial properties of NH and could suggest that the antimicrobial mechanism of NH is not solely due to its high sugar content.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Biology ; Economics;
    ISSN: 1098-5336
    ISSN: 10985336
    ISSN: 00992240
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Nature, Jan 11, 2007, Vol.445(7124), p.152(1)
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Nature, Oct 6, 2005, Vol.437(7060), p.817(1)
    ISSN: 0028-0836
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    In: Nature, 2001, Vol.410(6824), p.21
    Description: The knowledge people use when they see has come from millions of years of interacting with objects. Illusions are departures from truths of the object world. The main lesson of illusions is that perceptions are not tied to object reality.
    Keywords: Humans ; Illusions ; Knowledge ; Perception ; Psychophysics ; Perceptions ; Knowledge;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 15 November 2011, Vol.122(4), pp.2542-2551
    Description: A novel PQAS‐containing antibacterial glass‐ionomer cement has been developed. The functional QAS and their constructed PQAS were synthesized, characterized, and formulated into the light‐cured cements. Compressive strength (CS) and bacterial ( and lactobacillus) viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the cements. Flexural (FS) and diametral tensile strengths (DTS) were tested as well. Fuji II LC cement was used as control. The specimens were conditioned in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h prior to testing. All the PQAS‐containing cements showed a significant antibacterial activity, accompanying with an initial CS reduction. The effects of chain length, loading, and grafting ratio of the QAS were significant. Increasing chain length, loading, grafting ratio significantly enhanced antibacterial activity but reduced the initial CS of the formed cements. The antibacterial effect of the substitute chain lengths from free QAS seem more significant in water than those from their polymers (PQAS) after integrating to the cement. The experimental cement showed less CS reduction and higher antibacterial activity than Fuji II LC. The long‐term aging study indicates that the cement might have a long‐lasting antibacterial function with no PQAS leaching. Within the limitations of this study, it appears that the experimental cement is a clinically attractive dental restorative that can be potentially used for long‐lasting restorations due to its high mechanical strength and long‐lasting antibacterial function. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011.
    Keywords: Pqas ; Substitute Chain Length ; Antibacterial ; S. Mutans Viability ; Glass‐Ionomer Cement ; Cs ; Aging
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    E-ISSN: 1097-4628
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    In: Nature, 1995, Vol.373(6509), p.21
    Description: Experimental analysis of backward masking in visually attentive subjects shows that top-down mechanisms such as voluntary visual attention regulate backward masking. Backward masking is a visual illusion, which suggests that perception is not instantaneous but that it occurs sequentially in distinct stages. This illusion is also sensitive to color, orientation and spatial frequency.
    Keywords: Visual Perception -- Research;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(5), p.e0126628
    Description: Changes of bacterial profiles in microbial communities are strongly associated with human health. There is an increasing need for multiple species research in vitro. To avoid high cost or measurement of a limited number of species, PCR-based multiple species cell counting (PCR-MSCC) has been conceived. Species-specific sequence is defined as a unique sequence of one species in a multiple species mixed culture. This sequence is identified by comparing a random 1000 bp genomic sequence of one species with the whole genome sequences of the other species in the same artificial mixed culture. If absent in the other genomes, it is the species-specific sequence. Species-specific primers were designed based on the species-specific sequences. In the present study, ten different oral bacterial species were mixed and grown in Brain Heart Infusion Yeast Extract with 1% sucrose for 24 hours. Biofilm was harvested and processed for DNA extraction and q-PCR amplification with the species-specific primers. By comparing the q-PCR data of each species in the unknown culture with reference cultures, in which the cell number of each species was determined by colony forming units on agar plate, the cell number of that strain in the unknown mixed culture was calculated. This technique is reliable to count microorganism numbers that are less than 100,000 fold different from other species within the same culture. Theoretically, it can be used in detecting a species in a mixed culture of over 200 species. Currently PCR-MSCC is one of the most economic methods for quantifying single species cell numbers, especially for the low abundant species, in a multiple artificial mixed culture in vitro.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Perception, January 2011, Vol.40(1), pp.1-3
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0301-0066
    E-ISSN: 1468-4233
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  • 9
    Article
    Article
    In: Nature, Nov 30, 1989, Vol.342(6249), p.471(3)
    Description: A discussion of the power of symbolic information is presented, and illustrated by Isaac Newton's fascination with alchemy. Newton saw symbols as powerful and dangerous, and it is concluded that the symbols of mathematics and physics which produced the atomic bomb have vindicated Newton's worst fears.
    Keywords: Alchemy -- History ; Occultism -- History
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    In: Nature, 1990, Vol.344(6268), p.719
    Description: Richard L. Gregory reviews "The Industrialization of Intelligence: Mind and Machine in the Modern Age," by Noah Kennedy.
    Keywords: Kennedy, Noah ; Nonfiction ; Computers ; Artificial Intelligence;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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