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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 1987, Vol.134(6), p.1588
    Description: The recent discovery that perovskite-type crystal structures composed of La-Cu oxides substituted with small amounts of alkaline earth cations have exceptionally high superconducting critical temperatures has stimulated much interest in these potentially important materials. The most promising material reported thus far in the literature is La/sub 2-x/Sr/sub x/CuO/sub 4/. The substitution of an alkaline earth for La appears to stabilize a tetragonal structure as apposed to the orthorhombic structure of the parent compound, La/sub 2/CuO/sub 4/. In the work reported to date, the materials were prepared either by sintering mechanical mixtures of the oxides or carbonates or by co-precipitating the oxalates or carbonates with subsequent calcining and sintering steps.
    Keywords: Materials Science ; Copper Alloys ; Oxidation ; Lanthanum Alloys ; Perovskite ; Crystal Structure ; Superconductivity ; Transition Temperature ; Strontium Alloys ; Alkaline Earth Metal Compounds ; Calcination ; Carbonates ; Copper Oxides ; Coprecipitation ; Layers ; Mixtures ; Oxalates ; Powders ; Sintering ; Alloys ; Calcium Compounds ; Calcium Oxides ; Carbon Compounds ; Carboxylic Acid Salts ; Chalcogenides ; Chemical Reactions ; Copper Compounds ; Decomposition ; Dispersions ; Electric Conductivity ; Electrical Properties ; Fabrication ; Minerals ; Oxide Minerals ; Oxides ; Oxygen Compounds ; Perovskites ; Physical Properties ; Precipitation ; Pyrolysis ; Rare Earth Alloys ; Separation Processes ; Thermochemical Processes ; Thermodynamic Properties ; Titanium Compounds ; Titanium Oxides ; Transition Element Compounds ; 360105 - Metals & Alloys- Corrosion & Erosion ; 360602 - Other Materials- Structure & Phase Studies ; 360603 - Materials- Properties;
    ISSN: 00134651
    E-ISSN: 19457111
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 May 2010, Vol.107(9)
    Description: The thermal stability of nanocrystalline diamond films with 10–30 nm grain size deposited by microwave enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrate was investigated as a function of annealing temperature up to 1200   ° C . The thermal stability of the surface-upper atomic layers was studied with near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy recorded in the partial electron yield mode. This technique indicated substantial thermally induced graphitization of the film within a close proximity to the surface. While in the bulk region of the film no graphitization was observed with either Raman spectroscopy or NEXAFS spectroscopy recorded in total electron yield mode, even after annealing to 1200   ° C . Raman spectroscopy did detect the complete disappearance of transpolyacetylene (t-PA)-like ν 1 and ν 3 modes following annealing at 1000   ° C . Secondary ion mass spectroscopy, applied to investigate this relative decrease in hydrogen atom concentration detected only a ∼ 30 % decrease in the bulk content of hydrogen atoms. This enhanced stability of sp 3 hybridized atoms within the bulk region with respect to graphitization is discussed in terms of carbon bond rearrangement due to the thermal decomposition of t-PA-like fragments.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science, 07/09/1965, Vol.149(3680), pp.175-175
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: American Association for the Advancement of Science (via CrossRef)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Langmuir, 01 January 2010, Vol.26(20 ; 2010)
    Description: A lithographic method to generate reactive thiol groups on functionalized synthetic diamond for biosensor and molecular electronic applications is developed. We demonstrate that ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films covalently functionalized with surface-generated thiol groups allow controlled thiol-disulfide exchange surface hybridization processes. The generation of the thiol functional head groups was obtained by irradiating phenylsulfonic acid (PSA) monolayers on UNCD surfaces. The conversion of the functional headgroup of the self-assembled monolayer was verified by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and fluorescence microscopy. Our findings indicate the selective generation of reactive thiol surface groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate the grafting of yeast cytochrome c to the thiol-modified diamond surface and the electron transfer between protein and electrode.
    Keywords: Basic Biological Sciences ; General And Miscellaneous//Mathematics, Computing, And Information Science ; Absorption ; Cytochromes ; Diamonds ; Electron Transfer ; Fine Structure ; Fluorescence ; Functionals ; Hybridization ; Microscopy ; Proteins ; Thin Films ; Thiols ; X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy ; Yeasts ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0743-7463
    E-ISSN: 1520-5827
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 16 March 2009, Vol.94(11)
    Description: The addition of nitrogen to the synthesis gas during synthesis of ultrananocrystalline-diamond (UNCD) films results in films uniquely exhibiting very high n -type electrical conductivity even at ambient temperatures. This result is due to the formation of nanowires having elongated diamond core nanostructures and a sp 2 -bonded C sheath surrounding the core. The work presented here provides detailed confirmation of this important result through spatially resolved-electron energy loss spectroscopy. The direct observation of nitrogen incorporated in the sheath has been enabled. The incorporation of this nitrogen provides strong support to a plausible mechanism for the n -type conduction characteristic of the UNCD films.
    Keywords: Structural, Mechanical, Thermodynamic, And Optical Properties Of Condensed Matter
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: © 2009 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 03/16/2009, Vol.94(11), p.111905
    Description: The addition of nitrogen to the synthesis gas during synthesis of ultrananocrystalline-diamond (UNCD) films results in films uniquely exhibiting very high n -type electrical conductivity even at ambient temperatures. This result is due to the formation of nanowires having elongated diamond core nanostructures and a sp 2 -bonded C sheath surrounding the core. The work presented here provides detailed confirmation of this important result through spatially resolved-electron energy loss spectroscopy. The direct observation of nitrogen incorporated in the sheath has been enabled. The incorporation of this nitrogen provides strong support to a plausible mechanism for the n -type conduction characteristic of the UNCD films.
    Keywords: Structural, Mechanical, Thermodynamic, And Optical Properties Of Condensed Matter;
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 April 2009, Vol.105(7)
    Description: Thermoelectric power factors of nanocarbon ensembles have been determined as a function of temperature from 400 to 1200 K. The ensembles, composed of mixtures of nanographite or disperse ultrananocrystalline diamond with B 4 C , are formed into mechanically rigid compacts by reaction at 1200 K with methane gas and subsequently annealed in an argon atmosphere at temperatures up to 2500 K. The ensembles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Raman, x-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques and found to undergo profound nanostructural changes as a function of temperature while largely preserving their nanometer sizes. The power factors increase strongly both as a function of annealing temperature and of the temperature at which the measurements are carried out reaching 1   μ W / K 2   cm at 1200 K without showing evidence of a plateau. Density functional “molecular analog” calculations on systems based on stacked graphene sheets show that boron substitutional doping results in a lowering of the Fermi level and the creation of a large number of hole states within thermal energies of the Fermi level [ P. C. Redfern, D. M. Greun, and L. A. Curtiss, Chem. Phys. Lett. 471 , 264 ( 2009 ) ]. We propose that enhancement of electronic configurational entropy due to the large number of boron configurations in the graphite lattice contributes to the observed thermoelectric properties of the ensembles.
    Keywords: Electronic Structure And Transport
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: © 2009 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters, 02/01/2011, Vol.3(1), pp.114-118
    Description: Partial substitution of Al for Si and B for C has enabled us to synthesize, using spark plasma techniques, doped nanoensembles of SiC that have Seebeck coefficients of 330 microV/K at 900 K. In attempting to attain an understanding of the Seebeck coefficient, we have extended earlier density functional calculations on stacked graphene sheets to 3C SiC nanoclusters with substitutions of Al in Si sites and B in C sites. The calculations show that both types of doping lead to hole states resulting in pronounced decreases in the HOMO-LUMO gap. As a consequence, some of the Al hole states are located near the Fermi level analogous to the situation encountered in stacked graphene sheets. Each of the large number of discrete electronic states introduced into SiC due to doping are associated with a particular Al and B configuration. The implications of these studies are discussed.
    Keywords: Engineering;
    ISSN: 19414900
    E-ISSN: 19414919
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 03 September 2007, Vol.91(10)
    Description: Hydrogenated nanodiamond films consisting of 300 and 10 – 30 nm grain sizes were examined by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. C–H stretching modes were identified at 350, 360, and 375 meV . The mode at 375 meV was enhanced in the case of 10 – 30 nm grain size and it is stable up to in situ annealing to 〉 800 ° C . Complete hydrogen desorption occurs upon annealing to 1000 ° C . Exposure of the nanodiamond film to atomic hydrogen results in a strong quenching of the 375 meV C–H mode, most likely due to preferential etching of ( s p 2 ) -carbon-hydrogen at the surface and grain boundaries of the films.
    Keywords: Nanoscale Science And Design
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: © 2007 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 06 August 2001, Vol.79(6), pp.800-802
    Description: Conducting diffusion barrier layers play a critical role in high-density memory integration. We recently demonstrated that Ti–Al can be used as a diffusion barrier layer for the integration of ferroelectric capacitors with complementary metal–oxide semiconductor devices for the fabrication of nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memories (NVFRAMs). Here, we discuss results from systematic studies designed to understand Ti–Al film growth and oxidation processes using in situ ion beam sputter deposition in conjunction with complementary in situ atomic layer-resolution mass spectroscopy of recoil ion (MSRI) and surface sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The concurrent MSRI/XPS analysis revealed that amorphous Ti–Al layers produced by tailored sputter-deposition methods are resistant to oxidation to at least 600 °C, and that oxidation occurs only when the a -Ti–Al layers are exposed to oxygen at 〉600 °C, via the segregation of Ti species to the surface and TiO 2 formation. The a -Ti–Al layers discussed in this letter could be used in the double functionality of a bottom electrode/diffusion barrier for the integration of ferroelectric capacitors with Si substrates for the fabrication of NVFRAMs and other devices.
    Keywords: Dielectrics And Ferroelectricity
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: © 2001 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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