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  • 1
    In: The Later Stone Age Calvaria from Iwo Eleru, Nigeria: morphology and chronology. Plos One , 6 (9\). Art no. e24024
    Description: Background: In recent years the Later Stone Age has been redated to a much deeper time depth than previously thought. At the same time, human remains from this time period are scarce in Africa, and even rarer in West Africa. The Iwo Eleru burial is one of the few human skeletal remains associated with Later Stone Age artifacts in that region with a proposed Pleistocene date. We undertook a morphometric reanalysis of this cranium in order to better assess its affinities. We also conducted Uranium-series dating to re-evaluate its chronology. Methodology/Principal Findings: A 3-D geometric morphometric analysis of cranial landmarks and semilandmarks was conducted using a large comparative fossil and modern human sample. The measurements were collected in the form of three dimensional coordinates and processed using Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Principal components, canonical variates, Mahalanobis D(2) and Procrustes distance analyses were performed. The results were further visualized by comparing specimen and mean configurations. Results point to a morphological similarity with late archaic African specimens dating to the Late Pleistocene. A long bone cortical fragment was made available for U-series analysis in order to re-date the specimen. The results (similar to 11.7-16.3 ka) support a terminal Pleistocene chronology for the Iwo Eleru burial as was also suggested by the original radiocarbon dating results and by stratigraphic evidence. Conclusions/Significance: Our findings are in accordance with suggestions of deep population substructure in Africa and a complex evolutionary process for the origin of modern humans. They further highlight the dearth of hominin finds from West Africa, and underscore our real lack of knowledge of human evolution in that region.
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: White Rose Research Online
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Surgery, May 2012, Vol.99(5), pp.739-739
    ISSN: 0007-1323
    E-ISSN: 1365-2168
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Surgery, January 2012, Vol.99(1), pp.3-5
    Keywords: Leadership ; Personality ; Specialties, Surgical;
    ISSN: 0007-1323
    ISSN: British Journal of Surgery
    E-ISSN: 1365-2168
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 2016, pp.249-253
    Description: Recent excavations at the early Middle Pleistocene site of Mata Menge in the So'a Basin of central Flores, Indonesia, have yielded hominin fossils attributed to a population ancestral to Late Pleistocene Homo floresiensis. Here we describe the age and context of the Mata Menge hominin specimens and associated...
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    Source: NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System)
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  • 5
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(7)
    Description: The transcription factors SCL/Tal-1 and AML1/Runx1 control the generation of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (pHSC) and, thereby, primitive and definitive hematopoiesis, during embryonic development of the mouse from mesoderm. Thus, Runx1-deficient mice generate primitive, but not definitive hematopoiesis, while Tal-1-deficient mice are completely defective. Primitive as well as definitive hematopoiesis can be developed “in vitro” from embryonic stem cells (ESC). We show that wild type, as well as Tal-1 −/− and Runx1 −/− ESCs, induced to differentiation, all expand within 5 days to comparable numbers of Flk1 + mesodermal cells. While wild type ESCs further differentiate to primitive and definitive erythrocytes, to c-fms + Gr1 + Mac1 + myeloid cells, and to B220 + CD19 + B- and CD4 + /CD8 + T-lymphoid cells, Runx1 −/− ESCs, as expected, only develop primitive erythrocytes, and Tal-1 −/− ESCs do not generate any hematopoietic cells. Retroviral transduction with Runx1 of Runx1 −/− ESCs, differentiated for 4 days to mesoderm, rescues definitive erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis, though only with 1–10% of the efficiencies of wild type ESC hematopoiesis. Surprisingly, Tal-1 −/− ESCs can also be rescued at comparably low efficiencies to primitive and definitive erythropoiesis, and to myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by retroviral transduction with Runx1. These results suggest that Tal-1 expression is needed to express Runx1 in mesoderm, and that ectopic expression of Runx1 in mesoderm is sufficient to induce primitive as well as definitive hematopoiesis in the absence of Tal-1. Retroviral transduction of “in vitro” differentiating Tal-1 −/− and Runx1 −/− ESCs should be a useful experimental tool to probe selected genes for activities in the generation of hematopoietic progenitors “in vitro”, and to assess the potential transforming activities in hematopoiesis of mutant forms of Tal-1 and Runx1 from acute myeloid leukemia and related tumors.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    In: Nature, 2014, Vol.507(7492), p.366
    Description: B lymphocytes have critical roles as positive and negative regulators of immunity. Their inhibitory function has been associated primarily with interleukin 10 (IL-10) because B-cell-derived IL-10 can protect against autoimmune disease and increase susceptibility to pathogens (1,2). Here we identify IL-35-producing B cells as key players in the negative regulation of immunity. Mice in which only B cells did not express IL-35 lost their ability to recover from the T-cell-mediated demyelinating autoimmune disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In contrast, these mice displayed a markedly improved resistance to infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as shown by their superior containment of the bacterial growth and their prolonged survival after primary infection, and upon secondary challenge, compared to control mice. The increased immunity found in mice lacking IL-35 production by B cells was associated with a higher activation of macrophages and inflammatory T cells, as well as an increased function of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs). During Salmonella infection, IL-35- and IL-10-producing B cells corresponded to two largely distinct sets of surface-[IgM.sup.+] [CD138.sup.hi][TACI.sup.+][CXCR4.sup.+][CD1d.sup.int][Tim1.sup.int] plasma cells expressing the transcription factor Blimp 1 (also known as Prdm 1). During EAE, [CD138.sup.+] plasma cells were also the main source of B-cell-derived IL-35 and IL-10. Collectively, our data show the importance of IL-35-producing B cells in regulation of immunity and highlight IL-35 production by B cells as a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune and infectious diseases. This study reveals the central role of activated B cells, particularly plasma cells, and their production of cytokines in the regulation of immune responses in health and disease.
    Keywords: Autoimmune Diseases -- Prevention ; B Cells -- Health Aspects ; Immune Response -- Control ; Interleukin-10 -- Health Aspects ; Immunity (Physiology) ; Immunologic Research;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 21 January 2016, Vol.529(7586), pp.394-8
    Description: The nature of inter-group relations among prehistoric hunter-gatherers remains disputed, with arguments in favour and against the existence of warfare before the development of sedentary societies. Here we report on a case of inter-group violence towards a group of hunter-gatherers from Nataruk, west of Lake Turkana, which during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene period extended about 30 km beyond its present-day shore. Ten of the twelve articulated skeletons found at Nataruk show evidence of having died violently at the edge of a lagoon, into which some of the bodies fell. The remains from Nataruk are unique, preserved by the particular conditions of the lagoon with no evidence of deliberate burial. They offer a rare glimpse into the life and death of past foraging people, and evidence that warfare was part of the repertoire of inter-group relations among prehistoric hunter-gatherers.
    Keywords: Archaeology ; Group Processes ; Violence -- History ; Wounds and Injuries -- History
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 24 November 2016, Vol.539(7630), pp.E10-E11
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 9
    Description: In the accompanying Comment1, Stojanowski et al. challenge the evidence for inter-group conflict at Nataruk2. They make two arguments—first, that the lesions in three crania are due to soil compression; second, that there is a correlation between body position and age, reflecting different burial traditions. We believe that their interpretation is incorrect on both counts....
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    Source: DataCite
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 2011, Vol.18(2), pp.197-202
    Description: The Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) is a new international instrument for assessing quality of life after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We report first use and validation. Patients previously admitted with TBI to the Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, were randomly sampled ( = 66, 61% response rate) and administered the QOLIBRI. Fifty-five re-completed it at 2-week follow-up. QOLIBRI scales (with two exceptions) met standard criteria for internal consistency, homogeneity and test–re-test reliability. Correlations with the Assessment of Quality of Life, Short Form-36 version 2 and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were moderate. The QOLIBRI was sensitive to the Glasgow Outcome Scale – Extended scores, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, and measures of social isolation (Friendship Scale). There was evidence that further refinement may improve the QOLIBRI. The QOLIBRI should be considered as an outcome measure by clinicians and researchers conducting treatment trials, rehabilitation studies or epidemiological surveys into the treatment or sequelae of trauma.
    Keywords: Clinical Trials ; Evaluation ; Participant Reported Outcome ; Quality of Life ; Qolibri ; Traumatic Brain Injury ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0967-5868
    E-ISSN: 1532-2653
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