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  • 1
    In: Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, July, 2002, Vol.56(7), p.517(5)
    Keywords: Aboriginal Australians -- Health Aspects ; Rural Health Services -- Australia ; Medical Care -- Social Aspects ; Health Care Industry -- Australia
    ISSN: 0143-005X
    E-ISSN: 14702738
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Injury, 2010, Vol.41, pp.S37-S37
    ISSN: 0020-1383
    E-ISSN: 1879-0267
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: ANZ Journal of Surgery, May, 2009, Vol.79, p.A41(1)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1445-2197.2009.04920_13.x Byline: R. L. Gruen, V. Pitt, S. Green, A. Parkhill, D. Campbell, D. Jolley Abstract: Much research has addressed the association between provider case volume and mortality. We systematically reviewed this association in 96 primary studies involving over one million patients with oesophageal, gastric, hepatic, pancreatic, colonic or rectal cancer, among whom over 70,000 deaths were recorded. Most studies addressed the relationship between hospital surgical case volume and short-term peri-operative mortality. Few studies have addressed the impact of surgeon case volume or evaluated long-term survival as an outcome. Common methodological limitations in estimating magnitude of a volume-related effect were failure to control for potential important confounders, post-hoc categorisation of provider volume and unit of analysis errors. We found a large volume effect for most gastrointestinal cancers: with each doubling of hospital case volume the odds of peri-operative death decreased by 0.1 to 0.23. This effect was apparent for case volumes ranging from fewer than ten to several hundred per year, with no clear threshold levels. We calculated that between 10 and 50 patients per year, depending on cancer type, need to be moved from a 'low volume' hospital to a 'high volume' hospital in order to prevent one additional volume-associated peri-operative death. Despite these findings, a number of large studies found no apparent association between hospital volume and peri-operative mortality. The heterogeneity of results from individual studies calls into question the validity of case volume as a proxy for care quality, and leads us to conclude that more direct quality measures and the validity of their use to inform policy should be explored.
    Keywords: Mortality -- Analysis ; Cancer -- Patient Outcomes ; Cancer -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1445-1433
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: ANZ Journal of Surgery, May, 2009, Vol.79, p.A41(1)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1445-2197.2009.04920_13.x Byline: R. L. Gruen, V. Pitt, S. Green, A. Parkhill, D. Campbell, D. Jolley Abstract: Much research has addressed the association between provider case volume and mortality. We systematically reviewed this association in 96 primary studies involving over one million patients with oesophageal, gastric, hepatic, pancreatic, colonic or rectal cancer, among whom over 70,000 deaths were recorded. Most studies addressed the relationship between hospital surgical case volume and short-term peri-operative mortality. Few studies have addressed the impact of surgeon case volume or evaluated long-term survival as an outcome. Common methodological limitations in estimating magnitude of a volume-related effect were failure to control for potential important confounders, post-hoc categorisation of provider volume and unit of analysis errors. We found a large volume effect for most gastrointestinal cancers: with each doubling of hospital case volume the odds of peri-operative death decreased by 0.1 to 0.23. This effect was apparent for case volumes ranging from fewer than ten to several hundred per year, with no clear threshold levels. We calculated that between 10 and 50 patients per year, depending on cancer type, need to be moved from a 'low volume' hospital to a 'high volume' hospital in order to prevent one additional volume-associated peri-operative death. Despite these findings, a number of large studies found no apparent association between hospital volume and peri-operative mortality. The heterogeneity of results from individual studies calls into question the validity of case volume as a proxy for care quality, and leads us to conclude that more direct quality measures and the validity of their use to inform policy should be explored.
    Keywords: Mortality -- Analysis ; Cancer -- Patient Outcomes ; Cancer -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1445-1433
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Injury
    Description: Each year approximately five million people die from injuries. In countries where systems of trauma care have been introduced, death and disability have decreased. A major component of developed trauma systems is a trauma quality improvement (TQI) program and trauma quality improvement meeting (TQIM). Effective TQIMs improve trauma care by identifying and fixing problems. But globally, TQIMs are absent or unstructured in most hospitals providing trauma care. The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate a checklist for a structured TQIM. This project was conducted as a prospective before-and-after study in four major trauma centres in India. The intervention was the introduction of a structured TQIM using a checklist, introduced with a workshop. This workshop was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) TQI Programs short course and resources, plus the developed TQIM checklist. Pre- and post-intervention data collection occurred at all meetings in which cases of trauma death were discussed. The primary outcome was TQIM Checklist compliance, defined by the discussion of, and agreement upon each of the following: preventability of death, identification of opportunities to improve care and corrective actions and a plan for closing the loop. There were 34 meetings in each phase, with 99 cases brought to the pre-intervention phase and 125 cases brought to the post-intervention phase. There was an increase in the proportion of cases brought to the meeting for which preventability of death was discussed (from 94% to 100%, p = 0.007) and agreed (from 7 to 19%, OR 3.7; 95% CI:1.4–9.4, p = 0.004) and for which a plan for closing the loop was discussed (from 2% to 18%, OR 10.9; 95% CI:2.5–47.6, p 〈 0.001) and agreed (from 2% to 18%, OR 10.9; 95% CI:2.5–47.6, p 〈 0.001). This study developed, implemented and evaluated a TQIM Checklist for improving TQIM processes. The introduction of a TQIM Checklist, with training, into four Indian trauma centres, led to more structured TQIMs, including increased discussion and agreement on preventability of death and plans for loop closure. A TQIM Checklist should be considered for all centres managing trauma patients.
    Keywords: Wound and Injuries ; Quality ; India
    ISSN: 0020-1383
    E-ISSN: 1879-0267
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Meat Science, 2010, Vol.85(4), pp.597-605
    Description: Consumers are increasingly concerned with the form and quantity of fat present in the foods they consume. This is leading to a shift in the way food is produced. In particular the animal industry is increasing the number of organic and naturally finished meat animals rather than finishing them on grains. The objective of this study was to determine if different pasture compositions (i.e. grass only or grass legume mixtures) would impact the fatty acid (FA) meat composition of beef steers ( L.). The pasture treatments were tall fescue [ (Schreb.) S.J. Darbysh] only, or tall fescue combined with either red clover ( L.) or alfalfa ( L. ssp. L.). Beef steers ( = 9–10 per treatment) rotationally grazed each pasture treatment. Forage from treatments were different for crude protein (CP), true digestibility (IVTD) and the FA myristric (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and total FA. Steers grazing mixtures with either red clover (RC) or alfalfa (ALF) had greater average daily gains (ADG) than tall fescue only. Additionally, RC treatment steers had larger ribeye areas (REA) and greater finishing weights than those in the ALF treatment. However, the differences found between pasture treatments in FA concentration did not translate to any differences in the FA concentration of meat harvested from steers. Thus, it is concluded that although the pastures contained different FA concentrations, with the levels of legumes present, this does not influence the FA composition of beef.
    Keywords: Beef ; Steers ; Pasture ; Forage ; Fatty Acids ; Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Cla) ; Omega-3 ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0309-1740
    E-ISSN: 1873-4138
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Electronic Materials, Jan, 2010, Vol.39(1), p.21(8)
    Description: Byline: E.A. Moore (1), Y.K. Yeo (1), G.J. Gruen (1), Mee-Yi Ryu (2), R.L. Hengehold (1) Keywords: AlGaN; Hall-effect measurements; implantation; electrical activation; mobility; cathodoluminescence Abstract: Electrical activation studies were carried out on Si-implanted [Al.sub.0.33][Ga.sub.0.67]N as a function of ion dose, annealing temperature, and annealing time. The samples were implanted at room temperature with Si ions at 200 keV in doses ranging from 1 x 10.sup.14 cm.sup.-2 to 1 x 10.sup.15 cm.sup.-2, and subsequently proximity-cap annealed from 1150degC to 1350degC for 20 min to 60 min in a nitrogen environment. One hundred percent electrical activation efficiency was obtained for [Al.sub.0.33][Ga.sub.0.67]N samples implanted with a dose of 1 x 10.sup.15 cm.sup.-2 after annealing at either 1200degC for 40 min or at 1300degC for 20 min. The samples implanted with doses of 1 x 10.sup.14 cm.sup.-2 and 5 x 10.sup.14 cm.sup.-2 exhibited significant activations of 74% and 90% after annealing for 20 min at 1300degC and 1350degC, respectively. The mobility increased as the annealing temperature increased from 1150degC to 1350degC, showing peak mobilities of 80 cm.sup.2/V s, 64 cm.sup.2/V s, and 61 cm.sup.2/V s for doses of 1 x 10.sup.14 cm.sup.-2, 5 x 10.sup.14 cm.sup.-2, and 1 x 10.sup.15 cm.sup.-2, respectively. Temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurements showed that most of the implanted layers were degenerately doped. Cathodoluminescence measurements for all samples exhibited a sharp neutral donor-bound exciton peak at 4.08 eV, indicating excellent recovery of damage caused by ion implantation. Author Affiliation: (1) Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, 45433, USA (2) Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Kangwon-Do, 200-701, Korea Article History: Registration Date: 09/09/2009 Received Date: 15/05/2009 Accepted Date: 09/09/2009 Online Date: 26/09/2009
    Keywords: Air Forces
    ISSN: 0361-5235
    E-ISSN: 1543186X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Chemical Physics Letters, 1972, Vol.13(6), pp.600-601
    Description: A study of the Mössbauer effect of FeCl 2 in solid argon and xenon matrices at 4.2°K gives for the monomer a quadrupole splitting = 0.62 ± 0.05 mm/sec and an isomer shift = 0.88 ± 0.05 mm/sec with respect to Fe metal at 300°K. In a xenon matrix the FeCl 2 molecules appear to be distributed between two different sites, one of which can be removed by annealing the matrix at 42°K.
    Keywords: Chemistry
    ISSN: 0009-2614
    E-ISSN: 1873-4448
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 1959, Vol.9(3), pp.290-301
    Description: Oxidation states of uranium in fused LiCl-KCl eutectic, pyridinium chloride, and LiNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ eutectic were charaeterized spectrophotometrically. The (III), (IV), and (VI) oxidation states of uranium are stable in LiCi-KCl eutectic. The (IV) and (VI) oxidation states have been observed in pyridinium chloride. In LiNO/sub 3/KNO/sub 3/ eutectic the (III) and (IV) states are oxidized to the (VI) oxidation state. It was found that Al as well as U metal reduces U(N) to U(III) while Mg metal reduces U(III) to U(O) in LiCl-KCl eutectic. On the basis of these experiments the U(IIl)-U(O) standard potential versus a l M Pt reference electrode can be predicted to lie between- 1.77 and-258 v. The U(IV)-U(III) potential versus the same electrode can be expected to be more positive than -1.77 v. Spectrophotometric evidence indicates that U(IV) changes its co-ordination number from six to eight in going from fused pyridinium chloride to LiCl-KCl eutectic. Changes were observed in the UO/sub 2/ (II) spectrum on addition of chloride ion to UO/sub 2/(II) solutions in LiNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ eutectic which were correlated with the formation of chlorocomplexes of uranyl ion. (auth)
    Keywords: Chemistry
    ISSN: 0022-1902
    E-ISSN: 1878-1225
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular Spectroscopy, 1970, Vol.26(2), pp.418-421
    Keywords: Chemistry
    ISSN: 0584-8539
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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