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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Molecular Ecology, May 2012, Vol.21(9), pp.2297-2309
    Description: Mosquitoes transmit numerous arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). In recent years, mosquito species has expanded in the Indian Ocean region and was the principal vector of chikungunya outbreaks in La Reunion and neighbouring islands in 2005 and 2006. Vector‐associated bacteria have recently been found to interact with transmitted pathogens. For instance, modulates the replication of viruses or parasites. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the diversity of the entire bacterial populations within mosquito individuals particularly in relation to virus invasion. Here, we investigated the effect of CHIKV infection on the whole bacterial community of . Taxonomic microarrays and quantitative PCR showed that members of ‐ and phyla, as well as , responded to CHIKV infection. The abundance of bacteria from the family increased with CHIKV infection, whereas the abundance of known insect endosymbionts like and decreased. Our results clearly link the pathogen propagation with changes in the dynamics of the bacterial community, suggesting that cooperation or competition occurs within the host, which may in turn affect the mosquito traits like vector competence.
    Keywords: Aedes Albopictus ; Bacterial Community ; Chikungunya ; Microarray ; Quantitative Pcr ; Wolbachia
    ISSN: 0962-1083
    E-ISSN: 1365-294X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, December 2015, Vol.91, pp.258-267
    Description: The spatial ecology of soil microbial communities and their functioning is an understudied aspect of soil microbial ecology. Much of our understanding of the spatial organisation of microbial communities has been obtained at scales that are inappropriate for identifying how microbial functioning and spatial patterns are related. In order to reveal the spatial strategies of soil microorganisms, we measured the microscale spatial distribution of 6 exoenzyme activities (EEA) and related them to the catalytic potential of three soils. The relationship between EEA profiles and microbial community structure was also measured in soil aggregates. All the EEA exhibited scale-invariant spatial clustering. The extent of spatial clustering varied significantly among EEA, suggesting that microbial communities employ different spatial strategies when foraging for different elements. The dispersed distribution of alkaline phosphatase suggests that microorganisms invest more heavily in the acquisition of P. The EEA associated with the C and N cycles, but not the P cycle, were significantly affected by management practices in the loamy soil. A significant negative relationship between the extent of spatial clustering of EEA and the overall intensity of the EEA was identified in the two loamy soils, indicating that the microscale spatial ecology of microbial activity may have a significant impact on biogeochemical cycles. No relationship was found between microbial community structure and EEA profiles in aggregates. However, a number of negative relationships between the relative abundance of certain taxa and the most dispersed EEA (alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase) were found, suggesting that these taxa make the EEA products available by means other than the production of exoenzymes (e.g. solubilisation of phosphate through the production of organic acids).
    Keywords: Aggregate ; Dispersion ; Exoenzyme Activity ; Management Practices ; Micro-Scale ; Spatial Distribution ; Taxonomic Microarray ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 3
    In: Molecular Ecology, January 2012, Vol.21(1), pp.195-206
    Description: A wide range of plant lines has been propagated by farmers during crop selection and dissemination, but consequences of this crop diversification on plant‐microbe interactions have been neglected. Our hypothesis was that crop evolutionary history shaped the way the resulting lines interact with soil bacteria in their rhizospheres. Here, the significance of maize diversification as a factor influencing selection of soil bacteria by seedling roots was assessed by comparing rhizobacterial community composition of inbred lines representing the five main genetic groups of maize, cultivated in a same European soil. Rhizobacterial community composition of 21‐day‐old seedlings was analysed using a 16S rRNA taxonomic microarray targeting 19 bacterial phyla. Rhizobacterial community composition of inbred lines depended on the maize genetic group. Differences were largely due to the prevalence of certain and especially , as confirmed by quantitative PCR and cloning/sequencing. However, these differences in bacterial root colonization did not correlate with plant microsatellite genetic distances between maize genetic groups or individual lines. Therefore, the genetic structure of maize that arose during crop diversification (resulting in five main groups), but not the extent of maize diversification itself (as determined by maize genetic distances), was a significant factor shaping rhizobacterial community composition of seedlings.
    Keywords: Bacterial Community ; Plant Diversity ; Rhizosphere ; Taxonomic Microarray ; Zea Mays
    ISSN: 0962-1083
    E-ISSN: 1365-294X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.371(1-2), p.397
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology – Research ; Environmental Impact Analysis – Methods ; Rhizobium – Environmental Aspects ; Tobacco (Plant) – Diseases and Pests ; Black Root – Physiological Aspects ; Host-Parasite Relationships – Research
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2011, Vol.43, pp.697-700
    Description: The diversity of environmental mycobacteria was studied in water-logged acidic forest soil. Mycobacteria were assessed in upper and lower soil horizons and summer and winter seasons using T-RFLP and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene produced with Mycobacterium-specific primers. Mycobacteria diversity differed between both the two seasons and soil horizons. Cloning revealed the presence of mycobacteria belonging to three major clusters recognized within the genus, i.e. fast-growing, intermediate, and slow-growing species, with unprecedented abundance and diversity of the latter. Two novel clusters of sequences unrelated to the known mycobacteria were identified. This study raises the possibility that forest wetlands could serve as environmental reservoirs for an unexplored diversity of mycobacteria including those related to pathogenic species. ; Includes references ; p. 697-700.
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, March 2011, Vol.43(3), pp.697-700
    Description: The diversity of environmental mycobacteria was studied in water-logged acidic forest soil. Mycobacteria were assessed in upper and lower soil horizons and summer and winter seasons using T-RFLP and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene produced with -specific primers. Mycobacteria diversity differed between both the two seasons and soil horizons. Cloning revealed the presence of mycobacteria belonging to three major clusters recognized within the genus, i.e. fast-growing, intermediate, and slow-growing species, with unprecedented abundance and diversity of the latter. Two novel clusters of sequences unrelated to the known mycobacteria were identified. This study raises the possibility that forest wetlands could serve as environmental reservoirs for an unexplored diversity of mycobacteria including those related to pathogenic species.
    Keywords: Mycobacterium ; Diversity ; Organic Matter ; Seasons ; Pathogenic Strains ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Microbial Ecology, 2016, Vol.72(3), p.717(8)
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-016-0810-0 Byline: Rory Michelland (1,2,3), Jean Thioulouse (1,2,4), Martina Kyselkova (5), Genevieve L. Grundmann (1,2,3) Keywords: Abundancy-occupancy relationship; Bacteria community structure; Microscale in soil; Frequency-occupancy relationship; Soil microbial diversity; Soil structure Abstract: The spatial distributions of bacteria in the soil matrix have a role in ecosystem function, for example, at the small scale, through gene transfer or xenobiotic degradation. Soil bacterial biogeography has been evidenced at the large scale, but data are scarce at the small scale. The objective of this work was to determine the spatial pattern of bacterial diversity, in spatially referenced microsamples, in order to define bacterial community spatial traits. Two soils with different physical structures, moderately aggregated (La Cote St Andre (LCSA)) or poorly aggregated (La Dombes (LD)), were studied. The spatial distribution of bacteria was studied in microsamples (diameter 3 mm) along 10- and 20-cm transects, with a taxonomic microarray. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to further study the spatial characteristics of the microbial communities in LD soil. The frequency-occupancy plot, in the LCSA and LD soils, using microarray and sequencing data, followed Hanski's core-satellite theory. The frequency-occupancy distribution plots obtained in two different soils showed bimodality and indicated that the microscale spatial distributions were different, particularly core taxa percentage. Core taxa are widespread and abundant, while satellite taxa are restricted in their distribution. The spread of satellite taxa was at a distance range larger than 5 cm, whereas the core taxa were distributed in a distance range less than 3 mm. Besides, there was a positive abundancy-occupancy relationship at this fine scale. It may be interesting to further evaluate the role of the different bacterial spatial distributions at the fine scale on soil function. Author Affiliation: (1) Universite de Lyon, 69622, Lyon, France (2) Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France (3) CNRS, UMR5557, Ecologie Microbienne, Villeurbanne, France (4) CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, Villeurbanne, France (5) Institute of Soil Biology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Ceske BudAjovice, Czech Republic Article History: Registration Date: 27/06/2016 Received Date: 03/11/2015 Accepted Date: 27/06/2016 Online Date: 14/07/2016 Article note: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00248-016-0810-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology ; Bacteria ; Soil Structure ; Soils ; RNA
    ISSN: 0095-3628
    E-ISSN: 1432184X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2009, Vol.41(1), pp.29-36
    Description: Natural structural units of a luvisol under maize crop were studied to assess if soil structure directed sampling could improve the understanding of arrangements of bacteria in spatially constraint location. Three habitats were defined: (i) soil around fine lateral roots (rhizo-aggregates), (ii) soil close to basal roots (core clods) and (iii) unplanted soil between rows (bare soil clods). These habitats were also investigated with maize plants resulting from CRT1 inoculated seeds as a model of enhanced fine root system. Rhizo-aggregates were clearly separated from each other (disconnected habitat) in contrast to micro-samples (fragments) from clods, which belong to cohesive macro-structures. Genetic fingerprints on metagenomic extracts were used to characterize the structure of bacterial communities on 95 micro-samples from the three habitats. For eubacteria, automated RISA (Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis) of ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) profiles were performed. PCR–RFLP on gene were used to describe the N-fixer guilds. Exploratory multivariate analyses (PCA and MDS) revealed bacterial community patterns in the sampled habitats. On the basis of ITS profiles, rhizo-aggregates harboured closely related communities, distant from those of the unplanted soil, and each sampled rhizo-aggregate could therefore be considered as a sub-unit of the whole macro-habitat, comprising all the fine roots. The observed low dissimilarity of disconnected rhizo-aggregates is likely to result from the direct influence of maize root tips on the recruitment of rhizosphere bacteria. Molecular fingerprints of from basal root clods (core) were more similar to bare soil than to rhizo-aggregates, indicating similar ecological conditions without, or with, at least, poor maize exudating root influence. Although our study was performed on a limited number of situations, the distribution of bacteria was revealed to be patterned by soil structure units, which is a first step to improve the modelling of microbial ecology in soils.
    Keywords: Molecular Fingerprint ; Its ; Nifh ; Rhizosphere ; Micro-Aggregates ; Clods ; Soil Structure ; Multivariate Analyses ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: 한국토양비료학회 학술발표회 초록집, 2014, Vol.2014(6), pp.354-354
    Keywords: Exoenzyme Activity
    Source: DBpia - 디비피아 (Nurimedia)
    Source: DBpia (Nurimedia)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2009, Vol.41, pp.29-36
    Description: Natural structural units of a luvisol under maize crop were studied to assess if soil structure directed sampling could improve the understanding of arrangements of bacteria in spatially constraint location. Three habitats were defined: (i) soil around fine lateral roots (rhizo-aggregates), (ii) soil close to basal roots (core clods) and (iii) unplanted soil between rows (bare soil clods). These habitats were also investigated with maize plants resulting from Azospirillum lipoferum CRT1 inoculated seeds as a model of enhanced fine root system. Rhizo-aggregates were clearly separated from each other (disconnected habitat) in contrast to micro-samples (fragments) from clods, which belong to cohesive macro-structures. Genetic fingerprints on metagenomic extracts were used to characterize the structure of bacterial communities on 95 micro-samples from the three habitats. For eubacteria, automated RISA (Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis) of ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) profiles were performed. PCR-RFLP on nifH gene were used to describe the N-fixer guilds. Exploratory multivariate analyses (PCA and MDS) revealed bacterial community patterns in the sampled habitats. On the basis of ITS profiles, rhizo-aggregates harboured closely related communities, distant from those of the unplanted soil, and each sampled rhizo-aggregate could therefore be considered as a sub-unit of the whole macro-habitat, comprising all the fine roots. The observed low dissimilarity of disconnected rhizo-aggregates is likely to result from the direct influence of maize root tips on the recruitment of rhizosphere bacteria. Molecular fingerprints of nifH from basal root clods (core) were more similar to bare soil than to rhizo-aggregates, indicating similar ecological conditions without, or with, at least, poor maize exudating root influence. Although our study was performed on a limited number of situations, the distribution of bacteria was revealed to be patterned by soil structure units, which is a first step to improve the modelling of microbial ecology in soils. ; Includes references ; p. 29-36.
    Keywords: Soil Bacteria ; Habitats ; Genes ; Root Nodules ; Agricultural Soils ; Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria ; Rhizosphere ; Soil Ecology ; Seed Inoculation ; Microbial Genetics ; Corn ; Soil Structure ; Internal Transcribed Spacers ; Zea Mays ; Multivariate Analysis ; Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism ; Dna ; Azospirillum Lipoferum ; Community Structure
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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