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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Biometeorology, 2014, Vol.58(8), pp.1779-1788
    Description: In recent years, the United States has experienced record-breaking summer heat. Climate change models forecast increasing US temperatures and more frequent heat wave events in the coming years. Exposure to environmental heat is a significant, but overlooked, workplace hazard that has not been well-characterized or studied. The working population is diverse; job function, age, fitness level, and risk factors to heat-related illnesses vary. Yet few studies have examined or characterized the incidence of occupational heat-related morbidity and mortality. There are no federal regulatory standards to protect workers from environmental heat exposure. With climate change as a driver for adaptation and prevention of heat disorders, crafting policy to characterize and prevent occupational heat stress for both indoor and outdoor workers is increasingly sensible, practical, and imperative.
    Keywords: Occupational health ; Heat exposure ; Heat illnesses ; Worker safety ; Climate change
    ISSN: 0020-7128
    E-ISSN: 1432-1254
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  • 2
    In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, February 2015, Vol.58(2), pp.203-211
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajim.22381/abstract Byline: Diane M. Gubernot, G. Brooke Anderson, Katherine L. Hunting Background Occupational heat-related mortality is not well studied and risk factors remain largely unknown. This paper describes the epidemiological characteristics of heat-related deaths among workers in the US 2000-2010. Methods Fatality data were obtained at the Bureau of Labor Statistics from the confidential on-site Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries database. Fatality rates and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by year, sex, age group, ethnicity, race, state, and industry. Results Between 2000 and 2010, 359 occupational heat-related deaths were identified in the U.S., for a yearly average fatality rate of 0.22 per 1 million workers. Highest rates were found among Hispanics, men, the agriculture and construction industries, the state of Mississippi, and very small establishments. Conclusions This study provides the first comprehensive national profile of heat-related deaths in the U.S. workplace. Prevention efforts should be directed at small businesses and at industries and individuals with the highest risk. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:203-211, 2015. [c] 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Article Note: Work was performed at The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Washington, D.C. This research was conducted with restricted access to Bureau of Labor Statistic (BLS) data. The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect the views of the BLS. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Disclosure Statement: The authors report no conflicts of interests.
    Keywords: Heat Exposure ; Occupational Health ; Workplace ; Health And Safety ; Climate Change
    ISSN: 0271-3586
    E-ISSN: 1097-0274
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 01 July 2009, Vol.49(1), pp.166-7
    Keywords: Antiprotozoal Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Babesiosis -- Drug Therapy ; Malaria, Falciparum -- Complications
    ISSN: 10584838
    E-ISSN: 1537-6591
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Public Health Reports, May-June, 2008, Vol.123(3), p.300(16)
    Keywords: Zoonoses -- Diagnosis ; Zoonoses -- Usage ; Bioterrorism -- Prevention ; Mortality -- United States ; Mortality -- Control
    ISSN: 0033-3549
    E-ISSN: 14682877
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Public Health Reports, May 2008, Vol.123(3), pp.300-315
    Description: The threat of bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases has prompted various public health agencies to recommend enhanced surveillance activities to supplement existing surveillance plans. The majority of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorist agents are zoonotic. Animals are more sensitive to certain biological agents, and their use as clinical sentinels, as a means of early detection, is warranted. This article provides design methods for a local integrated zoonotic surveillance plan and materials developed for veterinarians to assist in the early detection of bioevents. Zoonotic surveillance in the U.S. is currently too limited and compartmentalized for broader public health objectives. To rapidly detect and respond to bioevents, collaboration and cooperation among various agencies at the federal, state, and local levels must be enhanced and maintained. Co-analysis of animal and human diseases may facilitate the response to infectious disease events and limit morbidity and mortality in both animal and human populations.
    Keywords: Public Health
    ISSN: 0033-3549
    E-ISSN: 1468-2877
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 01 January 2009, Vol.48(1), pp.25-30
    Description: Human babesiosis is an illness with clinical manifestations that range from asymptomatic to fatal. Although babesiosis is not nationally notifiable, the US incidence appears to be increasing. Babesia infection is a transfusion-transmissable disease. An estimated 70 cases were reported during 1979-2007; most of these cases were reported during the past decade. We queried the 3 following US Food and Drug Administration safety surveillance systems to assess trends in babesiosis reporting since 1997: fatality reports for blood donors and transfusion recipients, the Adverse Event Reporting System (which includes MedWatch), and the Biological Product Deviations Reporting system.We analyzed fatality reports for time frames, clinical presentations, and patient and donor demographic characteristics. Eight of 9 deaths due to transfusion-transmitted babesiosis that were reported since 1997 occurred within the past 3 years (2005-2007). Four implicated donors and 5 patients lived in areas where Babesia infection is not endemic. Increasing numbers of Biological Product Deviations Reports were submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration over the past decade; the Adverse Event Reporting System received no reports. After nearly a decade with no reported death due to transfusion-transmitted babesiosis, the US Food and Drug Administration received 8 reports from November 2005 onward. The increased numbers of deaths reported and Biological Product Deviations Reports suggest an increasing incidence of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis. Physicians should consider babesiosis in the differential diagnosis in immunocompromised, febrile patients with a history of recent transfusion, even in areas where Babesia infection is not endemic. Accurate and timely reporting of babesiosis-related donor and transfusion events assists the US Food and Drug Administration in developing appropriate public health-control measures.
    Keywords: Transfusion Reaction ; Babesiosis -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 10584838
    E-ISSN: 1537-6591
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  • 7
    In: Transfusion, December 2009, Vol.49(12), pp.2759-2771
    Description: Infections of humans with intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus can be locally prevalent in diverse regions of the United States. Transfusion of blood and blood products collected from donors infected with may result in a serious illness that can be fatal. In September 2008, the Food and Drug Administration organized a public workshop to discuss the various aspects of transfusion‐transmitted babesiosis in the United States including the possible strategies to identify and defer blood donors who may have been infected with . Discussions were also held on the biology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of species. In this article, we summarize the scientific presentations and panel discussions that took place during the workshop.
    Keywords: Parasites ; Blood Donors ; Infection ; Transfusion ; Drugs ; Babesia ; USA ; Natural Disasters/Civil Defense/Emergency Management;
    ISSN: 0041-1132
    E-ISSN: 1537-2995
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Description: Heat stress due to ambient outdoor temperatures is a workplace hazard that has not been well studied or characterized. The incidence of occupational heat-related illness is unknown. Heat-related morbidity and mortality have been well-studied at the population level, however it cannot be determined if these findings extend systematically to workers exposed to high heat conditions. Remarkably, there is no U.S. federal standard to protect workers from the peril of elevated environmental temperatures and few states have protective regulations. This dissertation research will add to the limited knowledge base of occupational heat-related illnesses, by characterizing worker fatalities due to environmental heat stress. Three independent, but related, research strategies were designed, executed, and completed to evaluate the current research, as well as knowledge gaps, and to thoroughly describe these fatalities based on available information. This work was initiated with a thorough literature review to summarize research findings that characterize U.S. occupational heat-related morbidity and mortality and identify gaps in the existing research literature. This review of science, health, and medical databases found that few studies examine ambient heat stress or characterize the incidence of occupational heat-related illnesses and outcomes. Significantly more research examining the heterogeneity of worker and environmental risk factors to heat exposure is needed to identify unsafe working conditions and implement practical, evidence-based heat-stress policies and interventions. The subsequent study describes the epidemiological characteristics of heat-related deaths among workers in the U.S. from 2000 to 2010. Fatality data were obtained at the Bureau of Labor Statistics from the confidential on-site Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries database. Fatality rates and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by year, sex, age group, ethnicity, race, state, and industry. Between 2000 and 2010, 359 occupational heat-related deaths were identified in the U.S., for a yearly average fatality rate of 0.22 per 1 million workers. Highest rates were found among Hispanics, men, the agriculture and construction industries, the states of Mississippi and Arkansas, and very small establishments. This study provides the first comprehensive national profile of heat-related deaths in the U.S. workplace. Prevention efforts should be directed at small businesses, states, industries and individuals who may be at increased risk of heat stress. Lastly, to further characterize these fatalities, research was performed to: 1) determine the ranges of heat index and temperature at which workers fatally succumb to environmental heat; 2) identify risk factors that may influence heat-related deaths; and 3) translate these findings to policy recommendations. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the National Climate Data Center were used to identify worker heat-related deaths in the U.S., 2000- 2010, and to assign a maximum daily temperature and heat index to each case. Demographic, meteorological, and geographical variables were analyzed to evaluate any differences in fatal heat exposure. The National Weather Service temperature alert tools, the Excessive Heat Event warning and the heat index category chart, were utilized to assess community threshold suitability for workers subjected to exertional heat stress. Of the 327 cases that qualified for the analysis, there were no differences found in mean temperatures and heat indexes between the sexes, races, age groups, ethnic groups, and industries. Southern workers died at significantly higher temperatures than workers in the North. This study supports the use of heat index and temperature as a guide when evaluating environmental conditions for workers. Population-level heat index threshold alerts are unsuitable for preventing exertional heat stress and new warning systems should be developed. Since heat-related health hazards at work can be anticipated before they manifest, preventive measures can be implemented before illness occurs. With no federal regulatory standards to protect workers from environmental heat exposure, and with climate change as a driver for adaptation and prevention of heat disorders, it is increasing sensible and imperative for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to take action. National leadership is needed to promulgate regulations, develop new heat alert tools using the heat index as a metric, and promote state-specific occupational heat stress prevention policies.
    Keywords: Health Sciences ; Occupational Health And Safety|Climate Change|Environmental Health
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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