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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Sept, 2012, Vol.52, p.43(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.04.001 Byline: Bertrand Guenet (a), Sabrina Juarez (b), Gerard Bardoux (c), Luc Abbadie (a), Claire Chenu (b) Abstract: A significant fraction of soil organic carbon, named stable organic carbon (C) pool, has residence times longer than centuries and its vulnerability to land use or climatic changes is virtually unknown. Long-term bare fallows offer a unique opportunity to isolate the stable organic pool of soils and study its properties. We investigated the vulnerability of the stable organic C pool to fresh organic matter inputs by comparing the mineralization in a long-term bare fallow soil with that of an adjacent arable soil, containing stable C as well as more labile C. For this, we amended or not the soil samples with two different.sup.13C-labelled fresh organic matter (straw or cellulose). In all cases we found a positive priming effect (i.e. an increased mineralization of soil organic carbon) when fresh organic matter was added. By comparing the results obtained on both soils, we estimated that half of the "primed" C in the arable soil due to straw addition as fresh organic matter, originated from the stable C pool. Our results suggest that under such conditions, which frequently occur, the stable pool of soil organic matter may largely contribute to soil extra-CO.sub.2 emissions due to priming effect. Consequently, the C storage potential of this pool may be modified by changes in land use and/or biomass production that might change the priming of the mineralization of the stable pool of soil organic carbon. Author Affiliation: (a) UPMC, UMR 7618 Bioemco, 46 rue d'Ulm, F-75230 Paris, France (b) AgroParisTech, UMR 7618 Bioemco, Batiment EGER, 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (c) CNRS, UMR 7618 Bioemco, Batiment EGER, 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France Article History: Received 31 August 2011; Revised 1 April 2012; Accepted 2 April 2012
    Keywords: Soil Carbon ; Cellulose
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    In: Ecology, October 2010, Vol.91(10), pp.2850-2861
    Description: Understanding how ecosystems store or release carbon is one of ecology's greatest challenges in the 21st century. Organic matter covers a large range of chemical structures and qualities, and it is classically represented by pools of different recalcitrance to degradation. The interaction effects of these pools on carbon cycling are still poorly understood and are most often ignored in global‐change models. Soil scientists have shown that inputs of labile organic matter frequently tend to increase, and often double, the mineralization of the more recalcitrant organic matter. The recent revival of interest for this phenomenon, named the priming effect, did not cross the frontiers of the disciplines. In particular, the priming effect phenomenon has been almost totally ignored by the scientific communities studying marine and continental aquatic ecosystems. Here we gather several arguments, experimental results, and field observations that strongly support the hypothesis that the priming effect is a general phenomenon that occurs in various terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. For example, the increase in recalcitrant organic matter mineralization rate in the presence of labile organic matter ranged from 10% to 500% in six studies on organic matter degradation in aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, the recalcitrant organic matter mineralization rate may largely depend on labile organic matter availability, influencing the CO emissions of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. We suggest that (1) recalcitrant organic matter may largely contribute to the CO emissions of aquatic ecosystems through the priming effect, and (2) priming effect intensity may be modified by global changes, interacting with eutrophication processes and atmospheric CO increases. Finally, we argue that the priming effect acts substantially in the carbon and nutrient cycles in all ecosystems. We outline exciting avenues for research, which could provide new insights on the responses of ecosystems to anthropogenic perturbations and their feedbacks to climatic changes.
    Keywords: Aquatic Organic Matter ; Global Carbon Cycle ; Global Changes ; Labile Organic Matter ; Microbial Ecology ; Priming Effect ; Recalcitrant Organic Matter ; Terrestrial Organic Matter
    ISSN: 0012-9658
    E-ISSN: 1939-9170
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2010, Vol.42(8), pp.1212-1221
    Description: First order kinetics characterize most models of soil organic matter dynamics. Although first order kinetics often provide a good description of litter decomposition, their general applicability has recently been challenged by numerous observations of priming effects. A priming effect can be defined as a change in native soil organic matter decomposition rate following the addition of some labelled exogenous substrate. Recently two new formalisms were developed which predict a priori the existence of priming effects, whether positive or negative. The Extended Mass Action (EMA) formalism is a generalization of enzyme kinetics at the microbial scale. The Maximum Caliber (MAXCAL) formalism describes the most probable dynamics of a system that arises when the multiple ways feasible macroscopic dynamics can be realized at the microscopic particle scale are accounted for. Here those two formalisms were applied to a common soil compartimentation scheme and their predictions confronted with an appropriate set of priming observations. We show that the two formalisms generate distinct, testable predictions and that the MAXCAL formalism performed better than the EMA formalism. We discuss the determinants of priming effects as predicted by the Maximum Caliber formalism.
    Keywords: Model Comparison ; Maximum Caliber ; Organic Matter Dynamics ; Litter Decomposition ; Mineral Nitrogen ; Microbial Biomass ; 13c Labelling ; Priming Effect ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2010, Vol.42, pp.1212-1221
    Description: First order kinetics characterize most models of soil organic matter dynamics. Although first order kinetics often provide a good description of litter decomposition, their general applicability has recently been challenged by numerous observations of priming effects. A priming effect can be defined as a change in native soil organic matter decomposition rate following the addition of some labelled exogenous substrate. Recently two new formalisms were developed which predict a priori the existence of priming effects, whether positive or negative. The Extended Mass Action (EMA) formalism is a generalization of enzyme kinetics at the microbial scale. The Maximum Caliber (MAXCAL) formalism describes the most probable dynamics of a system that arises when the multiple ways feasible macroscopic dynamics can be realized at the microscopic particle scale are accounted for. Here those two formalisms were applied to a common soil compartimentation scheme and their predictions confronted with an appropriate set of priming observations. We show that the two formalisms generate distinct, testable predictions and that the MAXCAL formalism performed better than the EMA formalism. We discuss the determinants of priming effects as predicted by the Maximum Caliber formalism. ; Includes references ; p. 1212-1221.
    Keywords: Enzyme Kinetics ; Biodegradation ; Soil Chemistry ; Soil Microorganisms ; Soil Biology ; Soil Enzymes ; Prediction ; Mathematical Models ; Soil Organic Matter ; Simulation Models ; Kinetics ; Plant Litter ; Priming Effects ; Maximum Caliber Formalism ; Extended Mass Action Formalism ; Mechanistic Formalisms
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 5
    In: Global Change Biology, May 2018, Vol.24(5), pp.1873-1883
    Description: Fresh carbon input (above and belowground) contributes to soil carbon sequestration, but also accelerates decomposition of soil organic matter through biological priming mechanisms. Currently, poor understanding precludes the incorporation of these priming mechanisms into the global carbon models used for future projections. Here, we show that priming can be incorporated based on a simple equation calibrated from incubation and verified against independent litter manipulation experiments in the global land surface model, . When incorporated into , priming improved the model's representation of global soil carbon stocks and decreased soil carbon sequestration by 51% (12 ± 3 Pg C) during the period 1901–2010. Future projections with the same model across the range of and climate changes defined by the ‐ scenarios reveal that priming buffers the projected changes in soil carbon stocks — both the increases due to enhanced productivity and new input to the soil, and the decreases due to warming‐induced accelerated decomposition. Including priming in Earth system models leads to different projections of soil carbon changes, which are challenging to verify at large spatial scales. Evolution of the soil carbon stock change from: (a) 1901 to 2010. (b) from 1951 to 2100 for the RCP2.6. (c) from 1951 to 2100 for the RCP8.5. In all figures, red indicates the values predicted by ORCHIDEE‐PRIM and blue by ORCHIDEE. For all figures, the thin lines are the simulations with the parameter values modified by ± 50%. For (b) and (c), the light blue and the orange lines represent the simulations performed with the climate forcings from the HadGEM, IPSL‐CM5A and MIROC‐ESM‐CH models for ORCHIDEE and ORCHIDEE‐PRIM, respectively.
    Keywords: Carbon Cycle ; Climate Change ; Land Surface Model ; Priming ; Rcp Scenario
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 6
    In: Oikos, May 2015, Vol.124(5), pp.649-657
    Description: Fresh plant litter inputs accelerate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition through a ubiquitous mechanism called priming. Insufficient priming has been suggested as a stabilization mechanism of SOM at depth, as well as the long‐term persistence of some highly degradable organic compounds in soils. Priming therefore plays a crucial, albeit unquantified and commonly neglected, role in the global carbon cycle. Because priming intensity is likely to be altered by global change‐induced changes in net primary productivity, it casts substantial uncertainty to future projections of the climate‐carbon cycle feedback. Using results from a large field litter manipulation experiment in Mongolian steppe, we here show that priming intensifies with increasing litter inputs, but at a decreasing efficiency: the stimulation per unit litter added declines with increasing litter inputs. This non‐linear behavior originates from two antagonistic responses to fresh litter inputs: a stimulation of microbial activity versus a shift in microbial community composition (more fungi) associated to substrate shift from SOM to litter. Despite all complexity, however, the priming effect on SOM decomposition scaled linearly with the response of microbial biomass across the entire range of plant litter addition (60–480 g C m), suggesting that priming could be modeled effectively as a function of the response of microbial biomass to litter inputs. Incorporating the priming mechanism in Earth System models will improve their estimates of the SOM‐climate feedback and appears to be best addressed by explicitly representing microbial biomass in the models.
    Keywords: Decomposition ; Carbon Cycle ; Biomass ; Soils ; Biogeochemistry ; Vegetation;
    ISSN: 0030-1299
    E-ISSN: 1600-0706
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2014, Vol.71, p.1(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.01.003 Byline: Hui Wei, Bertrand Guenet, Sara Vicca, Naoise Nunan, Hamada AbdElgawad, Valerie Pouteau, Weijun Shen, Ivan A. Janssens Abstract: Thermal acclimation of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is frequently observed and has often been attributed to substrate depletion under warming, but other mechanisms, such as changes in microbial community structure and functioning, have received less attention. In order to determine whether shifts in microbial community structure and functioning are involved in thermal acclimation of SOM decomposition, a laboratory incubation experiment was conducted using an artificial forest soil. Samples were first subjected to different temperatures of 5, 15, and 25 [degrees]C during a 72-day pre-incubation period and then half of the microcosms from each pre-incubation temperature were incubated at 5 or 25 [degrees]C for a period of 11 days. Substantial thermal acclimation of SOM decomposition was observed, with the SOM decomposition in soils pre-incubated at higher temperatures being less sensitive to temperature. Along with the reduced temperature sensitivity in response to warming, significant changes in microbial community PLFAs, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and the potential activities of 11 enzymes were also observed. Nevertheless, shifts in microbial community PLFAs and particular enzyme activities provided the most explanatory power for the decreased temperature sensitivity with warming, as revealed by a multivariate regression analysis. The microbial community structure shifts were mainly manifested as an increase in the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria and decreases in the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Microbial communities pre-incubated under lower temperatures experienced greater shifts in their structure. Substrate depletion did not occur in this short-term incubation experiment, since neither total organic carbon (TOC) nor dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decreased with increasing temperature. Our results suggest that shifts in microbial community structure and functioning may underlie the thermal acclimation of SOM decomposition and should be taken into account when predicting the response of soil CO.sub.2 efflux to global warming. Author Affiliation: (a) Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, PR China (b) Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium (c) CNRS-INRA, UMR7618, BioEMCo, Batiment EGER, Campus AgroParisTech, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France (d) Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China Article History: Received 12 July 2013; Revised 30 December 2013; Accepted 3 January 2014
    Keywords: Enzymology – Analysis ; Forest Soils – Analysis ; Ecological Restoration – Analysis ; Enzymes – Analysis ; Bacteria – Analysis ; Global Temperature Changes – Analysis ; Ecosystems – Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Ecology, 01/25/2010, p.100319061621033
    ISSN: 0012-9658
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2012, Vol.52, pp.43-48
    Description: A significant fraction of soil organic carbon, named stable organic carbon (C) pool, has residence times longer than centuries and its vulnerability to land use or climatic changes is virtually unknown. Long-term bare fallows offer a unique opportunity to isolate the stable organic pool of soils and study its properties. We investigated the vulnerability of the stable organic C pool to fresh organic matter inputs by comparing the mineralization in a long-term bare fallow soil with that of an adjacent arable soil, containing stable C as well as more labile C. For this, we amended or not the soil samples with two different ¹³C-labelled fresh organic matter (straw or cellulose). In all cases we found a positive priming effect (i.e. an increased mineralization of soil organic carbon) when fresh organic matter was added. By comparing the results obtained on both soils, we estimated that half of the “primed” C in the arable soil due to straw addition as fresh organic matter, originated from the stable C pool. Our results suggest that under such conditions, which frequently occur, the stable pool of soil organic matter may largely contribute to soil extra-CO₂ emissions due to priming effect. Consequently, the C storage potential of this pool may be modified by changes in land use and/or biomass production that might change the priming of the mineralization of the stable pool of soil organic carbon. ; p. 43-48.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Cellulose ; Land Use Change ; Carbon Sequestration ; Soil Properties ; Mineralization ; Organic Matter ; Arable Soils ; Biomass Production ; Soil Sampling
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, September 2012, Vol.52, pp.43-48
    Description: A significant fraction of soil organic carbon, named stable organic carbon (C) pool, has residence times longer than centuries and its vulnerability to land use or climatic changes is virtually unknown. Long-term bare fallows offer a unique opportunity to isolate the stable organic pool of soils and study its properties. We investigated the vulnerability of the stable organic C pool to fresh organic matter inputs by comparing the mineralization in a long-term bare fallow soil with that of an adjacent arable soil, containing stable C as well as more labile C. For this, we amended or not the soil samples with two different C-labelled fresh organic matter (straw or cellulose). In all cases we found a positive priming effect (i.e. an increased mineralization of soil organic carbon) when fresh organic matter was added. By comparing the results obtained on both soils, we estimated that half of the “primed” C in the arable soil due to straw addition as fresh organic matter, originated from the stable C pool. Our results suggest that under such conditions, which frequently occur, the stable pool of soil organic matter may largely contribute to soil extra-CO emissions due to priming effect. Consequently, the C storage potential of this pool may be modified by changes in land use and/or biomass production that might change the priming of the mineralization of the stable pool of soil organic carbon. ► Soil stable C from a long term bare fallow can be de-stabilized by priming effect. ► Priming effect intensity dependend on fresh OM quality. ► Priming intensity was little or not affected by the amount of fresh OM added. ► 9-46% of mineralized SOC due to priming effet originated from stable C.
    Keywords: Priming Effect ; Stable Carbon ; Long-Term Bare Fallow ; Mineralization ; 13c-Fresh Organic Matter ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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