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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Contemporary Voice of Dalit, November 2018, Vol.10(2), pp.138-150
    Description: In Nepal, just as in major parts of India and some other South Asian countries, the issue of untouchability still prevails. People even now face unjust discrimination on the basis of caste. They are prohibited from visiting public places such as temples and water taps. In this article, I have investigated the dichotomy of auspiciousness and untouchability faced by the Pariyars, one of the downtrodden caste groups of Nepal, also known as Damai. The music they create, compose and play is famous throughout the country which is popularly known as the Panchai Baja and Naumati Baja and is taken as auspicious. I adopted ethnographic research methods to obtain the qualitative data through in-depth interviews, participant observations and field notes from 21 research participants who were actively engaged in music. I have analysed the social relations and cultural identity in reference to auspicious music and untouchability faced by the Damai musicians of Nepal. The findings indicate that untouchability is an outcome of cultural hegemony, caste-based hierarchy and socio-economic order, fatalism and cultural reproduction despite modernity and social and political awareness among young people. This ethnographic study throws light upon the dichotomy of auspicious and untouchability through the lived experiences of the research participants.
    Keywords: Untouchability ; Auspiciousness ; Discrimination ; Traditional Music ; Dalit ; Culture ; Sociology & Social History
    ISSN: 2455-328X
    E-ISSN: 2456-0502
    Source: Sage Journals (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE HSS (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Politics and International Relations (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Sociology (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Journals (Sage Publications)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Radiation research, February 2017, Vol.187(2), pp.241-250
    Description: Detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear bomb in an urban setting would result in 〉1 million casualties, the majority of which would present with combined injuries. Combined injuries, such as peripheral tissue trauma and radiation exposure, trigger inflammatory events that lead to multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) and death, with gastrointestinal (GI) and pulmonary involvement playing crucial roles. The objective of this study was to develop an animal model of combined injuries, peripheral tissue trauma (TBX animal model) combined with total body irradiation with 5% bone marrow shielding (TBI/BM5) to investigate if peripheral tissue trauma contributes to reduced survival. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to TBX10%, irradiation (TBI/BM5), or combined injuries (TBX10% + TBI/BM5). Experiments were conducted to evaluate mortality at day 7 after TBI/BM5. Serial euthanasia was performed at day 1, 3 and 6 or 7 after TBI/BM5 to evaluate the time course of pathophysiologic processes in combined injuries. Functional tests were performed to assess pulmonary function and GI motility. Postmortem samples of lungs and jejunum were collected to assess tissue damage. Results indicated higher lethality and shorter survival in the TBX10% +T BI/BM5 group than in the TBX10% or TBI/BM5 groups (day 1 vs. day 7 and 6, respectively). TBI/BM5 alone had no effects on the lungs but significantly impaired GI function at day 6. As expected, in the animals that received severe trauma (TBX10%), we observed impairment in lung function and delay in GI transit in the first 3 days, effects that decreased at later time points. Trauma combined with radiation (TBX10% + TBI/BM5) significantly augmented impairment of the lung and GI function in comparison to TBX10% and TBI/BM5 groups at 24 h. Histologic evaluation indicated that combined injuries caused greater tissue damage in the intestines in TBX10% + TBI/BM5 group when compared to other groups. We describe here the first combined tissue trauma/radiation injury model that will allow conduction of mechanistic studies to identify new therapeutic targets and serve as a platform for testing novel therapeutic interventions.
    Keywords: Nuclear Weapons ; Wounds and Injuries
    ISSN: 00337587
    E-ISSN: 1938-5404
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, 2015, Vol.4, pp.15
    Description: Multi-drug resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative organisms is an alarming problem in the world. MDR and extensively-drug resistance (XDR) is in increasing trend due to the production of different types of beta (β)-lactamases. Thus the aim of this study was to document the incidence of MDR and XDR in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and also to find out the enzymatic mechanisms of β-lactam antibiotics resistance. Two hundred clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (E. coli) identified by standard laboratory methods were studied. Antibiotic susceptibility profile was performed for all the isolates and the suspected isolates were phenotypically tested for the production of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), metallo β-lactamase (MBL) and AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC) by recommended methods. Around three-fourth (78%) of the total isolates were multi-drug resistant. ESBL, MBL and AmpC production was found in 24%, 15% and 9% of isolates respectively. Amikacin, chloramphenicol and colistin were found to be the most effective antibiotics. High percentage of MDR was observed. β-lactamase mediated resistance was also high. Thus, regular surveillance of drug resistance due to β-lactamases production and infection control policy are of utmost importance to minimize the spread of resistant strains.
    Keywords: Ampc ; Esbl ; Escherichia Coli ; Mbl ; Mdr ; Xdr
    ISSN: 2047-2994
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  • 4
    In: British Journal of Pharmacology, December 2017, Vol.174(24), pp.4738-4750
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.14056/abstract Byline: Isabel L Jackson, Andrew Zodda, Ganga Gurung, Radmila Pavlovic, Michael D Kaytor, Michael A Kuskowski, Zeljko Vujaskovic Background and Purpose BIO 300 nanosuspension (Humanetics Corporation) is being developed as a medical countermeasure (MCM) for the mitigation of the delayed effects of acute radiation exposure, specifically pneumonitis and fibrosis of the lung. The objective of this study was to determine the best dose and treatment duration of BIO 300 to mitigate lung injury and improve the likelihood for survival in C57L/J mice exposed to whole thorax lung irradiation (WTLI). Experimental Approach Age- and sex-matched C57L/J mice received a single dose of 11.0 or 12.5 Gy WTLI. BIO 300 (200 or 400 mgaekg.sub.-1, oral gavage) was administered daily starting 24 h post-exposure for a duration of 2, 4, 6 or, in some cases, 10 weeks. Non-treated controls were included for comparison in both sexes. Animals were observed daily for signs of major morbidity. Respiratory function was assessed biweekly. Lungs were collected, weighed and paraffin embedded for histological evaluation post mortem. Key Results BIO 300 administered at an oral dose of 400 mgaekg.sub.-1 for 4 to 6 weeks starting 24 h post-WTLI reduced morbidity associated with WTLI. The improvement in survival correlated with reduced respiratory frequency and enhanced pause. The irradiated lungs of mice treated with BIO 300 (400 mgaekg.sub.-1) for 4 to 6 weeks displayed less morphological damage and airway loss due to oedema, congestion and fibrotic scarring than the untreated, irradiated controls. Conclusions and Implications BIO 300 is a promising MCM candidate to mitigate pneumonitis/fibrosis when administered daily for 4-6 weeks starting 24 h post-exposure.
    Keywords: Isoflavones – Analysis ; Radiation Exposure – Analysis ; Radiation (Physics) – Analysis;
    ISSN: 0007-1188
    E-ISSN: 1476-5381
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Disease Models & Mechanisms, 01 April 2017, Vol.10(4), pp.425-437
    Description: Molecular mechanisms underlying development of acute pneumonitis and/or late fibrosis following thoracic irradiation remain poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that heterogeneity in disease progression and phenotypic expression of radiation-induced...
    Keywords: Radiation Pneumonitis ; Lung Fibrosis ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Murine Strain Differences ; Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 1754-8403
    E-ISSN: 1754-8411
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  • 6
    In: Nursing Open, July 2019, Vol.6(3), pp.1006-1012
    Description: Abstract Aim The study is mainly concerned about the care and maintenance of peripheral intravenous cannulation: to determine the knowledge and practice of nurses towards care and maintenance of IV cannula and to find out the obstacles encountered in caring and maintaining IV cannula. Intravenous cannulation is a common procedure performed by nurses in every hospital and closely associated with the risk of nosocomial infections if standard care is not provided. Design A descriptive cross‐sectional study design was carried out. Methods Nurses' knowledge and practice towards care and maintenance of peripheral intravenous cannula were assessed using a validated semi‐structured self‐administered questionnaire through the census method. Data were analysed through SPSS program. The comparison was done between knowledge and practice. Results The findings revealed that 84.72% respondents were doing correct practices despite the fact that only 82.47% respondents had proper knowledge. Most nurses have good knowledge of caring and maintaining peripheral intravenous cannulation but there were some without proper knowledge and practice. This could be a potential risk factor for patient safety.
    Keywords: Knowledge ; Nurses ; Peripheral Intravenous Cannula ; Practice
    ISSN: 2054-1058
    E-ISSN: 2054-1058
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  • 7
    In: Journal of Chitwan Medical College, 04/20/2019, Vol.8(1), pp.36-42
    ISSN: 2091-2412
    E-ISSN: 2091-2889
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: International journal of radiation biology, 17 September 2019, pp.1-36
    Description: The purpose if this study was to develop a rabbit model of total body irradiation (TBI) -induced thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy across the dose-range which induces the hematopoietic subsyndrome of the acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS). Twenty male New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to arms to receive 6-MV of TBI at a dose of 6.5, 7.5, 8.5 or 9.5 Gy. Animals were treated with moderate levels of supportive care including buprenorphine for pain management, antibiotics, antipyretics for rectal body temperature 〉104.8 °F, and fluids for signs of dehydration. Animals were closelyfollowed for up to 45 days after TBI for signs of major morbidity/mortality. Hematology and serum chemistry parameters were routinely monitored. Hemostasis parameters were analyzed prior to TBI, 2 and 6 hours post-TBI, and at the time of euthanasia. Animals developed the characteristic signs and symptoms of H-ARS during the first-week post TBI. Animals became thrombocytopenic with signs of severe acute anemia during the second week post TBI. Moribund animals presented with petechia and ecchymosis of the skin and generalized internal hemorrhage. Multiorgan dysfunction characterized by bone marrow failure, gastric ileus, acute renal toxicity, and liver abnormalities were common. Severe abnormalities in coagulation parameters were observed. The presentation of bone marrow failure and multiorogan injury associated with ARS in the New Zealand White rabbit model is consistent with that described in the canine, swine, non-human primate, and in humans. The hemorrhagic syndrome associated with the ARS in rabbits is characterized by thrombocytopenia and hemostasis dysfunction, which appear to underlie the development of multiorgan dysfunction following TBI to rabbits. Taken together, the rabbit recapitulates the pathogenesis of ARS in humans, and may present an alternative small animal model for medical countermeasure pilot efficacy screening, dose-finding and schedule optimization studies prior to moving into large animal models of TBI-induced ARS.
    Keywords: Total Body Irradiation ; Acute Radiation Syndrome ; Coagulopathy ; Hematopoietic Syndrome ; Rabbit Model
    E-ISSN: 1362-3095
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Applied Mathematics, 2016-08-15, 7卷14期 (Vol.7, Issue 14), pp.1521-1533
    Description: Dengue disease is the most common vector borne infectious disease transmitted to humans by infected adult female Aedes mosquitoes. Over the past several years the disease has been increasing remarkably and it has become a major public health concern. Dengue viruses have increased their geographic range into new human population due to travel of humans from one place to the other. In the present paper, we have proposed a multi patch SIR-SI model to study the host-vector dynamics of dengue disease in different patches including the travel of human population among the patches. We have considered different disease prevalences in different patches and different travel rates of humans. The dimensionless number, basic reproduction number R_0 which shows that the disease dies out if R_0 < 1 and the disease takes hold if R_0 ≥ 1, is calculated. Local and global stability of the disease free equilibrium are analyzed. Simulations are observed considering the two patches only. The results show that controlling the travel of infectious hosts from high disease dominant patch to low disease dominant patch can help in controlling the disease in low disease dominant patch while high disease dominant becomes even more disease dominant. The understanding of the effect of travel of humans on the spatial spread of the disease among the patches can be helpful in improving disease control and prevention measures. In the present study, a patch may represent a city, a village or some biological habitat.
    Keywords: Dengue ; Patch ; Basic Reproduction Number ; Equilibrium Point ; Stability
    ISSN: 2152-7385
    E-ISSN: 21527393
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, 01 January 2017, Vol.2017
    Description: Dengue is a vector-borne infectious disease endemic in many parts of the world. The disease is spreading in new places due to human movement into the dengue disease supporting areas. Temperature is the major climatic factor which affects the biological processes of the mosquitoes and their...
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1748-670X
    E-ISSN: 1748-6718
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