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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 March 2012, Vol.109(13), pp.5104-9
    Description: RNA editing in plastids and mitochondria of flowering plants changes hundreds of selected cytidines to uridines, mostly in coding regions of mRNAs. Specific sequences around the editing sites are presumably recognized by up to 200 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins. The here identified family of multiple organellar RNA editing factor (MORF) proteins provides additional components of the RNA editing machinery in both plant organelles. Two MORF proteins are required for editing in plastids; at least two are essential for editing in mitochondria. The loss of a MORF protein abolishes or lowers editing at multiple sites, many of which are addressed individually by PPR proteins. In plastids, both MORF proteins are required for complete editing at almost all sites, suggesting a heterodimeric complex. In yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays, MORF proteins can connect to form hetero- and homodimers. Furthermore, MORF proteins interact selectively with PPR proteins, establishing a more complex editosome in plant organelles than previously thought.
    Keywords: Multigene Family ; Arabidopsis -- Genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins -- Metabolism ; Mitochondria -- Genetics ; Plastids -- Genetics ; RNA Editing -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Teachers College Record, 2014, Vol.116(11)
    Description: Background:This brief reflection on the work of the Gordon Commission calls out significant themes and implications found in the various papers authored by the commissioners and other scholars, especially those included in this special issue...
    Keywords: Evaluation ; Evaluation Methods ; Evaluation Needs ; Planning Commissions ; Research Reports ; Teaching Methods ; Testing ; Educational Practices ; Evaluation Problems ; Educational Change ; Educational Objectives ; Educational Assessment ; Academic Standards ; Education
    ISSN: 0161-4681
    E-ISSN: 1467-9620
    Source: ERIC (U.S. Dept. of Education)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Educational Psychologist, 03 July 2018, Vol.53(3), pp.203-216
    Description: In the service of educational accountability, student achievement tests are being used to measure constructs quite unlike those envisioned by test developers. Scores are compared to cut points to create classifications like "proficient"; scores are combined over time to measure growth; student...
    Keywords: Education ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0046-1520
    E-ISSN: 1532-6985
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Addictive Behaviors, 2015, Vol.50, p.182(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.06.040 Byline: Niklas Rommel, Nils H. Rohleder, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Roland Haertel-Petri, Marco R. Kesting Abstract: Chronic methamphetamine abuse can lead to multiple health hazards. In particular, the substance is associated with devastating effects on oral health including symptoms such as rampant caries, gingiva inflammation, and xerostomia, whereby the term "Meth Mouth" occurs in the current literature. However, "Meth Mouth" pathology is primarily described on the basis of individual cases or has been evaluated without consideration of the mass of potential influencing factors. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic study to investigate the effects of accompanying factors and circumstances on oral health in cases of chronic methamphetamine abuse. Article History: Received 14 January 2015; Revised 12 April 2015; Accepted 16 June 2015
    Keywords: Oral Health – Analysis ; Addiction – Analysis ; Methamphetamine – Analysis
    ISSN: 0306-4603
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Addictive Behaviors, Nov, 2015, Vol.50, p.182(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.06.040 Byline: Niklas Rommel, Nils H. Rohleder, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Roland Haertel-Petri, Marco R. Kesting Abstract: Chronic methamphetamine abuse can lead to multiple health hazards. In particular, the substance is associated with devastating effects on oral health including symptoms such as rampant caries, gingiva inflammation, and xerostomia, whereby the term "Meth Mouth" occurs in the current literature. However, "Meth Mouth" pathology is primarily described on the basis of individual cases or has been evaluated without consideration of the mass of potential influencing factors. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic study to investigate the effects of accompanying factors and circumstances on oral health in cases of chronic methamphetamine abuse. Article History: Received 14 January 2015; Revised 12 April 2015; Accepted 16 June 2015
    Keywords: Oral Health -- Analysis ; Addiction -- Analysis ; Methamphetamine -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0306-4603
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 26 July 2011, Vol.108(30), pp.12554-9
    Description: We explored the social and ecological outcomes associated with emergence of a management panacea designed to govern a stochastic renewable natural resource. To that end, we constructed a model of a coupled social-ecological system of recreational fisheries in which a manager supports naturally fluctuating stocks by stocking fish in response to harvest-driven satisfaction of resource users. The realistic assumption of users remembering past harvest experiences when exploiting a stochastically fluctuating fish population facilitates the emergence of a stocking-based management panacea over time. The social benefits of panacea formation involve dampening natural population fluctuations and generating stability of user satisfaction. It also maintains the resource but promotes the eventual replacement of wild fish by hatchery-descended fish. Our analyses show this outcome is particularly likely when hatchery-descended fish are reasonably fit (e.g., characterized by similar survival relative to wild fish) and/or when natural recruitment of the wild population is low (e.g., attributable to habitat deterioration), which leaves the wild population with little buffer against competition by stocked fish. The potential for release-based panacea formation is particularly likely under user-based management regimes and should be common in a range of social-ecological systems (e.g., fisheries, forestry), whenever user groups are entitled to engage in release or replanting strategies. The net result will be the preservation of a renewable resource through user-based incentives, but the once natural populations are likely to be altered and to host nonnative genotypes. This risks other ecosystem services and the future of wild populations.
    Keywords: Conservation of Natural Resources ; Ecosystem ; Fishes
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 7
    In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2015, Vol.29(8), pp.2361-2366
    Description: ABSTRACT: Altmann, S, Hoffmann, M, Kurz, G, Neumann, R, Woll, A, and Haertel, S. Different starting distances affect 5-m sprint times. J Strength Cond Res 29(8): 2361–2366, 2015—The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of different starting distances on 5-m sprint time and the accuracy of the initial timing gate. A single-beam timing gate system (1 m high) was used to measure 5-m sprint time in 13 male sports students. Each subject performed 3 valid trials for 3 starting distances: 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 m from the initial timing lights, respectively. A high-speed video camera was used to track a reflective marker placed on the subjectsʼ hip within a field of view around the initial timing gate. Accuracy of the initial timing gate was defined as the time between the initial timing light trigger and passing of the reflective marker by the initial timing gate. Sprint times were significantly faster for the 1.0-m starting distance (0.98 ± 0.06 seconds) than for the 0.5-m (1.05 ± 0.07 seconds) and the 0.3-m (1.09 ± 0.08 seconds) starting distances (p 〈 0.001). There were no differences in initial timing gate error between starting distances (p = 0.078). Hence, starting distance influenced sprint times but not the accuracy of the initial timing gate. Researchers and coaches should consider the effect of starting distance on 5-m sprint time and ensure consistent testing protocols. Based on the results of this study, we recommend a starting distance of 0.3 m that should be used for all sprint performance tests.
    Keywords: Sprinting -- Speed ; Distance (Geometry) -- Physiological Aspects ; Time Measurement;
    ISSN: 1064-8011
    E-ISSN: 15334287
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Physical review letters, 31 December 2014, Vol.113(26), pp.268501
    Description: We show that sustainably harvesting "blue" energy from the spontaneous mixing process of fresh and salty water can be boosted by varying the water temperature during a capacitive mixing process. Our modified Poisson-Boltzmann calculations predict a strong temperature dependence of the electrostatic potential of a charged electrode in contact with an adjacent aqueous 1:1 electrolyte. We propose to exploit this dependence to boost the efficiency of capacitive blue engines, which are based on cyclically charging and discharging nanoporous supercapacitors immersed in salty and fresh water, respectively [D. Brogioli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 058501 (2009)]. We show that the energy output of blue engines can be increased by a factor of order 2 if warm (waste-heated) fresh water is mixed with cold sea water. Moreover, the underlying physics can also be used to optimize the reverse process of capacitive desalination of water.
    Keywords: Condensed Matter - Statistical Mechanics;
    ISSN: 00319007
    E-ISSN: 1079-7114
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Physical review letters, 17 August 2018, Vol.121(7), pp.075501
    Description: The decay of correlations in ionic fluids is a classical problem in soft matter physics that underpins applications ranging from controlling colloidal self-assembly to batteries and supercapacitors. The conventional wisdom, based on analyzing a solvent-free electrolyte model, suggests that all correlation functions between species decay with a common decay length in the asymptotic far field limit. Nonetheless, a solvent is present in many electrolyte systems. We show using an analytical theory and molecular dynamics simulations that multiple decay lengths can coexist in the asymptotic limit as well as at intermediate distances once a hard sphere solvent is considered. Our analysis provides an explanation for the recently observed discontinuous change in the structural force across a thin film of ionic liquid-solvent mixtures as the composition is varied, as well as reframes recent debates in the literature about the screening length in concentrated electrolytes.
    Keywords: Electrolytes ; Solvents ; Solvents ; Asymptotic Properties ; Self Assembly ; Thin Films ; Computational Fluid Dynamics ; Electrolytes ; Molecular Dynamics ; Decay ; Ionic Liquids ; Screening ; Computer Simulation ; Statistical Mechanics ; Soft Condensed Matter;
    ISSN: 00319007
    E-ISSN: 1079-7114
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(12), p.e28174
    Description: The ecologically and economic important honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata . Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Veterinary Science ; Plant Biology ; Biotechnology ; Ecology ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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