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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 30 March 2012, Vol.335(6076), pp.1628-34
    Description: The structure of the brain as a product of morphogenesis is difficult to reconcile with the observed complexity of cerebral connectivity. We therefore analyzed relationships of adjacency and crossing between cerebral fiber pathways in four nonhuman primate species and in humans by using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The cerebral fiber pathways formed a rectilinear three-dimensional grid continuous with the three principal axes of development. Cortico-cortical pathways formed parallel sheets of interwoven paths in the longitudinal and medio-lateral axes, in which major pathways were local condensations. Cross-species homology was strong and showed emergence of complex gyral connectivity by continuous elaboration of this grid structure. This architecture naturally supports functional spatio-temporal coherence, developmental path-finding, and incremental rewiring with correlated adaptation of structure and function in cerebral plasticity and evolution.
    Keywords: Nerve Fibers ; Cerebral Cortex -- Anatomy & Histology ; Neural Pathways -- Anatomy & Histology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Science, 15 March 2002, Vol.295(5562), pp.2006-2007
    Description: Gunter Wachtershauser had a radical theory of how life began, and he needed all his skills as a patent lawyer to persuade a skeptical community to take it seriously. Wachtershauser is profiled, and his belief that simple compounds necessary for life formed on lumps of pyrite is discussed.
    Keywords: Law -- Civil law -- Property law -- Pyrites ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Pyrites ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Geology -- Pyrites ; Physical sciences -- Earth sciences -- Microphysics -- Pyrites ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Foodstuffs -- Pyrites ; Applied sciences -- Food science -- Chemical reactions -- Pyrites ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Microphysics -- Pyrites ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Educational institutions -- Pyrites ; Education -- Formal education -- Labor economics -- Pyrites ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Labor economics -- Pyrites
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, Oct 15, 2014, Vol.330, p.158(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.06.044 Byline: R. Keala Hagmann, Jerry F. Franklin, K. Norman Johnson Abstract: acents Spatially extensive and intensive record of historical landscape-level variability. acents Forests were predominantly low density, less than a quarter of current mean density. acents Large trees (〉53cm dbh) dominated basal area on 91% of sampled area. acents Large trees were primarily ponderosa pine (〉60%) and secondarily Douglas-fir (〉30%). acents Comparable densities and abundance of large trees across a wide moisture gradient. Article History: Received 6 April 2014; Revised 26 June 2014; Accepted 27 June 2014
    Keywords: Coniferous Forests
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, Sept 15, 2013, Vol.304, p.492(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.04.005 Byline: R. Keala Hagmann, Jerry F. Franklin, K. Norman Johnson Abstract: acents Reference conditions based upon a timber inventory conducted from 1914 to 1922. acents Large ponderosa pine dominated basal area on pine and mixed-conifer sites. acents Forests were predominantly low density at less than a third of current density. acents Fire regime influenced structure and composition more than site productivity. Article History: Received 11 January 2013; Revised 3 April 2013; Accepted 5 April 2013
    Keywords: Historic Buildings ; Coniferous Forests
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, Sept 15, 2013, Vol.304, p.492(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.04.005 Byline: R. Keala Hagmann, Jerry F. Franklin, K. Norman Johnson Abstract: acents Reference conditions based upon a timber inventory conducted from 1914 to 1922. acents Large ponderosa pine dominated basal area on pine and mixed-conifer sites. acents Forests were predominantly low density at less than a third of current density. acents Fire regime influenced structure and composition more than site productivity. Article Note: (footnote) [star] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    Keywords: Historic Buildings ; Coniferous Forests
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Clinical chemistry, May 2012, Vol.58(5), pp.837-45
    Description: An imbalance in circulating factors that regulate blood vessel formation and health, referred to as angiogenic factors, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Several studies have demonstrated a strong association between altered circulating angiogenic factors and preeclampsia. These factors include circulating antiangiogenic proteins such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin and proangiogenic protein such as placental growth factor. Abnormalities in these circulating angiogenic factors are not only present during clinical disease, but also antedate clinical signs and symptoms by several weeks. These alterations are particularly prominent in patients who present with preeclamptic signs and symptoms prematurely and/or in patients with severe preeclampsia. The availability of automated platforms for the rapid measurement of circulating angiogenic proteins in blood samples has now allowed researchers and clinicians to evaluate the utility of these assays in the diagnosis of the disease, in the stratification of patients in clinical trials, or in the monitoring of therapies. In this review we highlight the various studies that have been performed, with a focus on large validation studies. Measurement of circulating angiogenic proteins for the diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia is still at an early stage but is rapidly evolving. Standardization across the various automated platforms and prospective studies that demonstrate clinical utility are needed.
    Keywords: Antigens, CD -- Analysis ; Pre-Eclampsia -- Diagnosis ; Pregnancy Proteins -- Analysis ; Receptors, Cell Surface -- Analysis ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 -- Analysis
    ISSN: 00099147
    E-ISSN: 1530-8561
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 May 2011, Vol.109(9)
    Description: Field emission diodes made with Ir/IrO 2 tips separated by gaps below 100 nm and operating in air gave currents of up to 1 μA just above 10 V and largely survived potentials up to 200 V. The current-voltage characteristics included signatures of Fowler–Nordheim emission and both coherent and incoherent space-charge limited emission, where both behaviors implied molecular-scale effective emission areas. The significant, nanoampere currents that flowed at biases below the expected bulk work functions corroborate the 0.1 eV work functions from Fowler–Nordheim analysis, and are attributed to molecular scale oxide structures and adsorbates shifting the surface Fermi level. Electron transit time analysis indicates that on average only one electron crossed the gap at a time, implying that the space-charge effects are due to self-interactions.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings Of The 55th Annual Conference On Magnetism And Magnetic Materials, Atlanta, Georgia (14-18 November 2010):
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 07 May 2013, Vol.113(17)
    Description: Presented here is evidence that suggests induced superconductivity in topological insulator Bi 2 Te 3 occurring at its interface with indium (In) contacts. Thin Bi 2 Te 3 films of several thicknesses were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and were studied by magnetotransport measurements using In as contacts. Magnetotransport measurements at temperatures below the superconducting transition of In reveal an anomalous abrupt drop in resistance of the Bi 2 Te 3 samples suggesting the formation of a superconducting region at the In/Bi 2 Te 3 interface induced by the In contacts.
    Keywords: Proceedings Of The 12th Joint Mmm-Intermag Conference
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, Nov 2, 2010, Vol.107(44), p.19067(6)
    Description: From toddler to late teenager, the macroscopic pattern of axonal projections in the human brain remains largely unchanged while undergoing dramatic functional modifications that lead to network refinement. These functional modifications are mediated by increasing myelination and changes in axonal diameter and synaptic density, as well as changes in neurochemical mediators. Here we explore the contribution of white matter maturation to the development of connectivity between ages 2 and 18 y using high b-value diffusion MRI tractography and connectivity analysis. We measured changes in connection efficacy as the inverse of the average diffusivity along a fiber tract. We observed significant refinement in specific metrics of network topology, including a significant increase in node strength and efficiency along with a decrease in clustering. Major structural modules and hubs were in place by 2 y of age, and they continued to strengthen their profile during subsequent development. Recording resting-state functional MRI from a subset of subjects, we confirmed a positive correlation between structural and functional connectivity, and in addition observed that this relationship strengthened with age. Continuously increasing integration and decreasing segregation of structural connectivity with age suggests that network refinement mediated by white matter maturation promotes increased global efficiency. In addition, the strengthening of the correlation between structural and functional connectivity with age suggests that white matter connectivity in combination with other factors, such as differential modulation of axonal diameter and myelin thickness, that are partially captured by inverse average diffusivity, play an increasingly important role in creating brain-wide coherence and synchrony. connectome | development | graph | network dynamics | tractography doi/ 10.1073/pnas.1009073107
    Keywords: Brain -- Medical Examination ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging -- Methods ; Neurophysiology -- Research ; Neural Circuitry -- Research
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Psychological Reports, June 2013, Vol.112(3), pp.872-886
    Description: Even small group-mean differences (whether combined with variance differences or not) or variance differences alone (absent mean differences) can generate marked and sometimes surprising imbalances in the representation of the respective groups compared in the distributional tail regions. Such imbalances in group representation, quantified as tail ratios, have general importance in the context of any threshold, susceptibility, diathesis-stress, selection, or similar models (including the study of sex differences), as widely conceptualized and applied in the psychological, social, medical, and biological sciences. However, commonly used effect-size measures, such as Cohen's d, largely exploit data information around the center of distributions, rather than from the tails, thereby missing potentially important patterns found in the tail regions. This account reviews the background and history of tail ratios, emphasizes their importance for psychological research, proposes a consensus approach for defining and interpreting them, introduces a tail-ratio calculator, and outlines future research agenda.
    Keywords: Psychology
    ISSN: 0033-2941
    E-ISSN: 1558-691X
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