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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry, 15 October 2010, Vol.82(20), pp.8573-82
    Description: Metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may cause DNA adduct formation. While these are commonly detected by the ³²P-postlabeling assay, this method is not informative on the chemical nature of the alkylating agent. Here we report a simple and reliable method that employs MALDI-TOF-MS with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrix layer (ML) sample preparations for the detection and structural characterization of PAH-DNA adducts. The method involves the enzymatic digestion of DNA to 2'-deoxynucleotides followed by solid phase extraction to remove salt and other contaminants prior to MALDI-MS analysis. By collision induced dissociation (CID) structurally relevant fragments are obtained to permit characterization of the alkylating molecules and the adducted nucleotide. Next to guanosine, adenosine and cytidine adducts formed from reactions with (±)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (B[a]PDE) are identified at a sensitivity of 〈100 fmol and a mass accuracy of 〈10 ppm. Studies with (±)-anti-benzo[c]-chrysene-9,10-diol-11,12-epoxide (B[c]ChDE) further document the versatility and usefulness of the method. When compared with the ³²P-postlabeling assay MALDIMS only indentified deoxycytidine as well nucleoside and dinucleotides adducts. Therefore, this sensitive method enables molecular specification and characterization of adducted nucleotides and of the alkylating agent, and thus, provides comprehensive information that is beyond the ³²P-postlabeling assay.
    Keywords: Alkylating Agents -- Chemistry ; DNA -- Analysis ; DNA Adducts -- Analysis ; Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization -- Methods
    ISSN: 00032700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(2), p.e30432
    Description: More than 100,000 chemicals are in use but have not been tested for their safety. To overcome limitations in the cancer bioassay several alternative testing strategies are explored. The inability to monitor non-invasively onset and progression of disease limits, however, the value of current testing strategies. Here, we report the application of in vivo imaging to a c-Myc transgenic mouse model of liver cancer for the development of a short-term cancer bioassay. ; μCT and F-FDG μPET were used to detect and quantify tumor lesions after treatment with the genotoxic carcinogen NDEA, the tumor promoting agent BHT or the hepatotoxin paracetamol. Tumor growth was investigated between the ages of 4 to 8.5 months and contrast-enhanced μCT imaging detected liver lesions as well as metastatic spread with high sensitivity and accuracy as confirmed by histopathology. Significant differences in the onset of tumor growth, tumor load and glucose metabolism were observed when the NDEA treatment group was compared with any of the other treatment groups. NDEA treatment of c-Myc transgenic mice significantly accelerated tumor growth and caused metastatic spread of HCC in to lung but this treatment also induced primary lung cancer growth. In contrast, BHT and paracetamol did not promote hepatocarcinogenesis. ; The present study evidences the accuracy of imaging in defining tumor growth, tumor load, lesion number and metastatic spread. Consequently, the application of imaging techniques to transgenic animal models may possibly enable short-term cancer bioassays to significantly improve hazard identification and follow-up examinations of different organs by non-invasive methods.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine ; Oncology ; Gastroenterology And Hepatology ; Non-clinical Medicine ; Radiology And Medical Imaging
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(9), p.e44427
    Description: SPC-raf and SPC-myc transgenic mice develop disseminated and circumscribed lung adenocarcinoma respectively, allowing for assessment of carcinogenesis and treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the technical feasibility, the correlation of initial findings to histology and the administered radiation dose of combined micro-PET/micro-CT in these animal models. ; 14 C57BL/6 mice (4 nontransgenic, 4 SPC-raf transgenic, 6 SPC-myc transgenic) were examined using micro-CT and F-Fluoro-deoxyglucose micro-PET in-vivo. Micro-PET data was corrected for random events and scatter prior to reconstruction with a 3D-FORE/2D-OSEM iterative algorithm. Rigid micro-PET/micro-CT registration was performed. Tumour-to-non-tumour ratios were calculated for different lung regions and focal lesions. Diffuse tumour growth was quantified using a semiautomated micro-CT segmentation routine reported earlier. Regional histologic tumour load was assessed using a 4-point rating scale. Gamma radiation dose was determined using thermoluminescence dosimeters. ; Micro-CT allowed visualisation of diffuse and circumscribed tumours in SPC-raf and SPC-myc transgenic animals along with morphology, while micro-PET provided information on metabolism, but lacked morphologic detail. Mean tumour-to-non-tumour ratio was 2.47 for circumscribed lesions. No significant correlation could be shown between histological tumour load and tumour-to-nontumour ratio for diffuse tumours in SPC-raf transgenic animals. Calculation of the expected dose based on gamma dosimetry yielded approximately 140 mGy/micro-PET examination additional to approximately 200 mGy due to micro-CT. ; Combined micro-PET/micro-CT imaging allows for in-vivo assessment of lung tumours in SPC-raf and SPC-myc transgenic mice. The technique has potential for the evaluation of carcinogenesis and treatment strategies in circumscribed lung tumours.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Physics ; Veterinary Science ; Genetics And Genomics ; Oncology ; Physics ; Respiratory Medicine ; Radiology And Medical Imaging
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    In: Oncogene, 2005, Vol.24(11), p.1809
    Description: Epidermal growth factor is an important mitogen for hepatocytes. Its overexpression promotes hepatocellular carcinogenesis. To identify the network of genes regulated through EGF, we investigated the liver transcriptome during various stages of hepatocarcinogenesis in EGF2B transgenic mice. Targeted overexpression of IgEGF induced distinct hepatocellular lesions and eventually solid tumours at the age of 6-8 months, as evidenced by histopathology. We used the murine MG U74Av2 oligonucleotide microarrays to identify transcript signatures in 12 tumours of small (n = 5, pooled), medium (n = 4) and large sizes (n = 3), and compared the findings with three nontumorous transgenic livers and four control livers. Global gene expression analysis at successive stages of carcinogenesis revealed hallmarks linked to tumour size. A comparison of gene expression profiles of nontumorous transgenic liver versus control liver provided insight into the initial events predisposing liver cells to malignant transformation, and we found overexpression of c-fos, eps-15, TGIF, IGFBP1, Alcam, ets-2 and repression of Gas-1 as distinct events. Further, when gene expression profiles of small manifested tumours were compared with nontumorous transgenic liver, additional changes were obvious and included overexpression of junB, Id-1, minopontin, villin, claudin-7, RR M2, p34cdc2, cyclinD1 and cyclinB1 among others. These genes are therefore strongly associated with tumour formation. Our study provided new information on the tumour stage-dependent network of EGF-regulated genes, and we identified candidate genes linked to tumorigenes and progression of disease.
    Keywords: Gene Expression ; Epidermal Growth Factor ; Carcinogenesis ; Hepatocytes ; DNA Microarrays ; Oligonucleotides ; Junb Protein ; C-Fos Protein ; Transcription ; Transformation ; Transgenic Mice ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 1 ; EGF & EGF Receptor Family/Tgf Alpha /Her/Erbb-2 (Neu)/Erbb-3/Erbb-4/Amphiregulin;
    ISSN: 0950-9232
    E-ISSN: 14765594
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR, 20 February 2012, Vol.31, pp.15
    Description: SPC-c-Raf-1-BxB transgenic mice develop genetically induced disseminated lung adenocarcinoma allowing examination of carcinogenesis and evaluation of novel treatment strategies. We report on assessment of lung tumour growth kinetics using a semiautomated region growing segmentation algorithm. 156 non contrast-enhanced respiratory gated micro-CT of the lungs were obtained in 12 SPC-raf transgenic (n = 9) and normal (n = 3) mice at different time points. Region-growing segmentation of the aerated lung areas was obtained as an inverse surrogate for tumour burden. Time course of segmentation volumes was assessed to demonstrate the potential of the method for follow-up studies. Micro-CT allowed assessment of tumour growth kinetics and semiautomated region growing enabled quantitative analysis. Significant changes of the segmented lung volumes over time could be shown (p = 0.009). Significant group differences could be detected between transgenic and normal animals for time points 8 to 13 months (p = 0.043), when marked tumour progression occurred. The presented region-growing segmentation algorithm allows in-vivo quantification of multifocal lung adenocarcinoma in SPC-raf transgenic mice. This enables the assessment of tumour load and progress for the study of carcinogenesis and the evaluation of novel treatment strategies.
    Keywords: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Adenocarcinoma -- Genetics ; Lung Neoplasms -- Genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins C-Raf -- Genetics ; Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein C -- Genetics ; X-Ray Microtomography -- Methods
    E-ISSN: 1756-9966
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  • 6
    In: Nature, 1987, Vol.325(6103), p.458
    Description: Several human bacterial pathogens, including the Gram-negative diplococcus Neisseria gonorrhoeae, produce extracellular proteases that are specific for human immunoglobulin IgA1. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) proteases have been studied extensively and the genes of some species cloned in Escherichia coli, but their role in pathogenesis remains unclear. Recently we derived a DNA fragment of 5 kilobases (kb) from N. gonorrhoeae MS11 directing extracellular active enzyme in E. coli. Although the mature enzyme of strain MS11 was shown to have a relative molecular mass of 106,000 (Mr 106K) in gels, the DNA sequence of this cloned fragment reveals a single gene coding for a 169K precursor of IgA protease. The precursor contains three functional domains, the amino-terminal leader which is assumed to initiate the inner membrane transport of the precursor, the protease, and a carboxyl-terminal 'helper' domain apparently required for extracellular secretion (excretion). Based on the structural features of the precursor, we propose a model in which the helper serves as a pore for excretion of the protease domain through the outer membrane. IgA protease acquires an active conformation as its extracellular transport proceeds and is released as a proform from the membrane-bound helper by autoproteolysis. The soluble proform further matures into the 106 K IgA protease and a small stable alpha-protein.
    Keywords: Genes ; Genes, Bacterial ; Serine Endopeptidases ; Neisseria Gonorrhoeae -- Enzymology ; Peptide Hydrolases -- Genetics;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Respiratory Research, Dec 22, 2010, Vol.11, p.181
    Description: Background Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a novel tool for monitoring acute and chronic disease states in small laboratory animals. Its value for assessing progressive lung fibrosis in mice has not been reported so far. Here we examined the importance of in vivo micro-CT as non-invasive tool to assess progression of pulmonary fibrosis in mice over time. Methods Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in mice by intratracheal delivery of an adenoviral gene vector encoding biologically active TGF-#223;1 (AdTGF-#223;1). Respiratory gated and ungated micro-CT scans were performed at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post pulmonary adenoviral gene or control vector delivery, and were then correlated with respective histopathology-based Ashcroft scoring of pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Visual assessment of image quality and consolidation was performed by 3 observers and a semi-automated quantification algorithm was applied to quantify aerated pulmonary volume as an inverse surrogate marker for pulmonary fibrosis. Results We found a significant correlation between classical Ashcroft scoring and micro-CT assessment using both visual assessment and the semi-automated quantification algorithm. Pulmonary fibrosis could be clearly detected in micro-CT, image quality values were higher for respiratory gated exams, although differences were not significant. For assessment of fibrosis no significant difference between respiratory gated and ungated exams was observed. Conclusions Together, we show that micro-CT is a powerful tool to assess pulmonary fibrosis in mice, using both visual assessment and semi-automated quantification algorithms. These data may be important in view of pre-clinical pharmacologic interventions for the treatment of lung fibrosis in small laboratory animals.
    Keywords: Pulmonary Fibrosis ; House Mouse ; Tomography ; Algorithms ; Medical Research ; Respiratory System Agents ; Chronic Diseases
    ISSN: 1465-9921
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Respiratory Research, Dec 22, 2010, Vol.11, p.181
    Description: Background Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a novel tool for monitoring acute and chronic disease states in small laboratory animals. Its value for assessing progressive lung fibrosis in mice has not been reported so far. Here we examined the importance of in vivo micro-CT as non-invasive tool to assess progression of pulmonary fibrosis in mice over time. Methods Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in mice by intratracheal delivery of an adenoviral gene vector encoding biologically active TGF-#223;1 (AdTGF-#223;1). Respiratory gated and ungated micro-CT scans were performed at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post pulmonary adenoviral gene or control vector delivery, and were then correlated with respective histopathology-based Ashcroft scoring of pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Visual assessment of image quality and consolidation was performed by 3 observers and a semi-automated quantification algorithm was applied to quantify aerated pulmonary volume as an inverse surrogate marker for pulmonary fibrosis. Results We found a significant correlation between classical Ashcroft scoring and micro-CT assessment using both visual assessment and the semi-automated quantification algorithm. Pulmonary fibrosis could be clearly detected in micro-CT, image quality values were higher for respiratory gated exams, although differences were not significant. For assessment of fibrosis no significant difference between respiratory gated and ungated exams was observed. Conclusions Together, we show that micro-CT is a powerful tool to assess pulmonary fibrosis in mice, using both visual assessment and semi-automated quantification algorithms. These data may be important in view of pre-clinical pharmacologic interventions for the treatment of lung fibrosis in small laboratory animals.
    Keywords: Pulmonary Fibrosis ; House Mouse ; Tomography ; Algorithms ; Medical Research ; Respiratory System Agents ; Chronic Diseases
    ISSN: 1465-9921
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research, 01 February 2012, Vol.31(1), p.15
    Description: Abstract Background SPC-c-Raf-1-BxB transgenic mice develop genetically induced disseminated lung adenocarcinoma allowing examination of carcinogenesis and evaluation of novel treatment strategies. We report on assessment of lung tumour growth kinetics using a semiautomated region growing segmentation algorithm. Methods 156 non contrast-enhanced respiratory gated micro-CT of the lungs were obtained in 12 SPC-raf transgenic (n = 9) and normal (n = 3) mice at different time points. Region-growing segmentation of the aerated lung areas was obtained as an inverse surrogate for tumour burden. Time course of segmentation volumes was assessed to demonstrate the potential of the method for follow-up studies. Results Micro-CT allowed assessment of tumour growth kinetics and semiautomated region growing enabled quantitative analysis. Significant changes of the segmented lung volumes over time could be shown (p = 0.009). Significant group differences could be detected between transgenic and normal animals for time points 8 to 13 months (p = 0.043), when marked tumour progression occurred. Conclusion The presented region-growing segmentation algorithm allows in-vivo quantification of multifocal lung adenocarcinoma in SPC-raf transgenic mice. This enables the assessment of tumour load and progress for the study of carcinogenesis and the evaluation of novel treatment strategies.
    Keywords: Micro-CT ; Lung Tumour ; Transgenic Mouse Model ; Growth Kinetics ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1756-9966
    E-ISSN: 1756-9966
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, Vol.31 (2012), No.1, Art. 15, 7 pp.
    Description: Background: SPC-c-Raf-1-BxB transgenic mice develop genetically induced disseminated lung adenocarcinoma allowing examination of carcinogenesis and evaluation of novel treatment strategies. We report on assessment of lung tumour growth kinetics using a semiautomated region growing segmentation algorithm. Methods. 156 non contrast-enhanced respiratory gated micro-CT of the lungs were obtained in 12 SPC-raf transgenic (n = 9) and normal (n = 3) mice at different time points. Region-growing segmentation of the aerated lung areas was obtained as an inverse surrogate for tumour burden. Time course of segmentation volumes was assessed to demonstrate the potential of the method for follow-up studies. Results: Micro-CT allowed assessment of tumour growth kinetics and semiautomated region growing enabled quantitative analysis. Significant changes of the segmented lung volumes over time could be shown (p = 0.009). Significant group differences could be detected between transgenic and normal animals for time points 8 to 13 months (p = 0.043), when marked tumour progression occurred. Conclusion: The presented region-growing segmentation algorithm allows in-vivo quantification of multifocal lung adenocarcinoma in SPC-raf transgenic mice. This enables the assessment of tumour load and progress for the study of carcinogenesis and the evaluation of novel treatment strategies.
    Keywords: Micro-CT ; Transgenic Mouse Model ; Growth Kinetics ; Lung ; Tumor
    Source: Fraunhofer ePrints (Fraunhofer Gesellschaft)
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