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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Chemistry, 2012, Vol.9(5), p.462-473
    Description:  The size of soil colloids is – among other characteristics – crucial for the mobility of associated contaminants. We analysed the effect of liming on the size of colloids mobilised from strongly contaminated shooting-range soils using multi-stage tangential ultrafiltration (MTUF) for the size fractionation of dispersed soil colloids. Our results indicate the high analytical potential of MTUF and show that liming induces the aggregation of colloids, thereby decreasing the mobilisation of colloid-bound Sb and As, but increasing colloidal Pb.
    Keywords: cation effect; colloid; remediation.
    ISSN: 1448-2517
    E-ISSN: 1449-8979
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2011, Vol.43(9), pp.1798-1807
    Description: This study investigated the responses to Zn of selected enzymatic activities, potential nitrification and microbial activity in a soil contaminated with Zn at concentrations ranging from 74 to 3490 mg kg . The main aims of the study were to evaluate different models for EC estimation and to compare the relative sensitivity to Zn of the different biological properties studied. The EC for each property was calculated using three different models, namely a logistic dose response model, and a full and a partial inhibition model based on Michaelis–Menten kinetics. Both total ( extractable) and labile (CaCl extractable) Zn content were assessed and employed for application of the models. A response to increasing Zn concentrations was observed for most of the biological properties except for fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity (FDA) and acid phosphatase activity. Among the three models tested, the logistic model had the widest applicability and generally gave the best results in terms of EC estimation and fit. Among the two kinetics models tested, the partial inhibition model was applicable only in a few cases, but in these cases results are generally better than for the full inhibition model. The utilization of either total or labile Zn data did not significantly affect the outcomes of the models. The sensitivity of the biological properties to Zn was ranked according to the models as follows: nitrate reductase 〉 potential nitrification 〉 β-galactosidase 〉 dehydrogenase 〉 phenol oxidase = urease = arylsulphatase. These ranking results were generally in accordance with evidence provided by other researchers, thus showing that the relative sensitivity of these properties, especially the most sensitive ones, is generally constant among different soil types. The relevance of this finding for soil ecological risk assessment is discussed.
    Keywords: Zinc ; Biological Properties ; Enzyme Activities ; Ecological Doses ; Effective Concentrations ; Models ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biology and Fertility of Soils, 2012, Vol.48(8), pp.923-931
    Description: The present study was conducted to assess the possible restoration of different ecological functions in a Zn-contaminated soil. Experiments were conducted in a soil microcosm contaminated with 350 mg kg −1 of Zn and in an uncontaminated control microcosm, both incubated for 4 months. At regular intervals, potential nitrification, nitrate reductase, and β-galactosidase activity were determined. All these activities were significantly reduced just after Zn contamination in contaminated microcosms compared to the activities of the control, but then increased. In order to confirm that the restoration of ecological functions was not due to an aging phenomenon, a reinoculation protocol was also applied. A significant restoration was found for β-galactosidase activity, while for nitrate reductase activity and potential nitrification, there was a clear shift of dose–response curves but with partial overlap of the EC 50 ranges estimation, thus indicating that different ecological functions are restored over time in Zn-contaminated soils.
    Keywords: Nitrification ; Nitrate reductase ; β-Galactosidase ; Zinc ; Soil
    ISSN: 0178-2762
    E-ISSN: 1432-0789
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 01 January 2012, Vol.42(22), pp.2435-2470
    Description: The authors provide an updated and integrated view of the adaptation of soil microorganisms to elevated concentrations of trace elements. Starting with a summary of the occurrence of trace elements in soils and their effects on soil microorganisms,...
    Keywords: Contaminant ; Metal ; Metalloid ; Pict ; Pollutant ; Restoration ; Resilience ; Soil Function ; Species Evenness ; Species Richness ; Tolerance ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1064-3389
    E-ISSN: 1547-6537
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2007, Vol.290(1), pp.51-60
    Description: Thallium is an extremely toxic metal which, due to its similarities to K, is readily taken up by plants grown in Tl-contaminated soils. Thallium is also a precious metal nearly as economically valuable as gold. Thallium is efficiently hyperaccumulated in Iberis intermedia as aqueous Tl(I) with highest concentrations within the vascular network of leaves. In this study we examine the utility of synchrotron X-ray differential absorption-edge computed microtomography (CMT) in determining the distribution and compartmentalization of thallium (Tl) in Iberis intermedia . We found Tl to be distributed in solution throughout the vascular system of I. intermedia . Current laboratory experiments are examining the characteristics and potential recovery of Tl by I. intermedia with the objectives to remediate its toxic risks and to facilitate its reclamation for reuse. However, the recovery and reuse of Tl from I. intermedia by way of phytomining requires knowledge on the speciation, distribution and compartmentalization of thallium. CMT shows great promise for application in a wide variety of metal-related structural issues due to its high 3D resolution and being a non-destructive analysis tool.
    Keywords: computed microtomography (CMT) ; Iberis intermedia ; thallium hyperaccumulation ; synchrotron spectroscopy ; metal compartmentalization
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2007, Vol.294(1), pp.305-306
    Description: Byline: Kirk G. Scheckel (1), Rebecca Hamon (2), Laurence Jassongne (3), Mark Rivers (4), Enzo Lombi (2) Author Affiliation: (1) ORD, NRMRL, LRPCD, US EPA, 5995 Center Hill Avenue, Cincinnati, OH, 45224, USA (2) CSIRO Land and Water Adeladie Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia (3) School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, PMB1, PMB1, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia (4) GSECARS, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA Article History: Registration Date: 23/03/2007 Online Date: 24/04/2007 Article note: The online version of the original article can be found at http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-006-9102-7
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Botany;
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2006, Vol.143(3), pp.407-415
    Description: In this study isotopic dilution methods were used to investigate the hypothesis that access to metals associated with specific chemical components in the soil that are not available to non-accumulator species could be involved in hyperaccumulation. The hyperaccumulator and a non-accumulator species, , were grown in Cd and Zn enriched soil components calcite, goethite, charcoal and cryptomelane. The metal enriched components were aged to allow transformation of a proportion of added metals to non-labile forms. Results from the isotopic dilution value method showed that despite taking up more metals, accessed the same pool of metals as . Hence differential access to different solid-phase pools of metals appears to be an unlikely mechanism underlying metal hyperaccumulation. For all components except charcoal, values for Cd and Zn were greater than the corresponding values suggesting that values may tend to underestimate the bioavailable fraction of metals in soils. takes up more Cd and Zn than but from the same pools.
    Keywords: E Value ; L Value ; Thlaspi Caerulescens ; Brassica Napus ; Soil Components ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 8
    In: Journal of Experimental Botany, 2002, Vol.53(368), pp.535-543
    Description: Uptake of Cd and Zn by intact seedlings of two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens was characterized using radioactive tracers. Uptake of Cd and Zn at 2C was assumed to represent mainly apoplastic binding in the roots, whereas the difference in uptake between 22C and 2C represented metabolically dependent influx. There was no significant difference between the two ecotypes in the apoplastic binding of Cd or Zn. Metabolically dependent uptake of Cd was 4.5fold higher in the high Cdaccumulating ecotype, Ganges, than in the low Cdaccumulating ecotype, Prayon. By contrast, there was only a 1.5fold difference in the Zn uptake between the two ecotypes. For the Ganges ecotype, Cd uptake could be described by MichaelisMenten kinetics with a V max of 143nmolg 1 root FWh 1 and a K m of 0.45M. Uptake of Cd by the Ganges ecotype was not inhibited by La, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni or FeII, and neither by increasing the Ca concentration. By contrast, addition of La, Zn or Mn, or increasing the Ca concentration in the uptake solution decreased Cd uptake by Prayon. Uptake of Ca was larger in Prayon than in Ganges. The results suggest that Cd uptake by the low Cdaccumulating ecotype Prayon may be mediated partly via Ca channels or transporters for Zn and Mn. By contrast, there may exist a highly selective Cd transport system in the root cell membranes of the high Cdaccumulating ecotype Ganges of T. caerulescens .
    Keywords: Cd; Hyperaccumulation; ; Uptake; Zn.
    ISSN: 0022-0957
    Source: Oxford University Press
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 05/2010, Vol.10(2), pp.199-206
    Description: Geochemical analysis of soils using partial extractions, purported to detect only a fraction of elements mobilized during dispersion, represents a useful exploration tool. Interpretation of partial extraction data is, however, subject to uncertainty because the effects of changing soil or sediment properties on extraction are poorly defined. In particular, soil properties which are known to affect the retention of metal ions (e.g. clay content, organic carbon content, pH) may provide useful parameters against which to calculate adjusted total and partial assay values and thereby enhance anomaly contrast in geochemical exploration. Bulk cyanide leach (BCL), a commonly-used weak partial extraction technique, reduces the nugget effect for Au and can provide higher anomaly contrast than total elemental analyses. For a range of elements (Ag, Au, Cd, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pd and Zn), we conducted BCL determinations, measured the same elements by NAA, XRF or aqua regia digest, and determined a range of soil chemical properties for traverses at 10 exploration prospects in Australia and Namibia. Raw total and BCL data were compared with (i) concentration:soil parameter ratios, and (ii) adjusted BCL values based on a simple model of trace element speciation in soils. Anomaly contrasts for raw and normalized or adjusted data were compared using an estimate of anomalism based on both quantitative and heuristic criteria. At prospects with soils containing detectable carbonate, normalization of total and BCL assays to carbonate content significantly improved multi-element anomaly contrast. Normalization to amorphous Fe or Mn oxide content, or total Al, K or Mg also significantly improved anomaly contrast at fewer prospects. Adjusting BCL values using a simple adsorption model also showed limited success in improving anomaly contrast, and represents a useful framework for interpreting weak partial extraction data.
    Keywords: General Geochemistry ; Economic Geology, Geology Of Ore Deposits ; Adsorption ; Africa ; Australasia ; Australia ; Base Metals ; Bulk Cyanide Leach ; Chemical Composition ; Cyanides ; Geochemical Methods ; Geochemistry ; Leaching ; Metal Ores ; Metals ; Mineral Exploration ; Models ; Namibia ; Precious Metals ; Sequential Extraction ; Soil Surveys ; Southern Africa ; Spectra ; Surveys ; Trace Elements ; Trace Metals ; X-Ray Fluorescence Spectra;
    ISSN: 1467-7873
    E-ISSN: 2041-4943
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry, 01 October 2005, Vol.77(19), pp.6339-46
    Description: The performance of a mixed binding layer (MBL) for use in diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) was investigated. The MBL consisted of ferrihydrite and Chelex-100 cation-exchange resin combined together in a binding gel in an attempt to allow measurement of anions and cations in a single assay. Results from the MBL were compared to experiments performed using individual Chelex gels and ferrihydrite gels that have been shown to work successfully for DGT methodology. To facilitate combined analysis of P and cations by ICP-MS, HCl (1 M) was used for gel elution to minimize interferences from 14N16OH or 15N16O on 31P. All elements tested (Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, P, and Zn) were bound successfully to the MBL. An elution efficiency of 0.92 was obtained for all elements, apart from Mo (0.79). This is higher than the elution efficiencies obtained previously for pure Chelex or ferrihydrite gels using HNO3 (1 M) as the eluent. Uptake of cations by DGT using the MBL was consistent across the pH range 5-9, which compares well with results using pure Chelex. Below pH 5, accumulated masses were lower for Mn, Cu, and Zn. Uptake of P and Mo was unaffected by pH in the range 3-8, and the amount absorbed compared well with results obtained previously for pure ferrihydrite gels. Performance of the MBL at different ionic strengths (0.001, 0.01 M) was comparable to performance using the pure Chelex gel. DGT measurements obtained using the MBL on agricultural soils correlated well (r2 = 0.95) with separate measurements obtained using either pure Chelex or ferrihydrite binding layers. This suggests that the MBL could be used for simultaneous measurement of cationic and anionic element availability in soils.
    Keywords: Anions -- Chemistry ; Cations -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0003-2700
    E-ISSN: 15206882
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