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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2013, Vol.176(5), pp.680-687
    Description: In contrast to modern soil‐profile characterization, alternative soil classifications, such as the German soil‐quality assessment (), bear a lower degree of scientific quality. However, despite originally created to determine the tax value of arable land and grassland, its high spatial resolution and complete areal coverage makes soil‐quality assessment a valuable tool. To assess its performance in a mountainous setting soil‐layer data of 60 soil pits, recorded in Bavaria (SE Germany) in the course of the soil‐quality assessment, were translated into German soil‐science terminology using the translation program NIBIS®. With regard to soil type and texture the translation was checked using pinpoint field validation based on soil‐science terminology. 57% of soil types and 61% of texture were correctly translated by NIBIS®. To obtain information about probable parameters that can explain the different results readily available parameters such as elapsed time between soil‐quality assessment and validation, altitude, slope, aspect, horizon thickness, lower edge of horizon, as well as weathering surface and silicate‐weathering rate derived from geological maps were used. Differences in topsoil texture were somewhat related to petrographic parameters, those of the lower subsoil showed a weak dependence to topographic parameters. The NIBIS® translation overrated the silt content to the expense of sand. Clay was the best‐matched texture class. The shift towards silty texture classes was the dominant factor for the differences of texture‐related values of the available water capacity and hydraulic conductivity. Both parameters as derived from the NIBIS® translation on the one and from field validation on the other hand were used to evaluate the water‐retention capacity of individual soil profiles. Despite differing input data the soils' water‐retention capacity was rated identical. Thus, a certain degree of disagreement between the texture data obtained from NIBIS® translation and from field validation is tolerable, if the eventual soil‐function evaluation is based on wide classes of texture or of secondary parameters derived from texture.
    Keywords: Soil‐Quality Assessment ; Nibis® Translation Score ; Influencing Parameters ; Soil‐Function Assessment
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 August 2018, Vol.631-632, pp.822-828
    Description: Polychlorinated dibenzo- -dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDD/Fs) belong to the most toxic persistent organic environmental pollutants. Therefore, knowledge about their fate along the exposure path is of special concern. In order to comprehend the transfer of PCDD/Fs across different environmental compartments, PCDD/F concentrations in plants and in soil were evaluated. Pairs of soil and plant samples were selected according to the shortest distance between sampling points. At 15 sites PCDD/F concentrations in spruce needles and in forest humus layers where compared. Summer conditions were evaluated on the basis of 8 sites with ryegrass- and grassland topsoil samples. Autumn conditions were addressed using 7 sites with curly kale and topsoil samples under grassland. Correlation analyses of the PCDD/F congener profiles for plant- and soil samples were conducted. The correlations were compared to influencing site (e.g. local temperature) and spatial as well as temporal offset parameters. No governing parameter that decisively influenced the similarity between plant and soil signature became evident. By means of the toxicity factors of TEQ-WHO, tetra- and penta-PCDD/F homologues were assigned to the group of low-chlorinated homologues (lcH), and hexa-, hepta- and octa-PCDD/F homologues to the high-chlorinated homologues (hcH). lcH and hcH are presumed to differ in solubility, volatility and rate of degradation. The ratio of lcH/hcH revealed characteristic fingerprints that enabled the differentiation of the individual PCDD/F-plant and -soil pairs. Spruce-humus pairs showed a close relation during winter exposure times, while the lower summer concentrations were not reflected in the humus layer. Kale was exposed at the beginning of the season with elevated PCDD/F immissions, and showed a closer relation to grassland topsoil than did ryegrass. lcH/hcH proved as a simple criterion that can reveal related PCDD/F fingerprints of different environmental compartments despite signal attenuation due to decomposition, volatilization and particulate transport.
    Keywords: Congener Fingerprint ; Spruce ; Ryegrass ; Curly Kale ; Forest Humus Layer ; Grassland Topsoil ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    In: Global Change Biology, February 2014, Vol.20(2), pp.653-665
    Description: Sequestration of atmospheric carbon (C) in soils through improved management of forest and agricultural land is considered to have high potential for global mitigation. However, the potential of soils to sequester soil organic carbon () in a stable form, which is limited by the stabilization of against microbial mineralization, is largely unknown. In this study, we estimated the C sequestration potential of soils in southeast Germany by calculating the potential saturation of silt and clay particles according to Hassink [ (1997) 77] on the basis of 516 soil profiles. The determination of the current content of silt and clay fractions for major soil units and land uses allowed an estimation of the C saturation deficit corresponding to the long‐term C sequestration potential. The results showed that cropland soils have a low level of C saturation of around 50% and could store considerable amounts of additional . A relatively high C sequestration potential was also determined for grassland soils. In contrast, forest soils had a low C sequestration potential as they were almost C saturated. A high proportion of sites with a high degree of apparent oversaturation revealed that in acidic, coarse‐textured soils the relation to silt and clay is not suitable to estimate the stable C saturation. A strong correlation of the C saturation deficit with temperature and precipitation allowed a spatial estimation of the C sequestration potential for Bavaria. In total, about 395 Mt CO‐equivalents could theoretically be stored in A horizons of cultivated soils – four times the annual emission of greenhouse gases in Bavaria. Although achieving the entire estimated C storage capacity is unrealistic, improved management of cultivated land could contribute significantly to mitigation. Moreover, increasing stocks have additional benefits with respect to enhanced soil fertility and agricultural productivity.
    Keywords: Agricultural Management ; Climate Change ; Mitigation ; Soil Organic Carbon Stocks ; Soil Fractionation ; Stabilization Of Soil Organic Matter
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2010, Vol.212(1), pp.491-499
    Description: After elevated concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFO) were found in river and groundwater in the vicinity of a fluoropolymer manufacturing facility, numerous soils at adjacent sites were sampled in 2007. Within a 5-km northeast-oriented sector around a probable point source, 20 forest sites were investigated and compared to deposition and groundwater data. PFO concentrations up to 600 µg/kg were detected in the soils, and PFO concentrations typically decreased toward deeper soil depths. In mixed or deciduous forests, maximum concentrations of PFO occurred in the topsoil, pointing to the favorable decomposition and incorporation of deciduous litter. PFO concentrations of the organic layer over the 20 sampling sites were interpolated using ordinary kriging. Highest PFO content in the organic layer was located about 500 m away from the point source in the regional wind direction, decreasing asymptotically outwards. Long-term monitoring data pointed to an accumulation of PFO over time in the organic layer. The data suggest that PFO might be released in the course of litter decomposition and transported toward deeper soil regions only gradually. The soils’ PFO concentrations reflect the deposition data. The transport link toward groundwater is currently established in lysimeter studies.
    Keywords: Perfluorooctanoate ; Forest soil ; Emission range ; PFO concentration trend
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2016, Vol.227(5), pp.1-7
    Description: To approximate the measurement accuracy of laborious lab approaches, soil inventories using field portable XRF (pXRF) spectrometers should take distorting parameters into account. Besides soil moisture, the length of water-filled soil pores may also affect X-ray intensity. Following the Arya-Paris approach of soil pore bundles, soil pore lengths were calculated for 20 riparian soil samples based on effective pore diameters obtained at specified pressure heads of the water retention curve. When contrasted against pXRF signals of lead, zirconium, and potassium, soil pore length information showed an explanation comparable to soil moisture values. Presumably, the bases and walls of soil pores are successively exposed to the excitation source during dewatering. Though its laborious determination, soil pore length calculation is based on comparatively static parameters, which may circumvent adverse effects occurring at moisture determination at steel-ring samples, such as artificial macropores in the course of sampling and transport or shrinkage of porosity due to pressure application.
    Keywords: Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; Soil pore length ; Soil moisture content
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Pedosphere, June 2018, Vol.28(3), pp.443-450
    Description: Soil saturated hydraulic conductivity ( ) is a predominant input factor when forecasting the vertical transport of contaminants through the soil or when estimating the flood retention capacity of the soil. Displacement of contaminants in the soil over extended periods of time can be attributed mainly to matrix flow, whereas flow through macropores becomes significant under untypically wet conditions, during spills or rain storms. To obtain matrix conductivities for a soil, the effects of macropores should be excluded. However, the values of a soil profile are unlikely to be reflected solely by pedotransfer tables based on soil texture and bulk density. In this study, we examined five different methods (pedotransfer table, soil core, borehole permeameter, particle-size distribution curve, and instantaneous profile) to determine values for a mercury-contaminated riparian soil for subsequent simulation of long-term mercury displacement toward groundwater. We found that the determined values increased in the following order: borehole permeameter 〈 particle-size distribution curve 〈 pedotransfer table 〈 instantaneous profile 〈 soil core. The instantaneous profile method yielded values of matrix flow, which additionally reflected the structure-related features of values as provided by the soil core method. Despite being labor intensive and requiring expensive field sensors, the instantaneous profile method may provide the best representative values for the studied site.
    Keywords: Borehole Permeameter ; Contaminant Transport ; Gleysol ; Instantaneous Profile Method ; Particle-Size Distribution Curve ; Pedotransfer Table ; Soil Core ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 1002-0160
    E-ISSN: 2210-5107
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 May 2013, Vol.295, pp.162-172
    Description: ► SOC storage and its drivers of different forest types in Bavaria were investigated. ► No SOC differences were found between broadleaf, coniferous and mixed forests. ► Temperature and precipitation controlled total SOC storage in forests. ► No decrease of mineral SOC of broadleaf/mixed forests in regions with high temperatures. ► Incorporation of broadleaf species to prevent future SOC losses of coniferous forests. Temperate forest soils of central Europe are regarded as important pools for soil organic carbon (SOC) and thought to have a high potential for carbon (C) sequestration. However, comprehensive data on total SOC storage, particularly under different forest types, and its drivers is limited. In this study, we analyzed a forest data set of 596 completely sampled soil profiles down to the parent material or to a depth of 1 m within Bavaria in southeast Germany in order to determine representative SOC stocks under different forest types in central Europe and the impact of different environmental parameters. We calculated a total median SOC stock of 9.8 kg m which is considerably lower compared with many other inventories within central Europe that used modelled instead of measured soil properties. Statistical analyses revealed climate as controlling parameter for the storage of SOC with increasing stocks in cool, humid mountainous regions and a strong decrease in areas with higher temperatures. No significant differences of total SOC storage were found between broadleaf, coniferous and mixed forests. However, coniferous forests stored around 35% of total SOC in the labile organic layer that is prone to human disturbance, forest fires and rising temperatures. In contrast, mixed and broadleaf forests stored the major part of SOC in the mineral soil. Moreover, these two forest types showed unchanged or even slightly increased mineral SOC stocks with higher temperatures, whereas SOC stocks in mineral soils under coniferous forest were distinctly lower. We conclude that mixed and broadleaf forests are more advantageous for C sequestration than coniferous forests. An intensified incorporation of broadleaf species in extent coniferous forests of Bavaria would prevent substantial SOC losses as a result of rising temperatures in the course of climate change.
    Keywords: Tree Species Effect ; Soil Organic Matter ; Climate Change ; Forest Management ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Forest ecology and management, 2013, Vol.295, pp.162-172
    Description: Temperate forest soils of central Europe are regarded as important pools for soil organic carbon (SOC) and thought to have a high potential for carbon (C) sequestration. However, comprehensive data on total SOC storage, particularly under different forest types, and its drivers is limited. In this study, we analyzed a forest data set of 596 completely sampled soil profiles down to the parent material or to a depth of 1m within Bavaria in southeast Germany in order to determine representative SOC stocks under different forest types in central Europe and the impact of different environmental parameters. We calculated a total median SOC stock of 9.8kgm⁻² which is considerably lower compared with many other inventories within central Europe that used modelled instead of measured soil properties. Statistical analyses revealed climate as controlling parameter for the storage of SOC with increasing stocks in cool, humid mountainous regions and a strong decrease in areas with higher temperatures. No significant differences of total SOC storage were found between broadleaf, coniferous and mixed forests. However, coniferous forests stored around 35% of total SOC in the labile organic layer that is prone to human disturbance, forest fires and rising temperatures. In contrast, mixed and broadleaf forests stored the major part of SOC in the mineral soil. Moreover, these two forest types showed unchanged or even slightly increased mineral SOC stocks with higher temperatures, whereas SOC stocks in mineral soils under coniferous forest were distinctly lower. We conclude that mixed and broadleaf forests are more advantageous for C sequestration than coniferous forests. An intensified incorporation of broadleaf species in extent coniferous forests of Bavaria would prevent substantial SOC losses as a result of rising temperatures in the course of climate change. ; p. 162-172.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Coniferous Forests ; Parents ; Carbon Sequestration ; Soil Profiles ; Mineral Soils ; Environmental Impact ; Statistical Analysis ; Climate Change ; Temperature ; Temperate Soils ; Inventories ; Soil Properties ; Carbon ; Forest Fires ; Climate
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    In: Global Change Biology, July 2012, Vol.18(7), pp.2233-2245
    Description: Precise estimations of soil organic carbon () stocks are of decided importance for the detection of C sequestration or emission potential induced by land use changes. For Germany, a comprehensive, land use–specific data set has not yet been compiled. We evaluated a unique data set of 1460 soil profiles in southeast Germany in order to calculate representative stocks to a depth of 1 m for the main land use types. The results showed that grassland soils stored the highest amount of , with a median value of 11.8 kg m, whereas considerably lower stocks of 9.8 and 9.0 kg m were found for forest and cropland soils, respectively. However, the differences between extensively used land (grassland, forest) and cropland were much lower compared with results from other studies in central European countries. The depth distribution of showed that despite low concentrations in A horizons of cropland soils, their stocks were not considerably lower compared with other land uses. This was due to a deepening of the topsoil compared with grassland soils. Higher grassland stocks were caused by an accumulation of in the B horizon which was attributable to a high proportion of C‐rich Gleysols within grassland soils. This demonstrates the relevance of pedogenetic inventories instead of solely land use–based approaches. Our study indicated that cultivation‐induced depletion was probably often overestimated since most studies use fixed depth increments. Moreover, the application of modelled parameters in inventories is questioned because a calculation of stocks using different pedotransfer functions revealed considerably biased results. We recommend stocks be determined by horizon for the entire soil profile in order to estimate the impact of land use changes precisely and to evaluate C sequestration potentials more accurately.
    Keywords: Carbon Sequestration ; Land Use Change ; Pedotransfer Function ; Soil Organic Matter ; Topsoil Deepening
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2010, Vol.173(4), pp.517-524
    Description: The evaluation of the impact of additional soil pollutants has to be contrasted against the naturally occurring pollutant concentration, , the background concentration. Because background concentrations have to represent areal entities, point information has to be extrapolated into the area using interpolation methods. Thus, the accuracy of the interpolation method is crucial for the correct designation of background values to the areas. For the area of Bavaria (SE Germany), the actual background values of organic and inorganic soil pollutants were derived from 〉337,000 data from 5000 horizons based upon 1134 soil profiles. Background values were determined for the different soil depth compartments (O layer, topsoil, subsoil, and parent material) and land uses (agriculture, forestry). For interpolation between the nodes, Indicator Kriging was applied. The kriged total area was subdivided into 6 subareas of different background concentrations using percentile thresholds. To derive representative background concentrations, the reliable segregation of the total area into subareas and, thus, a robust interpolation method is a prerequisite. In this study, the robustness of the applied Indicator Kriging should be tested. Influences of data transformations and different kriging methods upon the demarcation of subareas should be investigated for the organic sum‐parameter EPA‐PAH. Neither a data transformation nor the comparison with Ordinary Kriging yielded significant deviations in the assigned subareas. Furthermore, cross‐validation as well as addition of synthetic noise was used to check the susceptibility of the method to artifacts and changes in the data set. After random splitting of the original data set into 4 subsets and re‐arrangement to 6 half‐sets, subsequent Indicator Kriging produced 6 results with mainly identical subarea configurations. Cross‐validation, , comparison of points from the kriging surface (validation data set) with the calibration data set, yielded considerable residuals between estimates and measurements. Based on these normally distributed residuals, random numbers with identical statistical moments were generated and used as measurement errors for another kriging run. This synthetic noise was added to the corresponding result based on the calibration half‐set. The resulting subareas changed only slightly for the most polluted region, but considerably for the other regions. The chosen interpolation method provides sufficient stability to demarcate the relevant areas with elevated pollution in Bavaria. For other areas, its stability is less clear. Here, additional soil samples are required.
    Keywords: Epa‐Pah ; Forest Organic Layer ; Bavaria ; Geostatistics ; Statistics ; Background Value
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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