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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 15 June 2011, Vol.203(12), pp.1859-65
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP contains a homolog of the CpxRA 2-component signal transduction system, which controls the cell envelope stress response system in other gram-negative bacteria and regulates some important H. ducreyi virulence factors. A H. ducreyi cpxR mutant was compared with its parent for virulence in the human challenge model of experimental chancroid. The pustule formation rate in 5 volunteers was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3%-65.3%) at 15 parent sites and 40% (95% CI, 18.1%-61.9%) at 15 mutant sites (P = .35). Thus, the cpxR mutant was not attenuated for virulence. Inactivation of the H. ducreyi cpxR gene did not reduce the ability of this mutant to express certain proven virulence factors, including the DsrA serum resistance protein and the LspA2 protein, which inhibits phagocytosis. These results expand our understanding of the involvement of the CpxRA system in regulating virulence expression in H. ducreyi.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Genetics ; Chancroid -- Microbiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2011, Vol. 193(11), p.2804
    Description: Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative obligate aerobe that is an important cause of human respiratory tract infections. The M. catarrhalis genome encodes a predicted truncated denitrification pathway that reduces nitrate to nitrous oxide. We have previously shown that expression of both the M. catarrhalis aniA (encoding a nitrite reductase) and norB (encoding a putative nitric oxide reductase) genes is repressed by the transcriptional regulator NsrR under aerobic conditions and that M. catarrhalis O35E nsrR mutants are unable to grow in the presence of low concentrations of nitrite (W. Wang, et al., J. Bacteriol. 190:7762-7772, 2008). In this study, we constructed an M. catarrhalis norB mutant and showed that planktonic growth of this mutant is inhibited by low levels of nitrite, whether or not an nsrR mutation is present. To determine the importance of NorB in this truncated denitrification pathway, we analyzed the metabolism of nitrogen oxides by norB, aniA norB, and nsrR norB mutants. We found that norB mutants are unable to reduce nitric oxide and produce little or no nitrous oxide from nitrite. Furthermore, nitric oxide produced from nitrite by the AniA protein is bactericidal for a Moraxella catarrhalis O35E norB mutant but not for wild-type O35E bacteria under aerobic growth conditions in vitro, suggesting that nitric oxide catabolism in M. catarrhalis is accomplished primarily by the norB gene product. Measurement of bacterial protein S-nitrosylation directly implicates nitrosative stress resulting from AniA-dependent nitric oxide formation as a cause of the growth inhibition of norB and nsrR mutants by nitrite. doi: 10.1128/JB.00139-11
    Keywords: Moraxella Catarrhalis -- Physiological Aspects ; Metabolic Conjugation -- Physiological Aspects ; Nitric Oxide -- Physiological Aspects;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2010, Vol. 78(11), p.4779
    Description: The Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP genome encodes a homolog of the CpxRA two-component cell envelope stress response system originally characterized in Escherichia coli. CpxR, the cytoplasmic response regulator, was shown previously to be involved in repression of the expression of the lspB-lspA2 operon (M. Labandeira-Rey, J. R. Mock, and E. J. Hansen, Infect. Immun. 77:3402-3411, 2009). In the present study, the H. ducreyi CpxR and CpxA proteins were shown to closely resemble those of other well-studied bacterial species. A cpxA deletion mutant and a CpxR-overexpressing strain were used to explore the extent of the CpxRA regulon. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR analyses indicated several potential regulatory targets for the H. ducreyi CpxRA two-component regulatory system. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) were used to prove that H. ducreyi CpxR interacted with the promoter regions of genes encoding both known and putative virulence factors of H. ducreyi, including the lspB-lspA2 operon, the flp operon, and dsrA. Interestingly, the use of EMSAs also indicated that H. ducreyi CpxR did not bind to the promoter regions of several genes predicted to encode factors involved in the cell envelope stress response. Taken together, these data suggest that the CpxRA system in H. ducreyi, in contrast to that in E. coli, may be involved primarily in controlling expression of genes not involved in the cell envelope stress response.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Signal Transduction ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Metabolism ; Protein Kinases -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2011, Vol. 79(2), p.745
    Description: Moraxella catarrhalis is subjected to oxidative stress from both internal and environmental sources. A previous study (C. D. Pericone, K. Overweg, P. W. Hermans, and J. N. Weiser, Infect. Immun. 68:3990-3997, 2000) indicated that a wild-type strain of M. catarrhalis was very resistant to killing by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The gene encoding OxyR, a LysR family transcriptional regulator, was identified and inactivated in M. catarrhalis strain O35E, resulting in an increase in sensitivity to killing by H2O2 in disk diffusion assays and a concomitant aerobic serial dilution effect. Genes encoding a predicted catalase (KatA) and an alkyl hydroperoxidase (AhpCF) showed dose-dependent upregulation in wild-type cells exposed to H2O2. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses identified M. catarrhalis genes whose expression was affected by oxidative stress in an OxyR-dependent manner. Testing of M. catarrhalis O35E katA and ahpC mutants for their abilities to scavenge exogenous H2O2 showed that the KatA catalase was responsible for most of this activity in the wild-type parent strain. The introduction of the same mutations into M. catarrhalis strain ETSU-4 showed that the growth of a ETSU-4 katA mutant was markedly inhibited by the addition of 50 mM H2O2 but that this mutant could still form a biofilm equivalent to that produced by its wild-type parent strain.
    Keywords: Oxidative Stress ; Hydrogen Peroxide ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Transcription ; Diffusion ; Biofilms ; Hydroperoxidase ; Mutation ; DNA Microarrays ; Catalase ; Moraxella Catarrhalis ; Microorganisms & Parasites ; Immunology ; Immunogenetics;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plasmid, March 2013, Vol.69(2), pp.180-185
    Description: ► First LacZ-based transcriptional reporter for use in . ► Responsive to signal inputs from host strain or environment. ► Has potential to be used in large-scale, blue/white screens. The lack of a transcriptional reporter system for use in has hindered studies of gene regulation in this pathogen. PCR and recombinant DNA methods were used to insert a multicloning site (MCS) and promoterless full-length gene, flanked by transcriptional terminators both immediately upstream and downstream, into the recombinant plasmid pWW115. Insertion into the MCS in the newly constructed plasmid pASE222 of promoter regions controlled by either a repressor (i.e., NsrR) or activator (i.e., PhoB) yielded transcriptional fusion constructs that were appropriately responsive to signal inputs dependent on the host strain genotype, as measured quantitatively by means of a Miller β-galactosidase assay. The transcriptional reporter plasmid pASE222 should prove to be a useful tool for rapid screening of factors affecting gene expression in .
    Keywords: Moraxella Catarrhalis ; Plasmid ; Transcriptional Reporter ; Biology
    ISSN: 0147-619X
    E-ISSN: 1095-9890
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, January 2015, Vol.83(1), pp.146-60
    Description: There are a paucity of data concerning gene products that could contribute to the ability of Moraxella catarrhalis to colonize the human nasopharynx. Inactivation of a gene (mesR) encoding a predicted response regulator of a two-component signal transduction system in M. catarrhalis yielded a mutant unable to grow in liquid media. This mesR mutant also exhibited increased sensitivity to certain stressors, including polymyxin B, SDS, and hydrogen peroxide. Inactivation of the gene (mesS) encoding the predicted cognate sensor (histidine) kinase yielded a mutant with the same inability to grow in liquid media as the mesR mutant. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses indicated that several genes previously shown to be involved in the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in the chinchilla nasopharynx were upregulated in the mesR mutant. Two other open reading frames upregulated in the mesR mutant were shown to encode small proteins (LipA and LipB) that had amino acid sequence homology to bacterial adhesins and structural homology to bacterial lysozyme inhibitors. Inactivation of both lipA and lipB did not affect the ability of M. catarrhalis O35E to attach to a human bronchial epithelial cell line in vitro. Purified recombinant LipA and LipB fusion proteins were each shown to inhibit human lysozyme activity in vitro and in saliva. A lipA lipB deletion mutant was more sensitive than the wild-type parent strain to killing by human lysozyme in the presence of human apolactoferrin. This is the first report of the production of lysozyme inhibitors by M. catarrhalis.
    Keywords: Signal Transduction ; Moraxella (Branhamella) Catarrhalis -- Growth & Development ; Muramidase -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Protein Kinases -- Metabolism ; Transcription Factors -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, November 2013, Vol.81(11), pp.4160-70
    Description: Expression of the lspB-lspA2 operon encoding a virulence-related two-partner secretion system in Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP is directly regulated by the CpxRA regulatory system (M. Labandeira-Rey, J. R. Mock, and E. J. Hansen, Infect. Immun. 77:3402-3411, 2009). In the present study, we show that this secretion system is also regulated by the small nucleoid-associated protein Fis. Inactivation of the H. ducreyi fis gene resulted in a reduction in expression of both the H. ducreyi LspB and LspA2 proteins. DNA microarray experiments showed that a H. ducreyi fis deletion mutant exhibited altered expression levels of genes encoding other important H. ducreyi virulence factors, including DsrA and Flp1, suggesting a possible global role for Fis in the control of virulence in this obligate human pathogen. While the H. ducreyi Fis protein has a high degree of sequence and structural similarity to the Fis proteins of other bacteria, its temporal pattern of expression was very different from that of enterobacterial Fis proteins. The use of a lacZ-based transcriptional reporter provided evidence which indicated that the H. ducreyi Fis homolog is a positive regulator of gyrB, a gene that is negatively regulated by Fis in enteric bacteria. Taken together, the Fis protein expression data and the observed regulatory effects of Fis in H. ducreyi suggest that this small DNA binding protein has a regulatory role in H. ducreyi which may differ in substantial ways from that of other Fis proteins.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Operon ; Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins -- Biosynthesis ; Bacterial Proteins -- Biosynthesis ; Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein -- Metabolism ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, October 2012, Vol.78(19), pp.6829-37
    Description: Mycobacterial shuttle vectors contain dual origins of replication for growth in both Escherichia coli and mycobacteria. One such vector, pSUM36, was re-engineered for high-level protein expression in diverse bacterial species. The modified vector (pSUM-kan-MCS2) enabled green fluorescent protein expression in E. coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and M. avium at levels up to 50-fold higher than that detected with the parental vector, which was originally developed with a lacZα promoter. This high-level fluorescent protein expression allowed easy visualization of M. smegmatis and M. avium in infected macrophages. The M. tuberculosis gene esat-6 was cloned in place of the green fluorescence protein gene (gfp) to determine the impact of ESAT-6 on the innate inflammatory response. The modified vector (pSUM-kan-MCS2) yielded high levels of ESAT-6 expression in M. smegmatis. The ability of ESAT-6 to suppress innate inflammatory pathways was assayed with a novel macrophage reporter cell line, designed with an interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter-driven GFP cassette. This stable cell line fluoresces in response to diverse mycobacterial strains and stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide. M. smegmatis clones expressing high levels of ESAT-6 failed to attenuate IL-6-driven GFP expression. Pure ESAT-6, produced in E. coli, was insufficient to suppress a strong inflammatory response elicited by M. smegmatis or lipopolysaccharide, with ESAT-6 itself directly activating the IL-6 pathway. In summary, a pSUM-protein expression vector and a mammalian IL-6 reporter cell line provide new tools for understanding the pathogenic mechanisms deployed by various mycobacterial species.
    Keywords: Gene Expression ; Genetic Vectors ; Genetics, Microbial -- Methods ; Macrophages -- Microbiology ; Molecular Biology -- Methods ; Mycobacterium -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, Nov, 2006, Vol.188(21-22), p.7840(13)
    Description: The UspA2 protein has been shown to be directly involved in the serum-resistant phenotype of Moraxella catarrhalis. The predicted 5'-untranslated regions (UTR) of the uspA2 genes in several different M. catarrhalis strains were shown to contain various numbers (i.e., 6 to 23) of a heteropolymeric tetranucleotide (AGAT) repeat. Deletion of the AGAT repeats from the uspA2 genes in the serum-resistant M. catarrhalis strains O35E and O12E resulted in a drastic reduction in UspA2 protein expression and serum resistance. PCR and transformation were used to construct a series of M. catarrhalis O12E strains that differed only in the number of AGAT repeats in their uspA2 genes. Expression of UspA2 was maximal in the presence of 18 AGAT repeats, although serum resistance attained wild-type levels in the presence of as few as nine AGAT repeats. Increased UspA2 expression was correlated with both increased binding of vitronectin and decreased binding of polymerized C9. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that changes in the number of AGAT repeats affected the levels of uspA2 mRNA, with 15 to 18 AGAT repeats yielding maximal levels. Primer extension analysis indicated that these AGAT repeats were contained in the 5'-UTR of the uspA2 gene. The mRNA transcribed from a uspA2 gene containing 18 AGAT repeats was found to have a longer half-life than that transcribed from a uspA2 gene lacking AGAT repeats. These data confirm that the presence of the AGAT repeats in the 5'-UTR of the uspA2 gene is necessary for both normal expression of the UspA2 protein and serum resistance.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Research ; Moraxella Catarrhalis -- Genetic Aspects ; Gene Expression -- Research ; Genetic Research
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2012, Vol. 80(3), p.982
    Description: Young adult chinchillas were atraumatically inoculated with Moraxella catarrhalis via the nasal route. Detailed histopathologic examination of nasopharyngeal tissues isolated from these M. catarrhalis-infected animals revealed the presence of significant inflammation within the epithelium. Absence of similar histopathologic findings in sham-inoculated animals confirmed that M. catarrhalis was exposed to significant host-derived factors in this environment. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, viable M. catarrhalis organisms were recovered from the nasal cavity and nasopharynx of the animals in numbers sufficient for DNA microarray analysis. More than 100 M. catarrhalis genes were upregulated in vivo, including open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins that are involved in a truncated denitrification pathway or in the oxidative stress response, as well as several putative transcriptional regulators. Additionally, 200 M. catarrhalis genes were found to be downregulated when this bacterium was introduced into the nasopharynx. These downregulated genes included ORFs encoding several well-characterized M. catarrhalis surface proteins including Hag, McaP, and MchA1. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was utilized as a stringent control to validate the results of in vivo gene expression patterns as measured by DNA microarray analysis. Inactivation of one of the genes (MC ORF 1550) that was upregulated in vivo resulted in a decrease in the ability of M. catarrhalis to survive in the chinchilla nasopharynx over a 3-day period. This is the first evaluation of global transcriptome expression by M. catarrhalis cells in vivo.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Moraxella (Branhamella) Catarrhalis -- Pathogenicity ; Moraxellaceae Infections -- Microbiology ; Nasopharynx -- Microbiology;
    ISSN: 1098-5522
    ISSN: 10985522
    ISSN: 00199567
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