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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, March 2013, Vol.66(3), pp.617-627
    Description: ► We provide the first exhaustive phylogeny of crocuses based on nuclear sequences. ► We reconstruct chromosome number evolution and polyploidization in . ► 8 out of 15 series of are monophyletic, as well as probably both sections. ► Chromosome numbers increased multiple times independently by polyploidization. ► Supernumerary B chromosomes evolved at least five times independently within consists of about 100 species distributed from western Europe and northern Africa to western China, with the center of diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in Asia Minor. Our study focuses on clarifying phylogenetic relationships and chromosome number evolution within the genus using sequences of the chloroplast L-F region, the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and a part of the nuclear single-copy gene . In a combined dataset of ITS and L-F sequences, 115 individuals representing 110 taxa from both subgenera and all sections and series of were analyzed with Bayesian phylogenetic inference. For 79 individuals representing 74 taxa were included, and for the majority of them PCR amplicons were cloned and up to eight clones per individual were sequenced to detect allopolyploidization events. species were included as outgroup in both analyses. Characteristics of seed surface structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS/ L-F data resulted in a monophyletic genus , probably monophyletic sections and , and inferred monophyly for eight of the 15 series of the genus. The aggregate, thought to be consisting of closely related subspecies, was found to be polyphyletic, the taxa occurring within three major clades in the phylogenetic tree. Cloning of resulted in the detection of homoeologous copies in about one third of the taxa of section , indicating an allotetraploid origin of this section. Reconstruction of chromosome number evolution along the phylogenetic tree using a probabilistic and a parsimony approach arrived at partly contradictory results. Both analyses agreed however on the occurrence of multiple polyploidization and dysploidy events. B chromosomes evolved at least five times independently within the genus, preferentially in clades characterized by karyotype changes.
    Keywords: B Chromosome ; Chromosome Number ; Crocus ; Evolution ; Internal Transcribed Spacer (Its) ; Pcosat103 ; Phylogeny ; Trnl-F ; Seed Testa ; Whole Genome Duplication ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(4)
    Description: Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull’s eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species–being entirely UV-absorbing–exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors’ contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocu s flowers is discussed.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biological Conservation, August 2017, Vol.212, pp.216-229
    Description: Responses of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) to climate change remain mostly unexplored. Here, for the first time, we investigate the impact of climate change on both presence/absence and abundances of hoverfly species. We used generalized linear models to analyse the relationships of climatic and soil variables with the occurrence and abundance of species on the Balkan Peninsula. Our results show that the ranges of all and the abundances of many species are projected to decrease in the future. Climatically suitable conditions for mountainous species are predicted to generally shift northwards. Species adapted to high mountains are projected to almost vanish from the Balkans and only regions of the Alps would remain suitable for them. We found climatic variables were more important in determining abundance than occurrence. Given that environmental factors differed in terms of their impact on abundance and occurrence, we highlight the importance of monitoring both parameters to ensure effective conservation. Considering the different projected responses of hoverflies to future climate change, as well as their value as pollinators and the increasing threats they currently face, knowledge on their responses to the major drivers of their life-histories is indispensable for proper management and conservation action. We reveal that nationally-designated protected areas are insufficient to conserve the species considered here, both currently and under projected climate change. We recommend implementation of an integrated conservation management plan that can provide a continuum of protected areas along the Dinaric mountain chain to facilitate movement of species to enhance species survival.
    Keywords: Abundance ; Climate Change ; Species Distribution Modeling ; Syrphids ; Pollinator Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0006-3207
    E-ISSN: 18732917
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, October 2018, Vol.127, pp.891-897
    Description: Phylogenetic relationships among the taxa of series are still unclear, preventing the understanding of species diversity and the evolution of the important spice saffron ( ). Therefore, we analyzed sequences of two chloroplast ( L- F, K- K) and three nuclear (TOPO6, ribosomal DNA ETS and ITS) marker regions to infer phylogenetic relationships among all species belonging to series . Our phylogenetic analyses resolved the relationships among all taxa of the series. and the former subspecies appeared polyphyletic. The latter deserve elevating the subspecies to species rank, while for a detailed study of species boundaries is necessary. Multi-locus and also genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data obtained through genotyping-by-sequencing placed within with no indication that other species contributed to the evolution of the triploid. Our analyses thus made an autotriploid origin of from very likely.
    Keywords: Crocus Series Crocus ; Evolution ; GBS ; Multi-Locus Analysis ; Phylogeny ; Saffron ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2006, Vol.41(3), pp.579-593
    Description: Molecular studies of 21 species of the large Cactaceae genus representing a variety of intrageneric taxonomic levels revealed a high degree of intra-individual polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2). Only a few of these ITS copies belong to apparently functional genes, whereas most are probably non-functional (pseudogenes). As a multiple gene family, the ITS region is subjected to concerted evolution. However, the high degree of intra-individual polymorphism of up to 36% in ITS1 and up to 35% in ITS2 suggests a non-concerted evolution of these loci in . Conserved angiosperm motifs of ITS1 and ITS2 were compared between genomic and cDNA ITS clones of . Some of these motifs (e.g., ITS1 motif 1, ‘TGGT’ within ITS2) in combination with the determination of GC-content, length comparisons of the spacers and ITS2 secondary structure (helices II and III) are helpful in the identification of pseudogene rDNA regions.
    Keywords: Internal Transcribed Spacer ; Non-Concerted Evolution ; Mammillaria ; Pseudogene ; Its Motifs ; Its2 Secondary Structure ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, June 2, 2017, Vol.12(6), p.e0178402
    Description: Cistanthe longiscapa is an endemic annual herb and characteristic element of the Chilean Atacama Desert. Principal threats are the destruction of its seed deposits by human activities and reduced germination rates due to the decreasing occurrence of precipitation events. To enable population genetic and phylogeographic analyses in this species we performed paired-end shotgun sequencing (2x100 bp) of genomic DNA on the Illumina HiSeq platform and identified microsatellite (SSR) loci in the resulting sequences. From 29 million quality-filtered read pairs we obtained 549,174 contigs (average length 614 bp; N50 = 904). Searching for SSRs revealed 10,336 loci with microsatellite motifs. Initially, we designed primers for 96 loci, which were tested for PCR amplification on three C. longiscapa individuals. Successfully amplifying loci were further tested on eight individuals to screen for length variation in the resulting amplicons, and the alleles were exemplarily sequenced to infer the basis for the observed length variation. Finally we arrived at 26 validated SSR loci for population studies in C. longiscapa, which resulted in 146 bi-allelic SSR markers in our test sample of eight individuals. The genomic sequences were also used to assemble the plastid genome of C. longiscapa, which provides an additional set of maternally inherited genetic markers.
    Keywords: Genomes -- Analysis ; Dna Sequencing -- Analysis ; Genetic Markers -- Analysis ; Genomics -- Analysis ; Dna -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, 2013, Vol.299(2), pp.413-438
    Description: The genus Gagea Salisb. is the largest amongst Liliaceae, including 50–300 species. This genus can be subdivided into at least 14 sections: among them, there is the species-rich, relatively late-branching monophyletic sect. Didymobulbos . Most of species and putative hybrids within this section were included in this study for a total of about 148 accessions (corresponding to 35 taxa), almost all collected across the Euro-Mediterranean area. Thirty-seven morpho-anatomical and ontogenetic characters were considered, together with the cpDNA ( trn L– trn F IGS, psb A– trn H IGS) and nrDNA (ITS region) molecular markers. Bayesian analysis revealed the phylogenetic relationships among Didymobulbos taxa, allowing us to demonstrate new circumscriptions of critical species complexes, such as those of G. chrysantha Schult. & Schult.f., G. dubia A. Terracc. and G. granatellii (Parl.) Parl. Also the prominent role played in this section by reticulate evolution is further highlighted: many taxa, often unexpectedly, are inferred to represent hybrids (31 % of investigated taxa). The division into series cannot be maintained as we found extensive molecular evidence of hybridization between them. A new taxonomic setting for Gagea sect. Didymobulbos is proposed, and five new species are described.
    Keywords: Gagea ; Liliaceae ; ITS ; Karyology ; Networks ; Phylogeny ; Taxonomy ; L–F IGS ; A–H IGS
    ISSN: 0378-2697
    E-ISSN: 1615-6110
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  • 8
    Language: German
    In: WSI-Mitteilungen : Zeitschrift des Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Instituts in der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, 2017, Vol.70(3), pp. 221-223
    ISSN: 0342300X
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 2011, Vol.11(5), pp.387-407
    Description: A new region of speciation for the genus Gagea (Liliaceae) was investigated (Bogda-Shan and Urumqi; northwestern Xinjiang, China). Two species were recorded as new for the region ( G. rufidula , G. davlianidzeae ); three species are described as new to science ( G. angelae, G. jensii and G. huochengensis ). The description of G. nigra is emendated. Sequence data (cpDNA: trn L- trn F IGS+ psb A- trn H IGS, nrDNA: ITS), including representatives of all Gagea sections, were used to compare the new species with closely related taxa. A nuclear single copy gene region (pCOS At 103) was analysed for representatives of the Sects. Minimae and Gagea . Network analysis of cpDNA and nDNA indicates hybridization and recent speciation in Xinjiang. ITS and pCOS At 103 sequences reveal gene flow between G. davlianidzeae and G. nigra . A cpDNA haplotype network constructed from representatives of Sect. Gagea was highly informative phylogenetically. Gagea angelae and G . huochengensis , sharing gene flow, are related closely to a basal clade represented by G. ancestralis , G. xiphoidea and G. capusii , which may include the putative progenitor of all other taxa of the large Eurasian Sect. Gagea . Whereas speciation in Sect. Minimae seems to be driven mainly by hybridization, speciation in the Sect. Gagea may be influenced by both hybridization and geographical separation. We confirm the monophyly of Sects. Bulbiferae and Minimae .
    Keywords: cpDNA ; Gagea ; hybridization ; ITS ; Liliales ; At ; speciation
    ISSN: 1439-6092
    E-ISSN: 1618-1077
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, 2015, Vol.301(1), pp.309-325
    Description: The taxonomically complicated Crocus series Verni is characterized by high intra- and interspecific variability of karyotypes (2 n  = 8–23). With the aim to get more insights into complex karyotype evolution and to clarify the taxonomy of this group, we combined morphological (twelve characters), molecular (chloroplast DNA: trn L– trn F, ndh F; nuclear DNA: ITS, pCOSAt103 ) and karyological analyses. Samples of different populations of C. etruscus , C. ilvensis , C. kosaninii , C. tommasinianus , C. vernus sensu lato and C. longiflorus (series Longiflori ) were analyzed. Quantitative karyotype parameters were calculated for all taxa involved based on the available literature. For the taxon traditionally known as C. vernus , the analyses suggest that it should be split in five species: C. heuffelianus , C. neapolitanus , C. neglectus sp. nov., C. siculus and C. vernus . The comparison of genome total haploid lengths suggests that in the evolution of the group polyploidization only played a role within the C. vernus species complex, where we also detected two hybridization events. In all other taxa, chromosome evolution is probably characterized by chromosome fusions and fissions, sometimes affecting the entire haploid chromosome set. Comparative cytogenetics of the group indicates that series Verni is subject to a peculiar type of unequal change in chromosome size, i.e., that not both chromosome arms gain or lose equally in DNA content. As a taxonomic consequence of our study, series Verni is newly circumscribed, now including the autumn-flowering C. longiflorus and excluding C. baytopiorum .
    Keywords: Crocus ; Karyotype evolution ; Molecular systematics ; Taxonomy
    ISSN: 0378-2697
    E-ISSN: 2199-6881
    E-ISSN: 16156110
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