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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 10 September 2013, Vol.110(37), pp.15019-24
    Description: Robust cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell response is important for immunity to intracellular pathogens. Here, we show that the transcription factor IFN Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) is crucial for the protective CD8(+) T-cell response to the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. IRF4-deficient (Irf4(-/-)) mice could not clear L. monocytogenes infection and generated decreased numbers of L. monocytogenes-specific CD8(+) T cells with impaired effector phenotype and function. Transfer of wild-type CD8(+) T cells into Irf4(-/-) mice improved bacterial clearance, suggesting an intrinsic defect of CD8(+) T cells in Irf4(-/-) mice. Following transfer into wild-type recipients, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells became activated and showed initial proliferation upon L. monocytogenes infection. However, these cells could not sustain proliferation, produced reduced amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and failed to acquire cytotoxic function. Forced IRF4 expression in Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells rescued the defect. During acute infection, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells demonstrated diminished expression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), inhibitor of DNA binding (Id)2, and T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), transcription factors programming effector-cell generation. IRF4 was essential for expression of Blimp-1, suggesting that altered regulation of Blimp-1 contributes to the defects of Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells. Despite increased levels of B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), Eomesodermin, and Id3, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells showed impaired memory-cell formation, indicating additional functions for IRF4 in this process. As IRF4 governs B-cell and CD4(+) T-cell differentiation, the identification of its decisive role in peripheral CD8(+) T-cell differentiation, suggests a common regulatory function for IRF4 in adaptive lymphocytes fate decision.
    Keywords: Interferon Regulatory Factors -- Immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(5)
    Description: The chemokine receptor CXCR6 is expressed on different T cell subsets and up-regulated following T cell activation. CXCR6 has been implicated in the localization of cells to the liver due to the constitutive expression of its ligand CXCL16 on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Here, we analyzed the role of CXCR6 in CD8 + T cell responses to infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes . CD8 + T cells responding to listerial antigens acquired high expression levels of CXCR6. However, deficiency of mice in CXCR6 did not impair control of the L. monocytogenes infection. CXCR6-deficient mice were able to generate listeria-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses and showed accumulation of T cells in the infected liver. In transfer assays, we detected reduced accumulation of listeria-specific CXCR6-deficient CD8 + T cells in the liver at early time points post infection. Though, CXCR6 was dispensable at later time points of the CD8 + T cell response. When transferred CD8 + T cells were followed for extended time periods, we observed a decline in CXCR6-deficient CD8 + T cells. The manifestation of this cell loss depended on the tissue analyzed. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CXCR6 is not required for the formation of a T cell response to L. monocytogenes and for the accumulation of T cells in the infected liver but CXCR6 appears to influence long-term survival and tissue distribution of activated cells.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, May 15, 2014, Vol.9(5)
    Description: The chemokine receptor CXCR6 is expressed on different T cell subsets and up-regulated following T cell activation. CXCR6 has been implicated in the localization of cells to the liver due to the constitutive expression of its ligand CXCL16 on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Here, we analyzed the role of CXCR6 in CD8.sup.+ T cell responses to infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes. CD8.sup.+ T cells responding to listerial antigens acquired high expression levels of CXCR6. However, deficiency of mice in CXCR6 did not impair control of the L. monocytogenes infection. CXCR6-deficient mice were able to generate listeria-specific CD4.sup.+ and CD8.sup.+ T cell responses and showed accumulation of T cells in the infected liver. In transfer assays, we detected reduced accumulation of listeria-specific CXCR6-deficient CD8.sup.+ T cells in the liver at early time points post infection. Though, CXCR6 was dispensable at later time points of the CD8.sup.+ T cell response. When transferred CD8.sup.+ T cells were followed for extended time periods, we observed a decline in CXCR6-deficient CD8.sup.+ T cells. The manifestation of this cell loss depended on the tissue analyzed. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CXCR6 is not required for the formation of a T cell response to L. monocytogenes and for the accumulation of T cells in the infected liver but CXCR6 appears to influence long-term survival and tissue distribution of activated cells.
    Keywords: T Cells – Health Aspects ; T Cells – Analysis ; B Cells – Health Aspects ; B Cells – Analysis ; Infection – Health Aspects ; Infection – Analysis ; Listeria – Health Aspects ; Listeria – Analysis
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, November 2013, Vol.81(11), pp.4091-9
    Description: CD38, adenosine-5'-diphosphate-ribosyl cyclase 1, is a multifunctional enzyme, expressed on a wide variety of cell types. CD38 has been assigned diverse functions, including generation of calcium-mobilizing metabolites, cell activation, and chemotaxis. Using a murine Listeria monocytogenes infection model, we found that CD38 knockout (KO) mice were highly susceptible to infection. Enhanced susceptibility was already evident within 3 days of infection, suggesting a function of CD38 in the innate immune response. CD38 was expressed on neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes, and especially inflammatory monocytes further upregulated CD38 during infection. Absence of CD38 caused alterations of the migration pattern of both cell types to sites of infection. We observed impaired accumulation of cells in the spleen but surprisingly similar or even higher accumulation of cells in the liver. CD38 KO and wild-type mice showed similar changes in the composition of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes in blood and bone marrow, indicating that mobilization of these cells from the bone marrow was CD38 independent. In vitro, macrophages of CD38 KO mice were less efficient in uptake of listeria but still able to kill the bacteria. Dendritic cells also displayed enhanced CD38 expression following infection. However, absence of CD38 did not impair the capacity of mice to prime CD8(+) T cells against L. monocytogenes, and CD38 KO mice could efficiently control secondary listeria infection. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an essential role for CD38 in the innate immune response against L. monocytogenes.
    Keywords: Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Immunity, Innate ; Adp-Ribosyl Cyclase 1 -- Immunology ; Listeria Monocytogenes -- Immunology ; Membrane Glycoproteins -- Immunology
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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