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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    Cham: Springer International Publishing
    Language: English
    Description: This book presents insights into the complex processes controlling sediment behavior in river basins and into state of the art integrated sediment management concepts. Main topics are: sediment transport, modelling sediment transfer in rivers, sediment quality, sediment monitoring and integrated sediment...
    Keywords: Environment ; Marine & Freshwater Sciences ; Ecology
    ISBN: 9783319146959
    ISBN: 3319146955
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2015, Vol.138, p.856(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.08.032 Byline: Sabine Schafer, Catherine Antoni, Christel Mohlenkamp, Evelyn Claus, Georg Reifferscheid, Peter Heininger, Philipp Mayer Abstract: Display Omitted Article History: Received 11 May 2015; Revised 4 August 2015; Accepted 7 August 2015
    Keywords: Polychlorinated Biphenyls ; Food Contamination ; Sediments (Geology)
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, May 2016, Vol.212, pp.401-412
    Description: Benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) are widely applied in plastics to prevent discoloration and to enhance product stability. This study describes for the first time the occurrence of nine different lipophilic BUVSs (UV-326, UV-320, UV-329, UV-350, UV-328, UV-327, UV-928, UV-234 and UV-360) in sediment, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bream liver samples of German rivers. All investigated BUVSs were detected in sediments and SPM at concentrations in the low ng/g dry weight (dw) range. The so far rarely analyzed compound UV-360 as well as UV-326 were the predominant BUVSs in sediments and SPM from the river Rhine reaching maximum concentrations of 62 and 44 ng/g dw, respectively. Five BUVSs were also confirmed to bioaccumulate in bream liver, but neither UV-360 nor UV-326 was detected above the limit of quantification (LOQ). In contrast, highest concentrations in bream liver were determined for UV-327 (65 ng/g dw) and UV-328 (40 ng/g dw). A retrospective time trend analysis of BUVSs in SPM from two sites (river Rhine, 2005 to 2013; river Saar, 2006 to 2013) revealed increasing contamination levels of UV-329 and decreasing levels of UV-320 and UV-350. At one site (river Rhine) time trends of BUVS concentrations were also investigated in bream liver (1995–2013) and supported a considerably reduced exposure to UV-350. A first assessment of the environmental fate of BUVSs by sediment-water batch systems revealed a rapid partitioning into the sediment and no considerable degradation within 100 d. This study describes for the first time the occurrence of nine benzotriazole UV filters in sediment, suspended particulate matter and bream liver samples of German rivers and provides new insights on expected future contamination levels and persistency by retrospective time trend monitoring and laboratory batch experiments.
    Keywords: Benzotriazole Uv Stabilizers ; Time Trend Monitoring ; Suspended Particulate Matter ; Bream Liver ; Biodegradation ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, November 2015, Vol.138, pp.856-862
    Description: Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations ( ) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment ( ) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven ‘indicator’ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along the River Elbe to measure of PCBs and their . For three sites, we then related to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations ( ) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1) In all cases, were below , (2) there was proportionality between the two parameters with high values (0.92–1.00) and (3) the slopes of the linear regressions were very similar between the three stations (0.297; 0.327; 0.390). These results confirm the close link between PCB bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose to apply equilibrium sampling for determining bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of HOCs, since this technique can provide a thermodynamic basis for the risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments.
    Keywords: Equilibrium Sampling ; Sediment ; Bioaccumulation ; Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Pcb) ; River Elbe ; Freely Dissolved Concentration (Cfree) ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(1), p.e0168926
    Description: Today, basic requirements for construction works include the protection of human health and of the environment. In the tension area between economic demands, circular flow economy and environmental safety, a link between the results from standardized...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2011, Vol.74(7), pp.1824-1831
    Description: This study examined an alternative test medium for nematodes that use gellan gum as the gelling agent instead of agar. The semi-fluid consistency of the gel-like component nematode growth gellan gum (CNGG) supports three-dimensional distribution of the nematodes and food bacteria, but still allows free movement of the former. Moreover, flexible preparation of the medium and easy recovery of the test organisms are possible. Here, the effects of the nematicides ivermectin (pharmaceutical) and aldicarb (pesticide) and of the metal cadmium on the growth and reproduction of the free-living nematodes and cf. were studied in CNGG media. Results were compared to those obtained with the standard liquid test media in order to evaluate the applicability of CNGG for nematode toxicity testing. The sensitivity of cf. to all three substances was found to be higher than that of , but both nematodes showed the highest sensitivity to ivermectin exposure. This raises concerns about the risk posed by the pharmaceutical to non-target nematodes. In contrast to ivermectin bioassays carried out in CNGG medium, those conducted in liquid medium resulted in wide-ranging variability between and within replicates. Thus, CNGG seems to be particularly valuable for testing hydrophobic substances with a high sorption affinity as it favors their sorption to food bacteria and minimizes contact with the surfaces of the test vessels. However, the medium was less suitable for deriving toxicity thresholds for cadmium and may likewise not be an appropriate choice for testing other metals. The medium introduced herein was shown to be appropriate for sublethal nematode toxicity testing and likely provides a convenient environment for testing other nematode species. Besides improved testing of hydrophobic substances, CNGG also offers advantages for long-term studies, such as full life-cycle experiments, in which fresh medium is regularly needed. Moreover it may be beneficial for testing other poorly soluble or insoluble substances, such as nanoparticles. ► An alternative medium for nematode toxicity testing was examined. ► The gel-like medium combines advantages of liquid and agar test media. ► It was particularly valuable for testing a hydrophobic substance. ► Sublethal toxicity testing of a non-standard test nematode was possible. ► Nematodes responded sensitively to the pharmaceutical ivermectin.
    Keywords: Nematodes ; Bioassay ; Toxicity Test ; Test Medium ; Hydrophobic ; Nematicide ; Ecology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    E-ISSN: 1090-2414
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology, Jan, 2013, Vol.22(1), p.148(8)
    Description: Byline: Marvin Brinke (1,2), Peter Heininger (2), Walter Traunspurger (1) Keywords: Nematodes; Ivermectin; Life history; Life-cycle traits; Population; Population growth rate Abstract: The pharmaceutical ivermectin is used to treat parasitic infections, such as those caused by nematodes. While several studies have demonstrated the severe effects of ivermectin on non-target organisms, little is known about the drug's impact on free-living nematodes. In the present work, a full life-cycle experiment was conducted to estimate how an ivermectin lowest observed effect concentration derived from a Caenorhabditis elegans bioassay (endpoint reproduction) might translate into effects at the population level of this free-living nematode. The results showed that fecundity decreased to levels similar to those determined in the bioassay after a time of corresponding duration (18.6 % inhibition compared to the control), but the impact then rather weakened until the end of the experiment, at which point the net reproductive rate (R.sub.0) was still, but not significantly, reduced by 12.4 %. Moreover, the average lifespan, length of the reproductive period, maximum daily reproduction rate, and intrinsic rate of increase (r.sub.m) were significantly reduced by 30.0, 25.9, 11.2, and 3.5 %, respectively. The experiment revealed that a 4-day bioassay is protective enough for C. elegans with respect to ivermectin's effects on fecundity. However, the pronounced effects of a low drug concentration on survival, a highly elastic trait, may better account for the observed population-level response, i.e., a decrease of r.sub.m, than the effects on fecundity. These results emphasize that full life-cycle experiments are valuable for assessment of pollutants, because the effects on several life-cycle traits can be simultaneously measured and integrated into an ecologically relevant parameter, the population growth rate, that reflects a population's response to a specific pollutant. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Animal Ecology, University of Bielefeld, Morgenbreede 45, 33615, Bielefeld, Germany (2) Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068, Koblenz, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 24/10/2012 Accepted Date: 23/10/2012 Online Date: 17/11/2012
    Keywords: Parasitic Diseases -- Analysis ; Caenorhabditis Elegans -- Analysis ; Hydrology -- Analysis ; Roundworms -- Analysis ; Ivermectin -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0963-9292
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2007, Vol.146(1), pp.64-76
    Description: Nematode communities of eight sites from three river catchments were investigated in terms of the genera composition, feeding types, and life-history strategists. The sampling sites showed a gradient of anthropogenic contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants being important factors in differentiating the sites. Nematode community structure was related to sediment pollution and the hydro-morphological structure of the sampling sites. Heavily contaminated sites were characterized by communities with high relative abundances of omnivorous and predacious nematodes ( , – 3; , – 4), while sites with low to medium contamination were dominated by bacterivorous nematodes ( , – 2) or suction feeders ( , – 4). The relatively high Maturity Index values in the heavily polluted sites were surprising. Nematodes turned out to be a suitable organism group for monitoring sediment quality, with generic composition being the most accurate indicator for assessing differences in nematode community structure. Nematode community structure of river sediments is related to pollution and site structure.
    Keywords: Nematode Community ; Generic Composition ; River Sediments ; Pollution ; Site Structure ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Trends in Analytical Chemistry, June, 2012, Vol.36, p.58(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2012.04.003 Byline: Birgit Schubert, Peter Heininger, Martin Keller, Evelyn Claus Keywords: Coastal zone; Contaminant; Environmental Quality Standard (EQS); Estuary; Monitoring; River; Sampling technique; Sediment; Suspended particulate matter (SPM); Water Framework Directive (WFD) Abstract: a* Suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments accumulate hydrophobic contaminants. a* The WFD requires trend monitoring of contaminants in sediments and/or biota. a* We compare the use of SPM and sediments for contaminant monitoring. a* Contaminant monitoring may be carried out for various purposes. a* The techniques described are applicable to rivers, estuaries and coastal systems. Author Affiliation: Federal Institute of Hydrology, Qualitative Hydrology, Am Mainzer Tor 1, Koblenz, 56068, Germany
    Keywords: Rivers ; Estuaries ; Sediments (Geology) ; Hydrology ; Water Resource Management
    ISSN: 0165-9936
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2018, Vol.25(3), pp.2879-2888
    Description: Multi-species toxicity tests were conducted using a broad range of freshwater nematode species to assess interspecific differences in sensitivity to chemical stress and to compare the toxicity to that on the standard test organism Caenorhabditis elegans . The lethal effects of nine different chemical treatments, including metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in single and mixture application, were determined for nematodes exposed for 48 h to spiked aqueous solutions. The investigated freshwater nematodes exhibited distinct differences in their sensitivity. Ranking of the susceptibility of 27 species to chemical stress showed that the effects were largely independent of the tested chemical compounds. Overall, the responses of C. elegans were well within the range of those of freshwater nematode species, being slightly less tolerant to metals, but more tolerant to PAHs than the average freshwater species response. Therefore, this study justified the use of C. elegans as representative model for freshwater nematode species in toxicity testing.
    Keywords: Acute toxicity ; Sediment ; Metals ; PAHs ; Chemical mixtures ; Multi-species
    ISSN: 0944-1344
    E-ISSN: 1614-7499
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