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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 February 2016, Vol.263, pp.8-15
    Description: The specific surface area (SSA) is a principal characteristic for the assessment of the sorption capacity of minerals. In addition to size, the accessibility of the surface area is of importance, which is primarily affected by porosity. In particular the micropore surface area of soil minerals may be inaccessible due to too small pore entrances or their clogging by organic material. In this study, SSA and micropore surface area of three minerals (Al oxide, Al hydroxide and kaolinite), acting as model materials for oxides, hydroxides and clay minerals, respectively, were measured by gas adsorption methods with both N at 77.35 K or CO at 273.15 K and the retention of the polar liquid ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME). Moreover, porosity was assessed by Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A NaY zeolite was used as microporous reference material. Xe NMR spectroscopy and the determination of SSA by physisorption of N (BET-N SSA) were performed after sample pretreatment at various outgassing temperatures because BET-N SSA and porosity are significantly affected by the outgassing temperature due to the loss of adsorbed water molecules. For all minerals investigated, the highest SSA was obtained by EGME retention. The gas adsorption methods exhibited differences in SSA and micropore surface area depending on the gas and pretreatment temperature. Thereby, increased pretreatment temperatures resulted in increased SSA and micropore surface area. Xe NMR spectra revealed that this increase in surface area was mainly ascribed to an increase in porosity. It appeared that the accessibility of surface area was limited by surface hydration. This implies that at environmental conditions, partly saturated pores will yield a reduced sorption capacity compared to the one that may be expected from SSA measurements. Consequently, porosity and hydration of the mineral surfaces have to be considered for an improved assessment of the sorption capacity of minerals and soils.
    Keywords: Bet Surface Area ; Dehydration ; Mesopore ; Nitrogen Adsorption ; Pore Size ; Xenon ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, Oct 1, 2012, Vol.435-436, p.1(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.07.010 Byline: Ana T. Lima, Lisbeth M. Ottosen, Katja Heister, J.P. Gustav Loch Keywords: Soil remediation; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Surfactant; Electro-osmosis; Electrodialysis Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent and toxic contaminants which are difficult to remove from fine porous material like clayey soils. The present work aims at studying two electroremediation techniques for the removal of PAHs from a spiked natural silt soil from Saudi Arabia and a silty loam soil from The Netherlands which has been exposed to tar contamination for over 100years. The two techniques at focus are electro-osmosis and electrodialysis. The latter is applied for the first time for the removal of PAH. The efficiency of the techniques is studied using these two soils, having been subjected to different PAH contact times. Two surfactants were used: the non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 and anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to aid desorption of PAHs from the soil. Results show a large discrepancy in the removal rates between spiked soil and long-term field contaminated soil, as expected. In spiked soil, electro-osmosis achieves up to 85% while electrodialysis accomplishes 68% PAH removal. In field contaminated soil, electro-osmosis results in 35% PAH removal whereas electrodialysis results in 79%. Short recommendations are derived for the up-scale of the two techniques. Article History: Received 3 April 2012; Revised 3 July 2012; Accepted 4 July 2012
    Keywords: Surface Active Agents ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Loams
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Dec, 2013, Vol.67, p.235(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.09.006 Byline: Geertje Johanna Pronk, Katja Heister, Ingrid Kogel-Knabner Abstract: Interactions between organic matter (OM), minerals and charcoal may play an important role in the development and stabilization of OM in soils. However, these interactions are difficult to characterize in natural soils, which are usually very complex systems with unknown initial conditions. We developed so-called 'artificial soils' with a texture and OM content similar to natural arable soils that were incubated up to 18 months. The aim was to determine the turnover and development of OM with incubation time, and to establish the effect of mineral composition and charcoal presence on organic carbon (OC) and N distribution and properties. Artificial soils were composed of quartz, manure as OM source and a microbial community extracted from a natural arable soil, with 8 different mixtures of montmorillonite, illite, ferrihydrite, boehmite and charcoal. We determined C and N particle size distribution with time and used solid-state.sup.13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and acid hydrolysis to determine the development of OM composition. The CO.sub.2 respiration rate and distribution of OC and N with particle size was similar for all artificial soil compositions. OC and N accumulated in the 〈20 [mu]m fraction over time and approximately 50% of coarse (〉200 [mu]m) particulate OM was lost after 18 months of incubation..sup.13C NMR spectroscopy indicated accumulation of protein-rich OC in the 〈20 [mu]m fraction, likely in the form of microbially produced substances. Acid hydrolysis showed a higher content of non-hydrolysable N in the mixtures containing clay minerals, indicating that some of the nitrogen present was strongly bound to phylosilicate surfaces. Ferrihydrite did not have any effect on non-hydrolysable N. From this, it can be concluded that in the artificial soils, clay minerals were more important than metal-oxides for the binding of nitrogen and OC. Overall, the artificial soils developed similarly to incubation experiments with natural soils, and were therefore a valuable model system where the effect of specific components on the development and turnover of soil OM could be determined under simplified conditions. Author Affiliation: (a) Lehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany (b) Institute of Advanced Study, Technische Universitat Munchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 2a, D-85748 Garching, Germany Article History: Received 10 May 2013; Revised 1 September 2013; Accepted 8 September 2013
    Keywords: Clay -- Analysis ; Montmorillonite -- Analysis ; Iron Oxides -- Analysis ; Hydrolysis -- Analysis ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, December 2013, Vol.67, pp.235-244
    Description: Interactions between organic matter (OM), minerals and charcoal may play an important role in the development and stabilization of OM in soils. However, these interactions are difficult to characterize in natural soils, which are usually very complex systems with unknown initial conditions. We developed so-called ‘artificial soils’ with a texture and OM content similar to natural arable soils that were incubated up to 18 months. The aim was to determine the turnover and development of OM with incubation time, and to establish the effect of mineral composition and charcoal presence on organic carbon (OC) and N distribution and properties. Artificial soils were composed of quartz, manure as OM source and a microbial community extracted from a natural arable soil, with 8 different mixtures of montmorillonite, illite, ferrihydrite, boehmite and charcoal. We determined C and N particle size distribution with time and used solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and acid hydrolysis to determine the development of OM composition. The CO respiration rate and distribution of OC and N with particle size was similar for all artificial soil compositions. OC and N accumulated in the 〈20 μm fraction over time and approximately 50% of coarse (〉200 μm) particulate OM was lost after 18 months of incubation. C NMR spectroscopy indicated accumulation of protein-rich OC in the 〈20 μm fraction, likely in the form of microbially produced substances. Acid hydrolysis showed a higher content of non-hydrolysable N in the mixtures containing clay minerals, indicating that some of the nitrogen present was strongly bound to phylosilicate surfaces. Ferrihydrite did not have any effect on non-hydrolysable N. From this, it can be concluded that in the artificial soils, clay minerals were more important than metal-oxides for the binding of nitrogen and OC. Overall, the artificial soils developed similarly to incubation experiments with natural soils, and were therefore a valuable model system where the effect of specific components on the development and turnover of soil OM could be determined under simplified conditions.
    Keywords: Clay Mineral ; Ferrihydrite ; Charcoal ; Acid Hydrolysis ; Organic Nitrogen ; Artificial Soil ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2013, Vol.67, pp.235-244
    Description: Interactions between organic matter (OM), minerals and charcoal may play an important role in the development and stabilization of OM in soils. However, these interactions are difficult to characterize in natural soils, which are usually very complex systems with unknown initial conditions. We developed so-called ‘artificial soils’ with a texture and OM content similar to natural arable soils that were incubated up to 18 months. The aim was to determine the turnover and development of OM with incubation time, and to establish the effect of mineral composition and charcoal presence on organic carbon (OC) and N distribution and properties. Artificial soils were composed of quartz, manure as OM source and a microbial community extracted from a natural arable soil, with 8 different mixtures of montmorillonite, illite, ferrihydrite, boehmite and charcoal. We determined C and N particle size distribution with time and used solid-state ¹³C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and acid hydrolysis to determine the development of OM composition. The CO₂ respiration rate and distribution of OC and N with particle size was similar for all artificial soil compositions. OC and N accumulated in the 200 μm) particulate OM was lost after 18 months of incubation. ¹³C NMR spectroscopy indicated accumulation of protein-rich OC in the 〈20 μm fraction, likely in the form of microbially produced substances. Acid hydrolysis showed a higher content of non-hydrolysable N in the mixtures containing clay minerals, indicating that some of the nitrogen present was strongly bound to phylosilicate surfaces. Ferrihydrite did not have any effect on non-hydrolysable N. From this, it can be concluded that in the artificial soils, clay minerals were more important than metal-oxides for the binding of nitrogen and OC. Overall, the artificial soils developed similarly to incubation experiments with natural soils, and were therefore a valuable model system where the effect of specific components on the development and turnover of soil OM could be determined under simplified conditions. ; p. 235-244.
    Keywords: Particle Size ; Charcoal ; Texture ; Illite ; Organic Matter ; Ferrihydrite ; Carbon Dioxide ; Mineral Content ; Nitrogen ; Acid Hydrolysis ; Microbial Communities ; Carbon ; Quartz ; Respiratory Rate ; Arable Soils ; Particle Size Distribution ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ; Montmorillonite
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, March 2014, Vol.216, pp.75-87
    Description: The specific surface area (SSA) of soils is a basic property and closely related to other physical and chemical properties like e.g. cation exchange capacity, clay content, organic matter content, porosity and hydrodynamic and geotechnical characteristics. Therefore, the SSA of soils has been measured frequently for decades. However, no universal method to determine SSA exists. The existing methods can generally be grouped into two categories, the adsorption of gases and the adsorption of polar liquids or molecules from solution. Depending on the method applied, the SSA of a soil can vary, as by these different methods, different surfaces of the soil are determined. The most frequently used representatives of these two groups for measuring SSA of soils are the physisorption of nitrogen gas at 77 K (BET-N ) for the gas adsorption methods, yielding the external surface area of the mineral particles, and the retention of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) for the adsorption of polar liquids, probing the total surface area including interlayers of clay minerals and micropores of organic material. Studies dealing with the determination of SSA of soils are numerous, and it has also been shown that the resulting SSA values differ not only depending on the method but also on the sorbate used and the sample pretreatment. This review shortly presents the principles of these methods and emphasises their limitations and difficulties, when applied to soil samples, like sample pretreatment, (micro-)porosity and attachment of organic material to mineral surfaces. In particular the drying of the samples prior to measurement seems to be crucial for the results obtained. Recommendations are given in order to improve the quality of the data and to facilitate the comparability of SSA data of different studies. It is shown for clayey soil samples that the relationship between BET-N and EGME SSA depends predominantly on the type of clay mineral and not on the content of organic material. Thus, from the SSA measurements, an estimation of the dominant clay mineral seems possible. Consequently, a suitable combination of various SSA determination methods together with related techniques can result in a more detailed characterisation of the reactive interface of a soil to the liquid and gaseous phases.
    Keywords: Adsorption Isotherm ; Internal Surface Area ; Clay Mineral ; Organic Matter ; Outgassing ; Sorption Capacity ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2012, Vol.12(1), pp.35-47
    Description: Byline: Katja Heister (1), Carmen Hoschen (1), Geertje J. Pronk (1), Carsten W. Mueller (1), Ingrid Kogel-Knabner (1) Keywords: Chemical composition imaging; Organomineral interactions; Secondary ion mass spectrometry; Submicron scale Abstract: Purpose Secondary ion mass spectrometry at the nanoscale (NanoSIMS) is a new and promising technique in soil science, as it allows us to explore the elemental and isotopic composition of a solid sample with high sensitivity at a submicron scale. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to differentiate the major components of soils by this technique. Materials and methods For this purpose, we employed samples from incubated mixtures of soil components of known composition (clay minerals, Fe oxide, organic material, and quartz), so-called artificial soils. Samples were prepared from particle size and density fractions of soils of various compositions and investigated with reflected light and electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy prior to NanoSIMS analysis. Results and discussion Our results show that we were able to show the submicron arrangement of the various components and to differentiate between charcoal and soil organic matter. Attachment of organic material to mineral surfaces was predominantly found to occur in patchy structures on the clay minerals, whereas only little sorption of homogeneously distributed organic material onto Fe oxides occurred. Although there are several reasons conceivable why we did not detect more sorption of organic matter to Fe oxides, it is likely that this is caused by the neutral pH of the soils, hampering sorption to the variable-charged surface sites of the Fe oxide. Conclusions Consequently, NanoSIMS enables the analysis of submicron processes in soil science-related research. However, the very heterogeneous matrix of soil particles leading to various ionization rates will make attempts for a quantitative analysis difficult, which is also due to a lack in the availability of suitable standards representing these complex matrices. Author Affiliation: (1) Lehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85350, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 19/05/2011 Received Date: 28/02/2011 Accepted Date: 18/05/2011 Online Date: 03/06/2011 Article note: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s11368-011-0386-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Chemical composition imaging ; Organomineral interactions ; Secondary ion mass spectrometry ; Submicron scale
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, June, 2013, Vol.13(6), p.1113(10)
    Description: Byline: Katja Heister (1), Sabine Pols (1,2,3), J. P. Gustav Loch (2), Tom N. P. Bosma (2) Keywords: Organic carbon--water partitioning coefficient; Organic matter characterisation; PAH; Sediment Abstract: Purpose The desorption behaviour of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludges from two sites of the port of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, which are designated to be stored in a subaqueous sludge depository, was investigated after a storage time of 14 years at 4 degC under anaerobic conditions in the dark, mimicking depository conditions. Such long-term storage is believed to effect the desorption of the PAHs. Materials and methods Batch desorption experiments over a time period of 130 days were performed with the brackish Beerkanaal (BK) sludge and the freshwater Beneden Merwede River (BMR) sludge. The organic carbon--water partitioning coefficient (K .sub.OC) values were calculated and compared to values of a previous study on the same sludges after a storage time of 3 years and to values obtained from calculations based on octanol--water partitioning coefficient (K .sub.OW) values. Additionally, the organic matter of the sludges was characterised by C and N elemental analysis and solid-state 13.sup.C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results and discussion Only desorption of low molecular weight PAHs up to pyrene was detected. Several K .sub.OC values were higher compared to the values from the previous study, and all were increased compared to values based on K .sub.OW values. It is assumed that the increase in K .sub.OC was an effect of the prolonged contact time, causing slow intradomain diffusion of PAHs into the condensed carbon domains. Desorption was higher in BK than in BMR, which is explained by differences in organic matter composition because BMR (containing predominantly aromatic carbon) and BK (which was dominated by lipids) contained the same amount of organic carbon. It is inferred that lipids compete with PAHs for sorption sites on the aromatic carbon, so that lipids block these sorption sites, and the PAHs are adsorbed to the lipids. Conclusions Since the amounts of PAHs desorbed from both sludges in this study were so low, it is supposed that long-term storage of these sludges in subaqueous depositories will likely result in increased sorption and thus a reduced release of these contaminants into the environment over time. Author Affiliation: (1) Lehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85350, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany (2) Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80021, 3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands (3) Provincie Noord-Holland, P.O. Box 3007, 2001 DA, Haarlem, The Netherlands Article History: Registration Date: 22/03/2013 Received Date: 11/06/2012 Accepted Date: 22/03/2013 Online Date: 12/04/2013 Article note: Responsible editor: Trudy J. Estes Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s11368-013-0689-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Lipids -- Analysis ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons -- Analysis ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 16147480
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 October 2012, Vol.435-436, pp.1-6
    Description: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent and toxic contaminants which are difficult to remove from fine porous material like clayey soils. The present work aims at studying two electroremediation techniques for the removal of PAHs from a spiked natural silt soil from Saudi Arabia and a silty loam soil from The Netherlands which has been exposed to tar contamination for over 100 years. The two techniques at focus are electro-osmosis and electrodialysis. The latter is applied for the first time for the removal of PAH. The efficiency of the techniques is studied using these two soils, having been subjected to different PAH contact times. Two surfactants were used: the non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 and anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to aid desorption of PAHs from the soil. Results show a large discrepancy in the removal rates between spiked soil and long-term field contaminated soil, as expected. In spiked soil, electro-osmosis achieves up to 85% while electrodialysis accomplishes 68% PAH removal. In field contaminated soil, electro-osmosis results in 35% PAH removal whereas electrodialysis results in 79%. Short recommendations are derived for the up-scale of the two techniques. ► PAHs are persistent and ubiquitous contaminants with difficult removal from clays. ► Electroremediation techniques (electro-osmosis and electrodialysis) may be a solution. ► Electrodialysis is used here for the first time to study the removal of PAH from soil. ► Removal efficiencies varied between 35 and 85%. ► Results show high discrepancies in PAH removal on spiked and field contaminated soils.
    Keywords: Soil Remediation ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Surfactant ; Electro-Osmosis ; Electrodialysis ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 10
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2010, Vol. 76(1), p.184
    Description: Microbial iron reduction is considered to be a significant subsurface process. The rate-limiting bioavailability of the insoluble iron oxyhydroxides, however, is a topic for debate. Surface area and mineral structure are recognized as crucial parameters for microbial reduction rates of bulk, macroaggregate iron minerals. However, a significant fraction of iron oxide minerals in the subsurface is supposed to be present as nanosized colloids. We therefore studied the role of colloidal iron oxides in microbial iron reduction. In batch growth experiments with Geobacter sulfurreducens, colloids of ferrihydrite (hydrodynamic diameter, 336 nm), hematite (123 nm), goethite (157 nm), and akaganeite (64 nm) were added as electron acceptors. The colloidal iron oxides were reduced up to 2 orders of magnitude more rapidly (up to 1,255 pmol h(-1) cell(-1)) than bulk macroaggregates of the same iron phases (6 to 70 pmol h(-1) cell(-1)). The increased reactivity was not only due to the large surface areas of the colloidal aggregates but also was due to a higher reactivity per unit surface. We hypothesize that this can be attributed to the high bioavailability of the nanosized aggregates and their colloidal suspension. Furthermore, a strong enhancement of reduction rates of bulk ferrihydrite was observed when nanosized ferrihydrite aggregates were added.
    Keywords: Colloids -- Metabolism ; Ferric Compounds -- Metabolism ; Geobacter -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 10985336
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