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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    Academic Press
    Language: English
    Description: Organic wastes are traditionally applied to land to recover their fertilizer value, but the microbial turnover of such organic matter in soil is often out of phase with the requirements of growing plants. Therefore, nutrients may be lost and may even act as potential pollutants of water and air, posing...
    Keywords: Nitrogen fertilizers;
    ISBN: 9780123234407
    E-ISSN: 97800809
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2011, Vol.83(11), pp.1475-1479
    Description: Photodegradation on dried loamy sand was measured for OTNE and triclosan, and the shading effect was proved to be important and related to soil properties. ► Photodegradation of chemical compounds on dried loamy sand surfaces was measured. ► Photodegradation was not restricted by diffusion in soil but by the shading effect of light. ► The shading effect was quantified from the concentration decrease profile. Fragrances such as OTNE (marketed as Iso-E-Super®) and bactericides such as triclosan (marketed as Igrasan) are present in waste water and thus finally sorbed to sewage sludge. With that sludge they can reach agricultural fields where they potentially can undergo photodegradation processes. In this study the photodegradation of OTNE and triclosan on dried loamy sand was measured under artificial sunlight conditions in laboratory experiments. These compounds were artificially added with concentrations of 1 μg g on pre-rinsed dried loamy sand. The decrease in concentration with light irradiation was measured for 32 d in comparison to soil samples without light irradiation. The estimated light source intensity was 27 W m . Within the experiment, the apparent half-life was 7 and 17 d for OTNE and triclosan respectively. The decrease did not simply follow first-order kinetics. The apparent rate constant decreased in the latter stage of reaction, suggesting that part of the chemicals were inaccessible for degradation. Two models, i.e., a diffusion-limited model, and a light penetration-limited model, were used in comparison to the measured data to explain the observed degradation limitations in the latter stages of the experiments. Comparing the hereby obtained model parameters with estimated physico-chemical parameters for the soil and the two chemical compounds, the light penetration-limited model, in which the degradation in the soil surface layer is assumed to be limited due to the shading effect of light in the upper thin soil layer, showed to be the most realistic in describing the photodegradation.
    Keywords: Otne ; Triclosan ; Soil ; Photodegradation ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 3
    In: Environmental Science & Technology, Sept 1, 1999, Vol.33(17), p.2891(8)
    Description: Researchers studied the sorption, transport, and aerobic biodegradation of quinoline from samples of unsaturated soil collected from selected sites in Denmark.
    Keywords: Quinolines -- Research ; Pollution Control Industry -- Research ; Chemical Industry -- Waste Management ; Pollution Control Research ; Creosote
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2001, Vol. 67(6), p.2489
    Description: Strong inhibitory effects of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on four strains of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are reported. Two Nitrosospira strains were considerably more sensitive to LAS than two Nitrosomonas strains were. Interestingly, the two Nitrosospira strains showed a weak capacity to remove LAS from the medium. This could not be attributed to adsorption or any other known physical or chemical process, suggesting that biodegradation of LAS took place. In each strain, the metabolic activity (50% effective concentration [EC(50)], 6 to 38 mg liter(-1)) was affected much less by LAS than the growth rate and viability (EC(50), 3 to 14 mg liter(-1)) were. However, at LAS levels that inhibited growth, metabolic activity took place only for 1 to 5 days, after which metabolic activity also ceased. The potential for adaptation to LAS exposure was investigated with Nitrosomonas europaea grown at a sublethal LAS level (10 mg liter(-1)); compared to control cells, preexposed cells showed severely affected cell functions (cessation of growth, loss of viability, and reduced NH(4)(+) oxidation activity), demonstrating that long-term incubation at sublethal LAS levels was also detrimental. Our data strongly suggest that AOB are more sensitive to LAS than most heterotrophic bacteria are, and we hypothesize that thermodynamic constraints make AOB more susceptible to surfactant-induced stress than heterotrophic bacteria are. We further suggest that AOB may comprise a sensitive indicator group which can be used to determine the impact of LAS on microbial communities.
    Keywords: Alkanesulfonic Acids -- Toxicity ; Betaproteobacteria -- Drug Effects ; Nitrosomonas -- Drug Effects ; Surface-Active Agents -- Toxicity;
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 10985336
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2012, Vol.11(1), p.0
    Description: Bench testing of petroleum biodegradation rates in vadose zone soils is typically associated with errors because transport conditions in laboratory systems are different from those found in the vadose zone. This work addressed the effect of soil structure and gas transport properties on hydrocarbon biodegradation in the unsaturated zone and we present a novel method for measuring biodegradation rates in intact and undisturbed soil columns of 100 cm (super 3) . To determine whether soil structure and gas diffusivity, defined as the ratio of the gas diffusion coefficient in soil to that in free air (D (sub p) /D (sub 0) ), influence the outcome of aerobic benzene biodegradation experiments, measurements using identical sandy soils were performed on (i) undisturbed 100-cm (super 3) core samples; (ii) sieved (2-mm) and repacked 100-cm (super 3) core samples; and (iii) soil samples (10 g) prepared as slurry microcosms. While slurry reactor experiments changed the first-order rate constant (k (sub w,1) ) significantly compared with undisturbed core samples, this was not the case for soil cores that had been sieved and repacked. This suggests that soil structure on a millimeter scale does not affect aerobic biodegradation in relatively unstructured sandy soils. Within differently textured soil cores, the biodegradation rate was found to increase with gas diffusivity when D (sub p) /D (sub 0) 〈0.02. This establishes gaseous O (sub 2) and petroleum vapor diffusion and distribution in soil profiles as a controlling factor for natural biodegradation of petroleum vapors.
    Keywords: Environmental Geology ; Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Bacteria ; Benzene ; Biodegradation ; Biota ; Btex ; Cores ; Denmark ; Diffusivity ; Ethylbenzene ; Europe ; Experimental Studies ; Gas Transport ; Gases ; Hjorring Denmark ; Hydrocarbons ; Jutland ; Laboratory Studies ; Moisture ; Morphology ; Nyborg Denmark ; Organic Compounds ; Petroleum Products ; Pollution ; Sampling ; Scandinavia ; Slurries ; Soils ; Toluene ; Transport ; Unsaturated Zone ; Western Europe ; Xylene;
    ISSN: Vadose Zone Journal
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 6
    In: Environmental Science & Technology, August 1, 1999, Vol.33(15), p.2601(6)
    Description: Researchers from the Aalborg University in Denmark conducted an experiment that showed that di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) degradation in sewage sludge and agricultural soils is biphasic and that certain amounts of DEHP may escape mineralization under in situ conditions.
    Keywords: Chemical Industry -- Research ; Phthalate Plasticizers -- Research
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 15205851
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  • 7
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, March, 1997, Vol.63(3), p.874(7)
    Description: Methane assimilation/oxidation by forest soil microorganisms and endogenous carbon turnover was measured by radiotracer techniques during changes in temperature, methane/ammonia concentration and soil structure. The capacity of bacterial growth on atmospheric methane does not occur in a microbial consortium. Furthermore, soil methane metabolism by methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria was affected by atmospheric methane concentration which is used as a true source of cell carbon by soil bacteria.
    Keywords: Microbial Metabolism -- Analysis ; Soil Microbiology -- Analysis ; Methanogens -- Physiological Aspects ; Microbiological Synthesis -- Physiological Aspects
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    E-ISSN: 10985336
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Vadose zone journal : VZJ, February 2010, Vol.9(1), pp.137-147
    Description: Naturally occurring biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the vadose zone depends on the physical soil environment influencing field-scale gas exchange and pore-scale microbial metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil physical heterogeneity on biodegradation of petroleum vapors in a 16-m-deep, layered vadose zone. Soil slurry experiments (soil/water ratio 10:30 w/w, 25°C) on benzene biodegradation under aerobic and well-mixed conditions indicated that the biodegradation potential in different textured soil samples was related to soil type rather than depth, in the order: sandy loam 〉 fine sand 〉 limestone. Similarly, O(2) consumption rates during in situ respiration tests performed at the site were higher in the sandy loam than in the fine sand, although the difference was less significant than in the slurries. Laboratory and field data generally agreed well and suggested a significant potential for aerobic biodegradation, even with nutrient-poor and deep subsurface conditions. In slurries of the sandy loam, the biodegradation potential declined with increasing in situ water saturation (i.e., decreasing air-filled porosity in the field). This showed a relation between antecedent undisturbed field conditions and the slurry biodegradation potential, and suggested airfilled porosity to be a key factor for the intrinsic biodegradation potential in the field.
    Keywords: Limestone ; Biodegradation ; Soil Physical Properties ; Sand ; Limestone Soils ; Petroleum ; Soil Heterogeneity ; Benzene ; Soil Respiration ; Sandy Soils ; Vadose Zone ; Soil Pollution ; Hydrocarbons ; Oxygen Consumption ; Sandy Loam Soils ; Petroleum Vapors;
    ISSN: 1539-1663
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  • 9
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Dec, 1998, Vol.64(12), p.4711(9)
    Description: A study was conducted to analyze the microbial degradation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the degradation intermediate phthalic acid found in agricultural soil supporting sewage sludge. 14C-labelled substrates and various isotope methods were utilized to determine the transformation of DEHP and phthalic acid. Results indicated that DEHP and phthalic acid can be changed to different intermediates at a rate that may surpass mineralization rates. Findings also showed the the bioavailability of substrates correlated with the enzymatic degradation of hydrophobic organic pollutants.
    Keywords: Phthalate Plasticizers -- Research ; Sewage Sludge -- Analysis ; Soil Research -- Research
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    E-ISSN: 10985336
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  • 10
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1998, Vol. 64(12), p.4711
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    ISSN: 00992240
    Source: American Society of Microbiology
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