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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: American journal of public health, March 2018, Vol.108(3), pp.318-320
    Description: Based on the content of the food per 100 grams, its underlying nutrient profiling system includes both unfavorable nutrients (i.e., energy, saturated fat, sugars, and sodium) and favorable elements (i.e., fiber, protein, and percentage of fruit, vegetables, legumes, and nuts) to yield a summary score, represented in a five-category color-coded scale. Products with higher nutritional quality are rated as A (dark green), and products with a lower nutritional quality are rated as E (dark orange).2 The underlying algorithm for the Nutri-Score was adapted from the 2005 Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system, and its graphical format was defined according to the available scientific literature on front-of-pack nutrition labeling.3 HEAVILY LOBBIED BY AGRO-INDUSTRY The selection of the NutriScore by the government in France followed a process in which every regulatory step was heavily lobbied by agro-industry, which used strategies that belong in the Big Tobacco playbook: shaping the evidence base, political and economic pressures, destabilizing scientific opponents, delaying the decision, and offering substitutions to the proposed policy.4 In France, indeed, nearly four years separate the first occurrence of the proposed label- in January 2014-and the actual signature of the decree for the Nutri-Score. BECOMING GLOBAL Similarities between Big Food and Big Tobacco lobbying strategies have been highlighted on numerous occasions,7 and examples of intense lobbying in the field of food taxation (particularly for the sugar-sweetened beverage industry) have shown the extent to which the food industry may fight back against public health policies.
    Keywords: Food Industry ; Global Health ; Health Policy ; Nutrition Policy ; Food Labeling -- Standards
    ISSN: 00900036
    E-ISSN: 1541-0048
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Preventive Medicine, December 2012, Vol.55(6), pp.544-545
    Description: Web surveys are able to access wide and diversified populations. Online self-administered data collection reduces logistical burden and costs. Web-based self-administered questionnaires provide high quality information. Web surveys are promising to understand relationship between nutrition and health. The web will also produce a new generation of tools for nutritional purposes. This article is part of a special forum offering a series of articles on preventive medicine brainstorming. [Copyright Elsevier B.V.]
    Keywords: Web Based Studies ; Nutritional Epidemiology ; Chronic Diseases ; Dietary Intake ; Data Quality ; Medicine ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0091-7435
    E-ISSN: 1096-0260
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, June 2013, Vol.97(6), pp.1307-13
    Description: Unlike other psychological correlates of weight status, emotional eating (EmE) has received relatively limited attention in the literature. We aimed to examine the association between the EmE score and weight status and the influence of sex and dieting on this association. A total of 8580 men and 27,061 women aged ≥18 y who participated in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. Self-reported weight and height, EmE scores of the revised 21-item version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and dieting status data were collected. The relation between EmE and weight status was estimated by using multiple linear and logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Interactions of EmE with sex and dieting history were assessed. Median EmE scores were greater in women than in men and in former or current dieters than in subjects without a history of dieting. Strong associations appeared between the EmE score and weight status in most categories of sex × dieting status. The strongest associations between EmE and weight status were observed in women, particularly in never dieters [body mass index slope (95% CI): 2.61 (2.43, 2.78); overweight OR (95% CI): 5.06 (4.24, 6.05)]. These observations support the existence of an association between EmE and weight status. The effect modification of sex and dieting on the EmE score and on the association of the EmE score with weight status should be taken into account in obesity prevention.
    Keywords: Body Weight ; Emotions -- Physiology ; Feeding Behavior -- Psychology ; Obesity -- Prevention & Control
    ISSN: 00029165
    E-ISSN: 1938-3207
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Archives of internal medicine, 09 April 2012, Vol.172(7), pp.540-7
    Description: To advance knowledge about the cancer-chemopreventive potential of individual nutrients, we investigated the effects of B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplements on cancer outcomes among survivors of cardiovascular disease. This was an ancillary study of the Supplementation With Folate, Vitamins B(6) and B(12) and/or Omega-3 Fatty Acids (SU.FOL.OM3) secondary prevention trial (2003-2009). In all, 2501 individuals aged 45 to 80 years were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of the following 4 daily supplementation groups: (1) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (0.56 mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B(6); 3 mg) and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12); 0.02 mg); (2) eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (600 mg) in a 2:1 ratio; (3) B vitamins and ω-3 fatty acids; or (4) placebo. Overall and sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs regarding the cancer outcomes were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models. After 5 years of supplementation, incident cancer was validated in 7.0% of the sample (145 events in men and 29 in women), and death from cancer occurred in 2.3% of the sample. There was no association between cancer outcomes and supplementation with B vitamins (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.85-1.55]) and/or ω-3 fatty acids (HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.87-1.58]). There was a statistically significant interaction of treatment by sex, with no effect of treatment on cancer risk among men and increased cancer risk among women for ω-3 fatty acid supplementation (HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 1.33-6.89]). We found no beneficial effects of supplementation with relatively low doses of B vitamins and/or ω-3 fatty acids on cancer outcomes in individuals with prior cardiovascular disease. Trial Registration  isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN41926726.
    Keywords: Dietary Supplements ; Anticarcinogenic Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 -- Therapeutic Use ; Folic Acid -- Therapeutic Use ; Neoplasms -- Epidemiology ; Secondary Prevention -- Methods ; Vitamin B 12 -- Therapeutic Use ; Vitamin B 6 -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 00039926
    E-ISSN: 1538-3679
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  • 5
    In: Age and Ageing, 2015, Vol. 44(4), pp.648-654
    Description: Background: longitudinal data as regards the link between the cumulative effect of cardiometabolic disorders and cognition are relatively scant and heterogeneous. Objective: we examined the cross-time associations of MetS status with cognitive performance in ageing adults. Design and methods: using data from the French SU.VI.MAX cohort, we studied 2,788 adults. The presence of abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and elevated blood pressure was clinically evaluated in 1994–96. Cognitive performance was assessed after a mean of 13 years via a battery of six validated instruments. The standardised individual test scores were summed up to provide a composite cognitive performance measure; principal component analysis was performed to define performance scores on verbal memory and executive functioning. Associations between MetS and subsequent cognitive performance were examined via ANCOVA, providing estimates of mean difference and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: MetS status at midlife was not associated with subsequent cognitive function. However, a 1-unit increase in the number of cardiometabolic disorders present was associated with a decrease in the composite cognitive score (mean difference = −0.36; 95% CI: −0.68, −0.05). Significant associations were also found with several cardiometabolic disorders (hyperglycaemia, central obesity and dyslipidaemia) and specific cognitive domains. Conclusion: this study supports the existence of a cross-time, cumulative effect of cardiometabolic disorders present at midlife and subsequent cognitive performance. Given the worldwide population ageing and the increase in MetS prevalence, there is an urgent need for recommendations as regards cognitive ageing.
    Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome ; Cardiometabolic Disorders ; Memory ; Executive Function ; Glycaemia ; Cognition ; Prospective Cohort ; Older People
    ISSN: 0002-0729
    E-ISSN: 1468-2834
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Pediatrics, June 2014, Vol.164(6), pp.1363-1368
    Description: To examine the association between breastfeeding and adult body fatness, adjusting for nutritional intake in early childhood. Nutritional intakes of 73 healthy infants born in 1984 who participated in the 2-decade-long Longitudinal Study of Nutrition and Growth in Children (Etude Longitudinale Alimentation Nutrition Croissance des Enfants [ELANCE]) were estimated at age 10 months and again at age 2 years. Breastfeeding was defined as any breastfeeding, including partial breastfeeding, regardless of duration. At age 20 years, weight, height, subscapular skinfold thickness (SF), and fat mass (assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured. In this sample, 64% of the children had been breastfed. In linear regression models adjusted for mother's body mass index and father's profession, breastfeeding was not associated with any of the body fat measurements at 20 years (all 〉 .05). After adding nutritional intake variables (total energy and % energy from nutrients) to the models, breastfeeding became significantly associated with lower SF at 20 years. In particular, breastfed subjects had significantly lower % SF at 20 years after adjustment for energy and % fat intakes at 2 years of age, (β = −28.25% SF; 95% CI, −50.28% to −6.21%; = .013) or when adjusting for energy and % carbohydrates at 2 years of age (β = −28.27% SF; 95% CI, −50.64% to −5.90%; = .014). Breastfeeding was not associated with adult body fatness taking into account the usual confounding factors. However, after also adjusting for nutritional intake covariates, a protective effect of breastfeeding emerged. Early nutrition needs to be taken into account when examining the long-term health effects of breastfeeding.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-3476
    E-ISSN: 1097-6833
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  • 7
    In: British Journal of Nutrition, 2011, Vol.105(5), pp.776-786
    Description: Few studies have specifically focused on characteristics associated with consumption of combined fatty-salted and fatty-sweetened foods, whereas their identification could be useful for defining effective public health measures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and health characteristics and consumption of these types of food in a general sample of French adults. Dietary intake was assessed using a minimum of six 24 h dietary records collected over a 2-year period in 6240 subjects aged 35–60 years who participated in the Supplémentation en VItamines Minéraux et AntioXydants cohort study. Associations of individual characteristics with high and intermediate consumption of fatty-sweetened and fatty-salted foods were assessed using multivariate polytomic logistic regression models. Risk of moderate or high consumption of fatty-salted foods decreased with increasing age. Current smokers, drinkers, individuals with overweight and with hypertension were more likely to consume moderate or high amounts of such foods. Risk of moderate or high consumption of fatty-sweetened foods decreased with increasing age. Women, individuals living as a couple, moderate drinkers and persons with low or medium physical activity level were more likely to consume moderate or high amounts of such foods. Lower educated subjects, current smokers, heavy drinkers and individuals with severe hypertriacylglycerolaemia were less likely to have moderate or high consumption. Consumption of fatty-sweetened and fatty-salted foods varied according to demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics. Common unhealthy behaviours such as smoking, low physical activity and alcohol drinking, associated with high consumption of these food groups, may help to effectively target public health efforts.
    Keywords: Dietary Surveys And Nutritional Epidemiology; Fatty-sweetened Foods; Fatty-salted Foods; Lifestyle; Socio-economic Factors; Demographic Factors
    ISSN: 0007-1145
    E-ISSN: 1475-2662
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(5), p.e97834
    Description: BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of obesity and the social pressure for thinness increase the prevalence of dieting. However, little is known about the overall perception of dieting strategies actually used by the general population. OBJECTIVES: Our main objective was to investigate perceptions of weight-loss practices in an observational study in order to identify the most favourable strategy. DESIGN: Adults from the ongoing Nutrinet-Santé cohort study who had reported engaging in dieting in the three previous years were included in the study. For each diet, detailed information was collected on types of diets, circumstances and perception of the diet, and outcomes. Perceptions were compared across diets using sex-specific mixed effects models. RESULT: Among the 48 435 subjects who had completed the respective questionnaire, 12 673 (26.7%, 87.8% of women) had followed at least one weight-loss diet in the previous three years. Diet plans prescribed by health professionals and diets conforming to official dietary recommendations were the most favourably perceived among all assessed weight-loss strategies. Alternatively, commercial diet plans and self-imposed dietary restrictions were more negatively perceived (Odds ratios (OR) for adherence difficulty 1.30 (95% confidence interval (0.99;1.7)) in men and OR 1.92 (1.76;2.10) in women compared to official nutritional guidelines; OR 1.06 (0.82;1.38) in men and OR 1.39 (1.26;1.54) in women respectively) compared to official nutritional guidelines. CONCLUSION: Official dietary recommendations could be useful tools for maintaining a dietary balance while following a weight-loss diet.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2015, Vol.10(5), pp.e0119970
    Description: The direction of the association between mental health and adiposity is poorly understood. Our objective was to empirically examine this link in a UK study. This is a prospective cohort study of 3 388 people (men) aged ≥ 18 years at study induction who participated in both the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey at baseline (HALS-1, 1984/1985) and the re-survey (HALS-2, 1991/1992). At both survey examinations, body mass index, waist circumference and self-reported common mental disorder (the 30-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ) were measured. Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (OR) and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between (1) baseline common mental disorder (QHQ score 〉 4) and subsequent general and abdominal obesity and (2) baseline general and abdominal obesity and re-survey common mental disorders. After controlling for a range of covariates, participants with common mental disorder at baseline experienced greater odds of subsequently becoming overweight (women, OR: 1.30, 1.03 - 1.64; men, 1.05, 0.81 - 1.38) and obese (women, 1.26, 0.82 - 1.94; men, OR: 2.10, 1.23 - 3.55) than those who were free of common mental disorder. Similarly, having baseline common mental health disorder was also related to a greater risk of developing moderate (1.57, 1.21 - 2.04) and severe (1.48, 1.09 - 2.01) abdominal obesity (women only). Baseline general or abdominal obesity was not associated with the risk of future common mental disorder. These findings of the present study suggest that the direction of association between common mental disorders and adiposity is from common mental disorder to increased future risk of adiposity as opposed to the converse.
    Keywords: Adiposity ; Mental Disorders -- Epidemiology ; Mental Health -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Obesity -- Epidemiology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Nutrition, April, 2014, Vol.144(4), p.504(7)
    Description: Although experimental data suggest a potentially protective involvement of dietary fiber in prostate carcinogenesis, very few prospective studies have investigated the relation between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk, and those have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to study the association between dietary fiber intake (overall, insoluble, soluble, and from different sources, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, and legumes) and prostate cancer risk. Stratifications by excess weight status, insulin-like growth factors, and amount of alcohol intake were also considered. This prospective analysis included 3313 men from the Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants (SU.VI. MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records. One hundred thirty-nine incident prostate cancers were diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (median follow-up of 12.6 y). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk were characterized by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% Cl: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% Cl: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% Cl: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes. In conclusion, dietary fiber intake (total, insoluble, and from legumes but not soluble or from cereals, vegetables, and fruits) was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, consistent with mechanistic data. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428. J. Nutr. 144: 504-510, 2014. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.189670
    Keywords: Prostate Cancer -- Risk Factors ; Dietary Fiber -- Physiological Aspects
    ISSN: 0022-3166
    E-ISSN: 15416100
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