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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Feb, 2012, Vol.97, p.102(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2011.09.026 Byline: Martin Hermenau (a), Sylvio Schubert (a), Hannes Klumbies (a), John Fahlteich (b), Lars Muller-Meskamp (a), Karl Leo (a), Moritz Riede (a) Abstract: In this work, we use different encapsulations to protect vacuum-evaporated small molecule organic solar cells with a simple p-i-i-stack for lifetime studies. Our devices use ZnPc and C60 as active materials. Lifetimes (T50) in a range from 300h for un-encapsulated devices to 4000h for glass-encapsulated have been observed. We use a model to distinguish between the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the barrier and an additional WVTR of the aluminum top electrode. For all observed devices a loss of 50% of initial efficiency is observed when 10mgm.sup.-2 water entered the device. The losses are related to a reduction of short circuit current density only, whereas open circuit voltage and fill factor remains unaffected. We relate this to an interaction of the water molecules with C60. Author Affiliation: (a) Institut fur Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitat Dresden, 01069 Dresden, Germany (b) Fraunhofer-Institut fur Elektronenstrahl- und Plasmatechnik, 01277 Dresden, Germany
    Keywords: Solar Energy Industry -- Analysis ; Solar Cells -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0927-0248
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, May 15, 2011, Vol.109(10), p.103102-1-103102-6
    Description: Highly efficient small molecule organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells is demonstrated based on the p-i-n-type structure by using the fluorinated fullerene molecule [C.sub.60][F.sub.36] as p-dopant in the hole transport layer. The low volatility and high thermal stability properties have made [C.sub.60][F.sub.36] very attractive for the usage as p-dopant in a broad spectrum of organic p-i-n devices like organic light emitting diodes, solar cells, memories or transistors.
    Keywords: Carbon Compounds -- Thermal Properties ; Fullerenes -- Thermal Properties ; Leds -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 12 September 2011, Vol.99(11)
    Description: We report on efficient and stable ITO-free small molecule organic solar cells with conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes using a post-treatment process, causing selective removal of PSS. The solar cells with post-treated PEDOT:PSS electrodes show significantly improved short circuit current densities and efficiencies compared to untreated devices. Moreover, the removal of PSS by the post-treatment significantly improves the lifetime of devices, which are more resistant to loss of fill factor compared to untreated devices.
    Keywords: Organic Electronics And Photonics
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Physical Review B, 4/2011, Vol.83(16)
    ISSN: 1098-0121
    E-ISSN: 1550-235X
    Source: American Physical Society (APS) (via CrossRef)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 15 May 2011, Vol.109(10)
    Description: We demonstrate highly efficient small molecule organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells based on the p-i-n -type structure using the fluorinated fullerene molecule C 60 F 36 as p -dopant in the hole transport layer. We present synthesis, chemical analysis, and energy level investigation of the dopant as well as the conductivity of organic layers consisting of a matrix of N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis 4-methoxyphenyl-benzidine(MeO-TPD) or N,N′-[(Diphenyl-N,N′-bis)9, ?〉 9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine(BF-DPB) doped by the fullerene compound. State of the art organic p-i-n devices containing C 60 F 36 show efficiencies comparable to devices with the commonly used p -dopant2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F 4 -TCNQ). The advantages of the fullerene based dopant are the low volatility and high thermal stability, which is beneficial for device operation under elevated temperature. These properties make C 60 F 36 highly attractive for the usage as p -dopant in a broad spectrum of organic p-i-n devices like organic light emitting diodes, solar cells, memories, or transistors.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: © 2011 American Institute of Physics (AIP)〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/AIP_edited.gif style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    In: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2012, Vol.14(33), pp.11824-11845
    Description: This work is part of the inter-laboratory collaboration to study the stability of seven distinct sets of state-of-the-art organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices prepared by leading research laboratories. All devices have been shipped to and degraded at RIS-DTU up to 1830 hours in accordance with established ISOS-3 protocols under defined illumination conditions. In this work, we apply the Incident Photon-to-Electron Conversion Efficiency (IPCE) and the in situ IPCE techniques to determine the relation between solar cell performance and solar cell stability. Different ageing conditions were considered: accelerated full sun simulation, low level indoor fluorescent lighting and dark storage. The devices were also monitored under conditions of ambient and inert (N 2 ) atmospheres, which allows for the identification of the solar cell materials more susceptible to degradation by ambient air (oxygen and moisture). The different OPVs configurations permitted the study of the intrinsic stability of the devices depending on: two different ITO-replacement alternatives, two different hole extraction layers (PEDOT:PSS and MoO 3 ), and two different P3HT-based polymers. The response of un-encapsulated devices to ambient atmosphere offered insight into the importance of moisture in solar cell performance. Our results demonstrate that the IPCE and the in situ IPCE techniques are valuable analytical methods to understand device degradation and solar cell lifetime.
    Keywords: Atmospheres ; Degradation ; Devices ; Illumination ; Moisture ; Photovoltaic Cells ; Solar Cells ; Stability ; Miscellaneous Sciences (So);
    ISSN: 1463-9076
    E-ISSN: 1463-9084
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  • 7
    In: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2012, Vol.14(33), pp.11780-11799
    Description: The present work is the fourth (and final) contribution to an inter-laboratory collaboration that was planned at the 3rd International Summit on Organic Photovoltaic Stability (ISOS-3). The collaboration involved six laboratories capable of producing seven distinct sets of OPV devices that were degraded under well-defined conditions in accordance with the ISOS-3 protocols. The degradation experiments lasted up to 1830 hours and involved more than 300 cells on more than 100 devices. The devices were analyzed and characterized at different points of their lifetimes by a large number of non-destructive and destructive techniques in order to identify specific degradation mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of the photovoltaic response. Work presented herein involves time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) in order to study chemical degradation in-plane as well as in-depth in the organic solar cells. Various degradation mechanisms were investigated and correlated with cell performance. For example, photo-oxidation of the active material was quantitatively studied as a function of cell performance. The large variety of cell architectures used (some with and some without encapsulation) enabled valuable comparisons and important conclusions to be drawn on degradation behaviour. This comprehensive investigation of OPV stability has significantly advanced the understanding of degradation behaviour in OPV devices, which is an important step towards large scale application of organic solar cells.
    Keywords: Organische Solarzelle ; Chemischer Abbau ; Leistungsfähigkeit ; Oberflächenanalyse ; Tiefenprofil (Abstand Unter Oberfläche) ; Photooxidation ; Sims (Sekundärionenmassenspektroskopie) ; Flugzeit ; Chemistry;
    ISSN: 1463-9076
    E-ISSN: 1463-9084
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Jan, 2014, Vol.120, p.685(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2013.10.023 Byline: Hannes Klumbies, Markus Karl, Martin Hermenau, Roland Rosch, Marco Seeland, Harald Hoppe, Lars Muller-Meskamp, Karl Leo Abstract: The degradation of non-encapsulated, small-molecule organic solar cells based on ZnPc (zinc phthalocyanine)/C.sub.60 with an aluminum top electrode is investigated under different climate conditions and correlated with the water barrier performance of the aluminum electrode layer. The degradation of the solar cells turns out to be dominated by water and can be well predicted by the corrosion of calcium - a sensor for water - under the same conditions. By several independent techniques, an amount of 20[+ or -]7mg(H.sub.2O)m.sup.-2 is determined to reduce the solar cell efficiency to 50% of the initial value, independent of humidity and temperature between 20 and 65[degrees]C. This experimental value for degradation sensitivity of an organic solar cell allows to translate the encapsulation requirements of the solar cell into a well-defined, objective quantity and allows to predict device lifetimes for different permeation barriers. Furthermore, electroluminescence imaging shows that the degradation is caused solely from a loss of active area caused by water ingress through defects in the aluminum top electrode. For this type of barrier, most of the permeation (〉72%) through the aluminum is thus caused by defects with a radius r0.3A[micro]m visible with an optical microscope. Hence, the water ingress through the aluminum top electrode and in turn the lifetime of the organic PV cell can be well predicted by a simple optical inspection. Author Affiliation: (a) Institut fur Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitat Dresden, George-Bahr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden, Germany (b) Institute of Physics, Technische Universitat Ilmenau, Weimarer Str. 32, 98693 Ilmenau, Germany Article History: Received 9 September 2013; Revised 30 September 2013; Accepted 21 October 2013
    Keywords: Phthalocyanins -- Investigations ; Climate -- Investigations ; Corrosion (Chemistry) -- Investigations ; Solar Energy Industry -- Investigations
    ISSN: 0927-0248
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2012, Vol.14, pp.11780-11799
    Description: The present work is the fourth (and final) contribution to an inter-laboratory collaboration that was planned at the 3rd International Summit on Organic Photovoltaic Stability (ISOS-3). The collaboration involved six laboratories capable...
    Keywords: Chemistry
    ISSN: 1463-9076
    E-ISSN: 1463-9084
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2012, Vol.14, pp.11824-11845
    Description: This work is part of the inter-laboratory collaboration to study the stability of seven distinct sets of state-of-the-art organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices prepared by leading research laboratories. All devices have been shipped to and...
    Keywords: Chemistry
    ISSN: 1463-9076
    E-ISSN: 1463-9084
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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