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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Aquatic Toxicology, Nov 15, 2013, Vol.144-145, p.155(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.09.029 Byline: Eric Higley, Amber R. Tompsett, John P. Giesy, Markus Hecker, Steve Wiseman Abstract: acents Wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) were exposed to 0.1, 1.0, or 5.0[mu]gTPT/L. acents Environmental concentrations of TPT affected survival and development of wood frogs. acents Mortality of larvae was 100% after 9 days of exposure to 5.0[mu]gTPT/L. acents Effects on growth and development might have been due to effects on lipid metabolism. Author Affiliation: (a) Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B3 (b) Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada (c) Zoology Department, and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA (d) Department of Biology & Chemistry, and State Key Laboratory for Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (e) State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China (f) School of the Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Article History: Received 21 August 2013; Revised 24 September 2013; Accepted 28 September 2013
    Keywords: Mortality -- Physiological Aspects ; Mortality -- Growth ; Frogs -- Physiological Aspects ; Frogs -- Growth ; Pollution Control -- Physiological Aspects
    ISSN: 0166-445X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 15 March 2013, Vol.47(4), pp.1545-1557
    Description: Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems is related to sewage effluents. Due to the possible adverse effects on wildlife and humans, degradation and removal of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites during wastewater treatment is an increasingly important task. The present study was part of a proof of concept study at a medium sized country hospital in western Germany that investigated efficiency of advanced treatment processes to remove toxic potencies from sewage. Specifically, the efficiency of treatment processes such as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and ozonation to remove endocrine disruptive potentials was assessed. Estrogenic effects were characterized by use of two receptor-mediated transactivation assays, the Lyticase Yeast Estrogen Screen (LYES) and the Estrogen Receptor mediated Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (ER CALUX ). In addition, the H295R Steroidogenesis Assay (H295R) was utilized to detect potential disruption of steroidogenesis. Raw sewage contained measurable estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated potency as determined by use of the LYES (28.9 ± 8.6 ng/L, 0.33× concentration), which was reduced after treatment by MBR (2.3 ± 0.3 ng/L) and ozone (1.2 ± 0.4 ng/L). Results were confirmed by use of ER CALUX which measured concentrations of estrogen equivalents (EEQs) of 0.2 ± 0.11 ng/L (MBR) and 0.01 ± 0.02 ng/L (ozonation). In contrast, treatment with ozone resulted in greater production of estradiol and aromatase activity at 3× and greater concentrations in H295R cells. It is hypothesized that this is partly due to formation of active oxidized products during ozonation. Substance-specific analyses demonstrated efficient removal of most of the measured compounds by ozonation. A comparison of the ER-mediated responses measured by use of the LYES and ER CALUX with those from the chemical analysis using a mass-balance approach revealed estrone (E1) to be the main compound that caused the estrogenic effects. Overall, treatment of sewage by use of MBR successfully reduced estrogenicity of hospital effluents as well as substances that are able to alter sex steroid production. However, after ozonation, effluents should undergo further investigations regarding the formation of endocrine active metabolites. The results obtained as part of this study demonstrated applicability of assays for monitoring of endocrine-modulating potency of treated sewage. ► Membrane bioreactor treatment significantly reduces the estrogenic burden of sewage. ► A combination of MBR and ozone almost completely reduces estrogenicity. ► Ozonation increased stimulation of endogenous estrogen production in H295R cells. ► Assessment with receptor-mediated and non-receptor-mediated assays is recommended.
    Keywords: Membrane Bioreactor ; Ozonation ; Estrogenic Action ; Europe ; H295r ; Lyes ; Er Calux® ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Water research, 2013, Vol.47(4), pp.1545-1557
    Description: Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems is related to sewage effluents. Due to the possible adverse effects on wildlife and humans, degradation and removal of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites during wastewater treatment is an increasingly important task. The present study was part of a proof of concept study at a medium sized country hospital in western Germany that investigated efficiency of advanced treatment processes to remove toxic potencies from sewage. Specifically, the efficiency of treatment processes such as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and ozonation to remove endocrine disruptive potentials was assessed. Estrogenic effects were characterized by use of two receptor-mediated in vitro transactivation assays, the Lyticase Yeast Estrogen Screen (LYES) and the Estrogen Receptor mediated Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (ER CALUX®). In addition, the H295R Steroidogenesis Assay (H295R) was utilized to detect potential disruption of steroidogenesis. Raw sewage contained measurable estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated potency as determined by use of the LYES (28.9 ± 8.6 ng/L, 0.33× concentration), which was reduced after treatment by MBR (2.3 ± 0.3 ng/L) and ozone (1.2 ± 0.4 ng/L). Results were confirmed by use of ER CALUX® which measured concentrations of estrogen equivalents (EEQs) of 0.2 ± 0.11 ng/L (MBR) and 0.01 ± 0.02 ng/L (ozonation). In contrast, treatment with ozone resulted in greater production of estradiol and aromatase activity at 3× and greater concentrations in H295R cells. It is hypothesized that this is partly due to formation of active oxidized products during ozonation. Substance-specific analyses demonstrated efficient removal of most of the measured compounds by ozonation. A comparison of the ER-mediated responses measured by use of the LYES and ER CALUX® with those from the chemical analysis using a mass-balance approach revealed estrone (E1) to be the main compound that caused the estrogenic effects. Overall, treatment of sewage by use of MBR successfully reduced estrogenicity of hospital effluents as well as substances that are able to alter sex steroid production. However, after ozonation, effluents should undergo further investigations regarding the formation of endocrine active metabolites. The results obtained as part of this study demonstrated applicability of in vitro assays for monitoring of endocrine-modulating potency of treated sewage. ; p. 1545-1557.
    Keywords: Metabolites ; Estrogenic Properties ; Estrogen Receptors ; Sewage Treatment ; Wastewater Treatment ; Wildlife ; Ozone ; Toxicity ; Ozonation ; Unspecific Monooxygenase ; Chemical Analysis ; In Vitro Studies ; Monitoring ; Sewage ; Drugs ; Effluents ; Humans ; Luciferase ; Transcriptional Activation ; Estrone ; Adverse Effects ; Bioreactors ; Gene Expression ; Steroidogenesis ; Yeasts ; Aquatic Ecosystems ; Estradiol
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Aquatic Toxicology, Jan 15, 2013, Vol.126, p.42(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.10.003 Byline: Amber R. Tompsett (a), Steve Wiseman (a), Eric Higley (a), John P. Giesy (a)(b)(c), Markus Hecker (a)(d) Keywords: Amphibian; Endocrine; Estrogen; Vitellogenesis; Gonadal histology Abstract: a* 17[alpha]-Ethynylestradiol feminized/demasculinized sexual development of Rana sylvatica. a* The EC.sub.50 for complete feminization by ethynylestradiol was 7.7[mu]g/L. a* The EC.sub.50 for partial feminization by ethynylestradiol was 2.3[mu]g/L. a* Transcripts involved in vitellogenesis were up-regulated by ethynylestradiol exposure. Author Affiliation: (a) Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada (b) Dept. of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada (c) Dept. of Biology and Chemistry and State Key Laboratory for Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region (d) School of the Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Article History: Received 13 August 2012; Revised 5 October 2012; Accepted 5 October 2012
    Keywords: Ethinyl Estradiol ; Amphibians
    ISSN: 0166-445X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Toxicology Letters, 25 November 2013, Vol.223(2), pp.252-259
    Description: The novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB), (2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophtalate (TBPH), and 1,2,5,6-tetrabromocyclooctane (TBCO) are components of flame retardant mixtures including Firemaster 550 and Saytex BC-48. Despite the detection of these NBFRs in environmental and biotic matrices, studies regarding their toxicological effects are poorly represented in the literature. The present study examined endocrine disruption by these three NBFRs using the yeast YES/YAS reporter assay and the mammalian H295R steroidogenesis assay. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) was also assessed using the H4IIE reporter assay. The NBFRs produced no TCDD-like effects in the H4IIE assay or agonistic effects in the YES/YAS assays. TBB produced a maximal antiestrogenic effect of 62% at 0.5 mg L in the YES assay while TBPH and TBCO produced maximal antiandrogenic effects of 74% and 59% at 300 mg L and 1500 mg L , respectively, in the YAS assay. Significant effects were also observed in the H295R assay. At 0.05 mg L , 15 mg L , and 15 mg L TBB, TBPH, and TBCO exposures, respectively resulted in a 2.8-fold, 5.4-fold, and 3.3-fold increase in concentrations of E2. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate the endocrine disrupting potentials of TBB, TBPH, and TBCO.
    Keywords: Novel Brominated Flame Retardants ; Endocrine Disruption ; In Vitro Assay ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0378-4274
    E-ISSN: 1879-3169
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol. 8(10)
    Description: The estuary of the River Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (Germany) is a sink for contaminated sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM). One major concern is the effect of human activities on the hydrodynamics, particularlythe intensive dredging activities in this area that may result in remobilization of sediment-bound pollutants. The aim of this study was to identify pollutants contributing to the toxicological risk associated with re-suspension of sediments in the Elbe Estuary by use of an effect-directed analysis that combines chemical and biological analyses in with specific fractionation techniques. Sediments were collected from sites along the Elbe Estuary and a site from a small harbor basin of the Elbe Estuary that is known to be polluted. The sixteen priority EPA-PAHs were quantified in organic extracts of sediments. In addition, dioxin equivalents of sediments were investigated by use of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase assay with RTL-W1 cells and the Ah receptor-mediated luciferase transactivation assay with H4IIE-luc cells. Quantification of the 16 priorityPAHs revealed that sediments were moderately contaminated at all of the sites in the Elbe River Estuary (,0.02–0.906 mg/gdw). Sediments contained relatively small concentrations of dioxin equivalents (Bio-TEQ) with concentrations ranging from15.5 to 322 pg/g dw, which were significantly correlated with dioxin equivalents calculated based on toxicity referencevalues and concentrations of PAH. The concentration of Bio-TEQ at the reference site exceeded 200,000 pg/g dw. In apotency balance the 16 PAHs explained between 47 and 118% of the Bio-TEQ in the luciferase assay, which can be explained by the constant input of PAHs bound to SPM from the upper course of the Elbe River into its estuary. Successful identification of a significant portion of dioxin-like activity to priority PAHs in complex environmental samples such assediments has rarely been reported.
    Keywords: Natural Sciences ; Earth And Related Environmental Sciences ; Environmental Sciences ; Naturvetenskap ; Geovetenskap Och Miljövetenskap ; Miljövetenskap ; Enviromental Science ; Miljövetenskap
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2013, Vol.20(2), pp.803-811
    Description: Triphenyltin chloride (TPTC), which has been extensively used in industry and agriculture, can occur at concentrations in the environment sufficient to be toxic. Here, potency of TPTC to modulate genes in a library containing 1,820 modified green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing promoter reporter vectors constructed from Escherichia coli K12 strains was determined. Exposure to TPTC resulted in 22 (fold change 〉 2) or 71 (fold change 〉 1.5) differentially expressed genes. The no observed transcriptional effect (NOTEC) and median transcriptional effect concentrations (TEC50) were determined to be 0.036 and 0.45 mg/L in E. coli . These responses were 1,230 and 97 times more sensitive than the acute median effect concentration (EC50) required to inhibit growth of cells, which demonstrated that this live cell array represents a sensitive method to assess toxic potency of chemicals. The 71 differentially expressed genes could be classified into seven functional groups. Of all the altered genes, three groups which encoded for catalytic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and structural proteins accounted for 28 %, 18 %, and 14 % of all altered genes, respectively. The pattern of differential expression observed during this study was used to elucidate the mechanism of toxicity of TPTC. To determine potential relationships among genes that were changed greater than 2.0-fold by exposure to TPTC, a correlation network analysis was constructed, and four genes were related to aroH , which is the primary target for metabolic regulation of aromatic biosynthesis by feedback inhibition in bacteria. The genes rnC , cld , and glgS were selected as potential biomarkers for TPTC, since their expression was more than 2.0-fold greater after exposure to TPTC.
    Keywords: High throughput ; NOTEC ; Biomarker ; Correlation network ; Toxicity assessment ; Bacterial ; Genomics ; Organotin
    ISSN: 0944-1344
    E-ISSN: 1614-7499
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2011, Vol.18(3), pp.446-460
    Description: Byline: Stefanie Grund (1,10), Eric Higley (2), Rene Schonenberger (3), Marc J-F. Suter (3), John P. Giesy (2,4,5,6,7), Thomas Braunbeck (1), Markus Hecker (2,8), Henner Hollert (1,9) Keywords: Endocrine disruptors; Sediment; Yeast estrogen screen; H295R Steroidogenesis Assay; Testosterone; Estradiol Abstract: Introduction The present study was part of a comprehensive weight-of-evidence approach with the goal of identifying potential causes for the declines in fish populations, which have been observed during the past decades in the Upper Danube River. Methods The specific goal was the investigation of the endocrine disrupting potential of sediment extracts from different sites along the Danube River. Parallel to the identification and quantification of target estrogens, two in vitro bioassays were employed to assess the estrogenic potential (yeast estrogen screen, YES) of the sediment samples and to evaluate their effects on the production of testosterone (T) and E2 (H295R Steroidogenesis Assay). Using a potency balance approach, the contribution of the measured compounds (Chem-EEQs) to the total endocrine activity measured by the YES (YES-EEQs) was calculated. Results and discussion Of the nine sediment extracts tested five extracts exhibited significant estrogenic activities in the YES, which suggested the presence of ER agonists in these samples. The xenoestrogens nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) and the natural estrogen estrone (E1) were detected while concentrations of 17[beta]-estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) were less than their respective limits of quantification in all sediment extracts. A comparison of the measured YES-EEQs and the calculated Chem-EEQs revealed that as much as 6% of estrogenic activity in extracts of most sediments could be explained by two xeno- and one natural estrogen. Exposure of H295R cells to sediment extracts from four different locations in the Danube River resulted in significantly increased concentrations of E2, but only slight inhibition of T synthesis. Furthermore, application of the H295R Steroidogenesis Assay provided evidence for endocrine disrupting potencies in sediment samples from the Upper Danube River, some of which were not detectable with the YES. In conclusion, differential endocrine activities were associated with several sediments from the Upper Danube River. Further investigations will have to show whether the observed activities are of biological relevance with regard to declines in fish populations in the Upper Danube River. Author Affiliation: (1) Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany (2) Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada (3) Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, PO Box 611, 8600, Duebendorf, Switzerland (4) Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA (5) Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation and Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, China (6) State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, People's Republic of China (7) State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China (8) ENTRIX, Inc, Saskatoon, SK, Canada (9) Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Worringerweg 1, 52074, Aachen, Germany (10) Department of Zoology, Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 24/08/2010 Received Date: 24/04/2010 Accepted Date: 23/08/2010 Online Date: 05/09/2010 Article note: Communicated by Ake Bergman
    Keywords: Endocrine disruptors ; Sediment ; Yeast estrogen screen ; H295R Steroidogenesis Assay ; Testosterone ; Estradiol
    ISSN: 0944-1344
    E-ISSN: 1614-7499
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 07 May 2013, Vol.47(9), pp.4822-8
    Description: Exposure to estrogens during the period of sexual differentiation is known to adversely affect the development of testes in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), but little is known about molecular changes that coincide with the development of altered phenotypes. Therefore, the transcriptome-level effects of exposure to 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) during sexual differentiation of X. laevis were evaluated by use of Illumina sequencing coupled with RNA-Seq expression analysis. Overall, a number of processes were affected by 17α-ethynylestradiol, including steroid biosynthesis, thyroid hormone signaling and metabolism, testicular development, and spermatogenesis. Some of the altered pathways, such as thyroid hormone signaling and testicular development, could be linked with biological effects on metamorphosis and gonadal phenotypes, respectively, that were observed in frogs that were exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol throughout metamorphosis and the early postmetamorphic period. Thus, early changes at the transcriptome-level were predictive of pathologies that did not manifest until later in development. To validate the quantitative capacity of RNA-Seq, a subset of transcripts identified to have altered abundances in individuals exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol was also evaluated by use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). While small sample sizes (n = 3) limited the ability to draw conclusions pertaining to differences in qPCR-derived abundances of transcripts between control and exposed tadpoles, there was a significant relationship (r(2) = 0.78) between fold-changes for RNA-Seq and qPCR.
    Keywords: Environmental Exposure ; Ethinyl Estradiol -- Toxicity ; Sex Differentiation -- Drug Effects ; Transcriptome -- Drug Effects ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Toxicity ; Xenopus Laevis -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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