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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 December 2012, Vol.112(11)
    Description: We have conducted a detailed thin film growth structure of oxygen engineered monoclinic HfO 2 ± x grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. The oxidation conditions induce a switching between ( 1 ¯ 11 ) and (002) texture of hafnium oxide. The band gap of oxygen deficient hafnia decreases with increasing amount of oxygen vacancies by more than 1 eV. For high oxygen vacancy concentrations, defect bands form inside the band gap that induce optical transitions and p -type conductivity. The resistivity changes by several orders of magnitude as a function of oxidation conditions. Oxygen vacancies do not give rise to ferromagnetic behavior.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, Jan 1, 2013, Vol.527, p.200(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2012.08.007 Byline: Ina Uhlmann, Dominik Hawelka, Erwin Hildebrandt, Jens Pradella, Jurgen Rodel Keywords: Sol-gel; ZrO.sub.2; SiO.sub.2; Wear; Hardness; Crystal structure; Micro abrasion; Ball cratering Abstract: Sol-gel based wear resistant coatings are presented as an alternative to existing vapor deposition coatings. The films consist of zirconia which has been doped with 8wt.% silica. Crack-free single as well as multilayer coatings with thicknesses of 80 and 150nm, respectively, could be produced after sintering at 1000[degrees]C. The evolution of layer thickness, optical, chemical and mechanical properties during film annealing was investigated by ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and micro-abrasion. Micro-abrasion has been established as an easy and powerful tool to achieve first comparative abrasion data which could be correlated to hardness, Young's modulus and structure of the films. Above 600[degrees]C a tetragonal, oxide coating with a Young's modulus ranging from 80 to 90GPa, a hardness from 7 to 8GPa and an increased abrasion resistance was obtained. The film density reached 4.64g/cm.sup.3 with the mean refractive index n.sub.550nm lying between 1.88 and 1.93. Article History: Received 19 May 2011; Revised 3 August 2012; Accepted 3 August 2012
    Keywords: Silicon Dioxide -- Analysis ; Silicon Dioxide -- Mechanical Properties ; Thin Films -- Analysis ; Thin Films -- Mechanical Properties ; Hardness (Materials) -- Analysis ; Hardness (Materials) -- Mechanical Properties ; Zirconium Oxide -- Analysis ; Zirconium Oxide -- Mechanical Properties ; Crystal Structure -- Analysis ; Crystal Structure -- Mechanical Properties ; Zirconium -- Analysis ; Zirconium -- Mechanical Properties
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 12 September 2011, Vol.99(11)
    Description: We have synthesized highly oxygen deficient HfO 2− x thin films by controlled oxygen engineering using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Above a threshold value of oxygen vacancies, p -type conductivity sets in with up to 6 times 10 21 charge carriers per cm 3 . At the same time, the band-gap is reduced continuously by more than 1 eV. We suggest an oxygen vacancy induced p -type defect band as origin of the observed behavior.
    Keywords: Dielectrics And Ferroelectricity
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, 01 January 2013, Vol.527, pp.200-204
    Description: Sol–gel based wear resistant coatings are presented as an alternative to existing vapor deposition coatings. The films consist of zirconia which has been doped with 8 wt.% silica. Crack-free single as well as multilayer coatings with thicknesses of 80 and 150 nm, respectively, could be produced after sintering at 1000 °C. The evolution of layer thickness, optical, chemical and mechanical properties during film annealing was investigated by ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and micro-abrasion. Micro-abrasion has been established as an easy and powerful tool to achieve first comparative abrasion data which could be correlated to hardness, Young's modulus and structure of the films. Above 600 °C a tetragonal, oxide coating with a Young's modulus ranging from 80 to 90 GPa, a hardness from 7 to 8 GPa and an increased abrasion resistance was obtained. The film density reached 4.64 g/cm with the mean refractive index n lying between 1.88 and 1.93. ► Sol–gel zirconia–8 wt.% silica coatings with hardness up to 8 GPa achieved ► Layer thickness as compared by ellipsometry and scanning electron microscopy ► Crack-free multilayer coatings produced up to 150 nm
    Keywords: Sol–Gel ; Zro2 ; Sio2 ; Wear ; Hardness ; Crystal Structure ; Micro Abrasion ; Ball Cratering ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    E-ISSN: 1879-2731
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Physical Review B, 10/2014, Vol.90(13)
    Description: We have investigated the possible evolution of an intrinsic stable ferromagnetic moment in oxygen deficient undoped and magnetically doped HfO sub(2-x) thin films grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Neither oxygen vacancies nor substituted Ni in combination with such vacancies results in an observable magnetic moment for a broad range of oxygen vacancy concentrations. By combining integral and element specific magnetization measurements, we show that a fluctuating deposition rate of the magnetic dopant induces extrinsic ferromagnetism by promoting the formation of metallic clusters. We suggest the element specific measurement of an induced magnetic moment at the nonmagnetic site as a proof of intrinsic ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors.
    Keywords: Magnetization ; Ferromagnetism ; Clusters ; Nickel ; Vacancies ; Magnetic Moment ; Hafnium Oxide ; Condensed Matter ; Thin Films ; Condensed Matter Physics (General) (So) ; Solid-State Physics (Ah);
    ISSN: 1098-0121
    E-ISSN: 1550-235X
    Source: American Physical Society (APS) (via CrossRef)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, July 2011, Vol.323(13), pp.1827-1834
    Description: A systematic investigation has been done on the correlation between texture, grain size evolution and magnetic properties in Ta/Ni Fe /Ir Mn /Co Fe /Ta exchange bias in dependence of Ta buffer and NiFe seed layer thickness in the range of 2–10 nm, deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering technique. A strong dependence of 〈1 1 1〉 texture on the Ta/NiFe thicknesses was found, where the reducing and increasing texture was correlated with exchange bias field and unidirectional anisotropy energy constant at both NiFe/IrMn and IrMn/CoFe interfaces. However, a direct correlation between average grain size in IrMn and and was not observed. L1 phase IrMn could be formed by thickness optimization of Ta/NiFe layers by deposition at room temperature, for which the maximum exchange coupling parameters were achieved. We conclude finally that the coercivity is mainly influenced by texture induced interfacial effects at NiFe/IrMn/CoFe interfaces developing with Ta/NiFe thicknesses. ► We discussed the influence of Ta/NiFe thicknesses on structure and grain size in AF layer and texture. ► A direct correlation between the 〈1 1 1〉 texture and exchange coupling was found. ► A direct relation between average grain size and and was not observed. L1 phase IrMn was formed by deposition at room temperature for Ta (5–6 nm)/NiFe (6–8 nm). ► We conclude that the coercivity is influenced by order/disorder at NiFe/IrMn/CoFe interfaces.
    Keywords: Magnetic Anisotropy ; Magnetic Properties of Monolayers and Thin Films ; Texture ; Pulsed DC Magnetron Sputtering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0304-8853
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Solid State Sciences, November 2012, Vol.14(11-12), pp.1656-1659
    Description: Tungsten borides are known to be very hard and metallic materials. Tungsten monoboride, WB, becomes superconducting at  = 4.3 K in the tetragonal modification and  = 2.8 K in the orthorhombic modification. The structures of the two WB modifications were revised based on X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. W B , formerly known as W B , also shows a superconducting transition at 5.4 K, which is suppressed for small grain samples.
    Keywords: Tungsten Boride ; Superconductivity ; Neutron Diffraction ; Particle Size ; Crystal Structure ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 1293-2558
    E-ISSN: 1873-3085
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 December 2012, Vol.112(11)
    Description: We have conducted a detailed thin film growth structure of oxygen engineered monoclinic HfO{sub 2{+-}x} grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. The oxidation conditions induce a switching between (111) and (002) texture of hafnium oxide. The band gap of oxygen deficient hafnia decreases with increasing amount of oxygen vacancies by more than 1 eV. For high oxygen vacancy concentrations, defect bands form inside the band gap that induce optical transitions and p-type conductivity. The resistivity changes by several orders of magnitude as a function of oxidation conditions. Oxygen vacancies do not give rise to ferromagnetic behavior.
    Keywords: Materials Science ; Crystal Defects ; Crystal Growth ; Dielectric Materials ; Electric Conductivity ; Energy GAP ; Hafnium Oxides ; Layers ; Molecular Beam Epitaxy ; Monoclinic Lattices ; Oxidation ; Oxygen ; Thin Films ; Vacancies ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, August 2012, Vol.638(10), pp.1614-1614
    Keywords: Superconductivity ; Molybdenum Borides ; Crystal Structures
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    ISSN: Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie
    E-ISSN: 1521-3749
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  • 10
    In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2016, Vol.4(31), pp.7430-7435
    Description: Interest in Fe and Co containing Laves-type phases arises from their promising magnetic properties, especially in the context of magnetostrictive and magnetocaloric materials. Most compounds that are used for these applications consist of rare earth elements that are economically and environmentally problematic. Ti 2 Co 3 Si and Ti 2 Fe 3 Si are therefore attractive rare earth-free candidates, however their magnetic behavior has not been studied in full detail yet. Consequentially, we have prepared the full solid solution between both phases by arc melting and spark plasma sintering. The samples were subject to comprehensive investigation by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction, EDX analysis and SQUID measurements. The magnetic properties of the mostly single phase materials generally follow a clear trend with an increase in the magnetic moment with increasing Fe content. Interestingly, we found a sudden drop in magnetic moment between samples Ti 2 Fe 3 Si and Ti 2 (Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 ) 3 Si. This phase transition from the ferromagnetic to the antiferromagnetic configuration for these compositions can indeed be confirmed by theoretical calculations.
    Keywords: Seltene Erden ; Feste Lösung ; Röntgendiffraktion ; Magnetisches Moment ; Phasenübergang ; Synchrotron ; Magnetische Eigenschaft ; Engineering ; Physics;
    ISSN: 2050-7526
    E-ISSN: 2050-7534
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