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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Business Recorder, June 8, 2013
    Keywords: Prime Ministers -- Demonstrations And Protests ; Political Protest -- Demonstrations And Protests ; Government Resistance -- Demonstrations And Protests
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage, 01 August 2012, Vol.62(1), pp.137-146
    Description: Flexible response adaptation and the control of conflicting information play a pivotal role in daily life. Yet, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms mediating parallel control of these processes. We examined these mechanisms using a multi-methodological approach that integrated data from event-related potentials (ERPs) with structural MRI data and source localisation using sLORETA. Moreover, we calculated evoked wavelet oscillations. We applied this multi-methodological approach in healthy subjects and patients in a prodromal phase of a major basal ganglia disorder (i.e., Huntington's disease), to directly focus on fronto-striatal networks. Behavioural data indicated, especially the parallel execution of conflict monitoring and flexible response adaptation was modulated across the examined cohorts. When both processes do not co-incide a high integrity of fronto-striatal loops seems to be dispensable. The neurophysiological data suggests that conflict monitoring (reflected by the N2 ERP) and working memory processes (reflected by the P3 ERP) differentially contribute to this pattern of results. Flexible response adaptation under the constraint of high conflict processing affected the N2 and P3 ERP, as well as their delta frequency band oscillations. Yet, modulatory effects were strongest for the N2 ERP and evoked wavelet oscillations in this time range. The N2 ERPs were localized in the anterior cingulate cortex (BA32, BA24). Modulations of the P3 ERP were localized in parietal areas (BA7). In addition, MRI-determined caudate head volume predicted modulations in conflict monitoring, but not working memory processes. The results show how parallel conflict monitoring and flexible adaptation of action is mediated via fronto-striatal networks. While both, response monitoring and working memory processes seem to play a role, especially response selection processes and ACC–basal ganglia networks seem to be the driving force in mediating parallel conflict monitoring and flexible adaptation of actions.
    Keywords: Event-Related Potentials ; Huntington'S Disease ; Parallel Processing ; Source Localisation ; Wavelet Analysis ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biophysical Journal, 2011, Vol.100(4), pp.1139-1148
    Description: The fluorescein arsenical hairpin binder (FlAsH) shows much promise to determine the relative orientations of protein regions and structures even in living cells and in the plasma membrane. In this study, we characterized FlAsH's photophysical properties by steady-state anisotropy and time-resolved single photon counting for further applications with G-protein coupled receptors. We find that FlAsH has a relatively high initial anisotropy of 0.31 ± 0.01 and a three-component fluorescence lifetime with an average of 4.1 ± 0.1 ns. We characterized the FlAsH fluorophore orientation in the adrenergic receptor revealing rigid orientations of FlAsH in the membrane plane for rotational correlation times of ∼50 ns in living cells. To elucidate the fluorophore-membrane orientation and rotational correlation time, an anisotropy treatment similar to that of another researcher (Axelrod, D. 1979. . . 26:557–573) was developed. The rotational correlation times were observed to increase by up to 16 ns after agonist addition. The rotational correlation time also allowed for a comparison to the theoretical relationship between translational and rotational diffusion (originally proposed by Saffman, P. G., and M. Delbrück. 1975. . . . . . 72:3111–3113) and revealed a discrepancy of a factor between 10 and 100.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0006-3495
    E-ISSN: 1542-0086
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Business Recorder, Feb 24, 2013
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, Feb, 2012, Vol.351(1-2), p.293
    Keywords: Cesium -- Environmental Aspects ; Soil Erosion -- Research ; Grasslands -- Environmental Aspects ; Soil Research
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, Feb, 2012, Vol.351(1-2), p.293(15)
    Description: Byline: Roger Funk (1), Yong Li (2), Carsten Hoffmann (1), Matthias Reiche (1), Zhuodong Zhang (1,2), Junjie Li (2), Michael Sommer (1,3) Keywords: [.sup.137]Cs; Grassland; Wind erosion; Dust deposition; Reference site Abstract: Aims The aims of this study were to identify areas of wind erosion and dust deposition and to quantify the effects of different grazing intensities on soil redistribution rates in grasslands based on the 137.sup.Cs technique. Because the method uses a reference inventory as threshold for erosion or deposition, the classification of any other site as source or sink for dust depends on the accurate selection of this reference site. Methods Measurements of 137.sup.Cs inventories and depth distributions were carried out at pasture sites with predominant species of Stipa grandis and Leymus chinensis which are grazed with different intensities. Additional measurements were made at arable land, plant-covered sand dunes and alluvial plains. Wind-induced soil erosion and dust deposition rates were calculated from 137.sup.Cs inventories by means of the "Profile-Distribution" and the "Mass Balance II" models. Results The selection of the reference site was based on fluid dynamical and process-determining parameters. The chosen site should meet the following four conditions: (i) located at a summit position with obviously low deposition rates, (ii) sufficient vegetation cover to prevent wind erosion, (iii) plane to exclude water erosion and (iv) in the wind/dust shadow of a higher elevation. The measured reference inventory of 137.sup.Cs was 1967(+-102) Bqm.sup.-2 located at a summit position of moderately grazed Leymus chinensis steppe. The 137.sup.Cs inventories at other sites ranged from 1330 Bqm.sup.-2 at heavily grazed sites to 5119 Bqm.sup.-2 at river deposits, representing annual average soil losses of up to 130 tkm.sup.-2 and deposits of up to 540 tkm.sup.-2, respectively. The calculated annual averages of dust depositions at ungrazed Leymus chinensis sites were related to the dust storm frequencies of the last 50 years resulting in a description of the temporal variability of annual dust depositions from about 154 tkm.sup.-2 in the 1960s to 26 tkm.sup.-2 at recent times. Based on this quantification already 80% of the total dust depositions can be related to the 20 years between the 1960s and the end of the 1970s and only 20% to the time between 1980 and 2001. Conclusions [.sup.137]Cs technique is a promising method to assess the effect of grazing intensity and land use types on the spatial variability of wind-induced soil and dust redistribution processes in semi-arid grasslands. However, considerable efforts are needed to identify a reliable reference site, because erosion and deposition induced by wind may occur at the same places. The combination of the dust deposition rates derived from 137.sup.Cs profile data with the dust storm frequencies is helpful for a better reconstruction of the temporal variability of dust deposition and wind erosion in this region. The calculated recent deposition rates of about 20 tkm.sup.-2 are in good agreement with data of other authors. Author Affiliation: (1) Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Institute of Soil Landscape Research, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374, Muncheberg, Germany (2) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Zhongguancun South Str. 12, 100081, Beijing, People's Republic of China (3) Institute of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476, Potsdam, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 15/08/2011 Received Date: 18/02/2011 Accepted Date: 14/08/2011 Online Date: 10/09/2011 Article note: Responsible Editor: Hans Lambers.
    Keywords: Soil Erosion -- Analysis ; Steppes -- Analysis ; Dunes -- Analysis ; Sandstorms -- Analysis ; Sustainable Development -- Analysis ; Dust Storms -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Nature, March 31, 2016, Vol.531(7596), p.661(12)
    Description: (?-)Arrestins are important regulators of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)1-3. They bind to active, phosphorylated GPCRs and thereby shut off 'classical' signalling to G proteins3,4, trigger internalization of GPCRs via interaction with the clathrin machinery5-7 and mediate signalling via 'non-classical' pathways1,2. In addition to two visual arrestins that bind to rod and cone photoreceptors (termed arrestinl and arrestin4), there are only two (non-visual) ?-arrestin proteins (?-arrestin1 and ?-arrestin2, also termed arrestin2 and arrestin3), which regulate hundreds of different (non-visual) GPCRs. Binding of these proteins to GPCRs usually requires the active form of the receptors plus their phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs)1,3,4. Thebinding of receptors or their carboxy terminus as well as certain truncations induce active conformations of (?-)arrestins that have recently been solved by X-ray crystallography8-10. Here we investigate both the interaction of ?-arrestin with GPCRs, and the ?-arrestin conformational changes in real time and in living human cells, using a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based ?-arrestin2 biosensors. We observe receptor-specific patterns of conformational changes in ?-arrestin2 that occur rapidly after the receptor-?-arrestin2 interaction. After agonist removal, these changes persist for longer than the direct receptor interaction. Our data indicate a rapid, receptor-type-specific, two-step binding and activation process between GPCRs and ?-arrestins. They further indicate that ?-arrestins remain active after dissociation from receptors, allowing them to remain at the cell surface and presumably signal independently. Thus, GPCRs trigger a rapid, receptor-specific activation/deactivation cycle of ?-arrestins, which permits their active signalling.
    Keywords: Arrestins – Research ; G Proteins – Research ; Protein-Protein Interactions – Research
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 8
    In: Nature, 2016, Vol.531(7596), p.661
    Description: (β-)Arrestins are important regulators of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They bind to active, phosphorylated GPCRs and thereby shut off 'classical' signalling to G proteins, trigger internalization of GPCRs via interaction with the clathrin machinery and mediate signalling via 'non-classical' pathways. In addition to two visual arrestins that bind to rod and cone photoreceptors (termed arrestin1 and arrestin4), there are only two (non-visual) β-arrestin proteins (β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2, also termed arrestin2 and arrestin3), which regulate hundreds of different (non-visual) GPCRs. Binding of these proteins to GPCRs usually requires the active form of the receptors plus their phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The binding of receptors or their carboxy terminus as well as certain truncations induce active conformations of (β-)arrestins that have recently been solved by X-ray crystallography. Here we investigate both the interaction of β-arrestin with GPCRs, and the β-arrestin conformational changes in real time and in living human cells, using a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based β-arrestin2 biosensors. We observe receptor-specific patterns of conformational changes in β-arrestin2 that occur rapidly after the receptor-β-arrestin2 interaction. After agonist removal, these changes persist for longer than the direct receptor interaction. Our data indicate a rapid, receptor-type-specific, two-step binding and activation process between GPCRs and β-arrestins. They further indicate that β-arrestins remain active after dissociation from receptors, allowing them to remain at the cell surface and presumably signal independently. Thus, GPCRs trigger a rapid, receptor-specific activation/deactivation cycle of β-arrestins, which permits their active signalling.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Physics;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Biophysical Journal, 02 February 2018, Vol.114(3), pp.165a-165a
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0006-3495
    E-ISSN: 1542-0086
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 10
    Language: German
    In: NeuroTransmitter, 11/2013, Vol.24(S2), pp.16-20
    ISSN: 1436-123X
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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