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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2011, Vol.83(4), pp.502-509
    Description: ► Toxicity of sewage sludge in three different soils (loamy, sand and OECD) were tested. ► Sewage sludge toxicity was directly linked to type of soil. ► OECD soil had the higher negative influence on most of tested plants. Understanding the effect of soil type on the overall toxicity of sewage sludge is one of the most important issues concerning environmental risks associated with the sewage sludge land application. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different soils (sandy, loamy and OECD soil) on sewage sludges toxicity in relation to plants ( , , ) and an invertebrate species ( ). The most evident negative influence of sewage sludges on root growth was observed in the case of OECD soil. The EC values determined on the basis of the root growth inhibition of all tested plants were in the range 0.1–6.4%, 0.03–9.4% and 6.6–22.1% (% of sewage sludge kg soil) for OECD, sandy and loamy soil, respectively. Soil type also affects the sewage sludge toxicity in relation to . The LC (mortality) values ranged from 0.26% to 11.5% depending on the sludge tested. For EC (growth inhibition) values ranged from 10.7% to 36.2%.
    Keywords: Toxicity ; Sewage Sludge ; Soil ; Heterocypris Incongruens ; Phytotoxicity ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2015, Vol.138, p.176(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.05.072 Byline: Christine Hug, Moritz Sievers, Richard Ottermanns, Henner Hollert, Werner Brack, Martin Krauss Abstract: Display Omitted Article History: Received 22 January 2015; Revised 16 May 2015; Accepted 22 May 2015
    Keywords: Wastewater
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol. 9(9)
    Description: Purpose: Recently, a proof-of-concept study revealed the suitability of transcriptome analyses to obtain and assess changes in the abundance of transcripts in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos after exposure to organic sediment extracts. The present study investigated changes in the transcript abundance in zebrafish embryos exposed to whole sediment samples and corresponding organic extracts in order to identify the impact of different exposure pathways on sediment toxicity.Materials and Methods: Danio rerio embryos were exposed to sublethal concentrations of three sediment samples from the Danube River, Germany. The sediment samples were investigated both as freeze-dried samples and as organic extracts. Silica dust and a process control of the extraction procedure were used as references. After exposure, mRNA was isolated and changes in profiles of gene expression levels were examined by an oligonucleotide microarray. The microarray results were compared with bioassays, chemical analysis of the sediments and profiles of gene expression levels induced by several single substances.Results and Discussion: The microarray approach elucidated significant changes in the abundance of transcripts in exposed zebrafish embryos compared to the references. Generally, results could be related to Ah-receptor-mediated effects asconfirmed by bioassays and chemical analysis of dioxin-like contaminants, as well as to exposure to stress-inducing compounds. Furthermore, the results indicated that mixtures of chemicals, as present in sediment and extract samples, result in complex changes of gene expression level profiles difficult to compare with profiles induced by single chemical substances. Specifically, patterns of transcript abundances were less influenced by the chemical composition at the sampling site compared t the method of exposure (sediment/extract). This effect might be related to different bioavailability of chemicals.Conclusions: The apparent difference between the exposure scenarios is an important aspect that needs to be addressed when conducting analyses of alterations in the expression level of mRNA.
    Keywords: Natural Sciences ; Earth And Related Environmental Sciences ; Environmental Sciences ; Naturvetenskap ; Geovetenskap Och Miljövetenskap ; Miljövetenskap ; Enviromental Science ; Miljövetenskap
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: 2014, Vol.9(1), p.e85692
    Description: Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are, together with their un-substituted analogues, widely distributed throughout all environmental compartments. While fate and effects of homocyclic PAHs are well-understood, there are still data gaps concerning the ecotoxicology of heterocyclic PAHs: Only few publications are available investigating these substances using in vitro bioassays. Here, we present a study focusing on the identification and quantification of clastogenic and aneugenic effects in the micronucleus assay with the fish liver cell line RTL-W1 that was originally derived from rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ). Real concentrations of the test items after incubation without cells were determined to assess chemical losses due to, e.g., sorption or volatilization, by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to show genotoxic effects for six compounds that have not been reported in vertebrate systems before. Out of the tested substances, 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran, benzothiophene, quinoline and 6-methylquinoline did not cause substantial induction of micronuclei in the cell line. Acridine caused the highest absolute induction. Carbazole, acridine and dibenzothiophene were the most potent substances compared with 4-nitroquinoline oxide, a well characterized genotoxicant with high potency used as standard. Dibenzofuran was positive in our investigation and tested negative before in a mammalian system. Chemical losses during incubation ranged from 29.3% (acridine) to 91.7% (benzofuran) and may be a confounding factor in studies without chemical analyses, leading to an underestimation of the real potency. The relative potency of the investigated substances was high compared with their un-substituted PAH analogues, only the latter being typically monitored as priority or indicator pollutants. Hetero-PAHs are widely distributed in the environment and even more mobile, e.g. in ground water, than homocyclic PAHs due to the higher water solubility. We conclude that this substance class poses a high risk to water quality and should be included in international monitoring programs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Earth Sciences ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, November 2018, Vol.210, pp.110-119
    Description: The usage of pesticides has been steadily increasing over the last decades, and among them herbicides are the most commonly used ones. Despite their main mode of action targeting plant organisms, they can also have adverse effects on non-target animal organisms. In soil ecosystems, earthworms play an important role due to their positive impacts on the soil functioning and they represent good model organisms in soil ecotoxicology. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two herbicides on several endpoints at different levels of biological organization in the earthworm . Diuron and fluazifop- -butyl were selected for the investigation and their lethal concentrations were determined: LC 48 h: 89.087 μg/cm for diuron and 6.167 μg/cm for fluazifop- -butyl. Furthermore, measurements of enzymatic biomarkers (catalase (CAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CES) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)), multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) activity and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes (only for fluazifop- -butyl) were conducted. Enzymatic biomarker responses showed no significant differences compared to the control after the exposure to the investigated herbicides, whereas the MXR activity was significantly inhibited. The gene expression level of superoxide dismutase ( ) and glutathione S-transferase ( ) after fluazifop- -butyl exposure showed a significant increase. Finally, avoidance behavior in soil was assessed and it was determined that both herbicides caused significant avoidance response. The obtained results show that both investigated herbicides significantly affect earthworms on different levels of biological organization. This emphasizes the importance of comprehensive ecotoxicological assessment of herbicide effects on non-target organisms at all organizational levels.
    Keywords: Earthworms ; Herbicides ; Mortality ; Biomarkers ; Multixenobiotic Resistance Activity ; Avoidance Behavior ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 April 2018, Vol.619-620, pp.391-400
    Description: The effects of sediment contamination on fish are of high significance for the protection of ecosystems, human health and economy. However, standardized sediment bioassays with benthic fish species, that mimic bioavailability of potentially toxic compounds and comply with the requirements of alternative test methods, are still scarce. In order to address this issue, embryos of the benthic European weatherfish ( ) were exposed to freeze-dried sediment (via sediment contact assays (SCA)) and sediment extracts (via acute fish embryo toxicity tests) varying in contamination level. The extracts were gained by accelerated solvent extraction with (i) acetone and (ii) pressurized hot water (PHWE) and subsequently analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Furthermore, embryos of the predominately used zebrafish ( ) were exposed to extracts from the two most contaminated sediments. Results indicated sufficient robustness of weatherfish embryos towards varying test conditions and sensitivity towards relevant sediment-bound compounds. Furthermore, a compliance of effect concentrations derived from weatherfish embryos exposed to sediment extracts (96 h-LC ) with both measured gradient of sediment contamination and previously published results was observed. In comparison to zebrafish, weatherfish embryos showed higher sensitivity to the bioavailability-mimicking extracts from PHWE but lower sensitivity to extracts gained with acetone. SCAs conducted with weatherfish embryos revealed practical difficulties that prevented an implementation with three of four sediments tested. In summary, an application of weatherfish embryos, using bioassays with sediment extracts from PHWE might increase the ecological relevance of sediment toxicity testing: it allows investigations using benthic and temperate fish species considering both bioavailable contaminants and animal welfare concerns.
    Keywords: Acute Fish Embryo Toxicity Test ; Pressurized Hot Water Extraction ; Sediment Contact Assay ; Environmental Risk Assessment ; Alternative Test Method ; Early Life Stage ; Zebrafish ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 July 2017, Vol.590-591, pp.269-280
    Description: The present study compares two alternative approaches for the measurement of ethoxyresorufin- -deethylase (EROD) activity in zebrafish ( ) following exposure to acetonic model sediment extracts: (1) the live-imaging EROD assay for the direct detection of EROD induction in individual livers epifluorescence, and (2) the fish embryo EROD assay in subcellular fractions derived from entire zebrafish embryos after exposure. For toxicity assessment, each sediment extract was tested with the standard fish embryo test (FET). Upon completion of a functioning liver after 72 h, the embryos gave a distinct fluorescent signal in the liver, and a corresponding EROD activity could be detected in the fish embryo EROD assay. The exposure time in the live-imaging EROD assay was reduced to 3 h, which resulted in a stronger, less variable and more sensitive EROD response. Overall, the live-imaging and the fish embryo EROD assays showed the same tendencies and gave comparable results, a concentration-dependent increase in EROD activity at concentrations one order of magnitude below concentrations producing macroscopically visible abnormalities. At higher concentrations, however, a decrease of EROD activity was observed in either test. Both tests ranked the three model sediment extracts in the same order. Results indicate that both test systems complement each other and together provide a rapid and reliable tool to investigate the presence of dioxin-like substances in environmental samples.
    Keywords: Erod Induction ; Live-Imaging ; Cyp 1a ; In Vivo ; Zebrafish ; Embryo ; Sediment ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, Jan, 2015, Vol.196, p.114(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.10.003 Byline: Christine Hug, Martin Krauss, Leonie Nusser, Henner Hollert, Werner Brack Abstract: To implement metabolic activation by S9 rat liver homogenate in the selection of candidate promutagens in effect-directed analysis, we critically assessed the capability of LC-HRMS measurements to detect depletion and formation of metabolites by S9 exposure. The exposure of a reference mixture to S9 led to a depletion by 〉70% for most compounds. Other processes than metabolism were excluded as significant contribution to compound depletion. Metabolites formed by S9 exposure were identified and S9 metabolism was incorporated in the identification of candidate promutagens in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent with mutagenic activity only after metabolic activation by S9. The metabolism by S9 in the WWTP effluent was confirmed. Based on a candidate exclusion of all peaks not depleted, thus not activated by the S9 mix, the number of candidate promutagens was reduced by 40%. Selected remaining candidates were evaluated and identified, but could not be confirmed as promutagens. Author Affiliation: (a) Department Effect-Directed Analysis, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstra[sz]e 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany (b) Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany Article History: Received 26 June 2014; Revised 13 September 2014; Accepted 8 October 2014
    Keywords: Metabolites
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Biological Conservation, March, 2013, Vol.159, p.521(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.12.014 Byline: Roy M. Frings (a), Susanne C.K. Vae[sz]en (b), Harald Gro[sz] (c), Sebastian Roger (a), Holger Schuttrumpf (a), Henner Hollert (b) Keywords: Crayfish; Invasion; Barrier; Pacifastacus leniusculus; Flight response; Swimming Abstract: a* Indigenous crayfish are in great danger due to invading non-native signal crayfish. a* The invasion of non-native crayfish can be stopped by physical barriers. a* A new physical crayfish barrier was developed that allows fish migration. a* Barrier efficiency depends on barrier roughness, barrier slope and flow velocity. a* Signal crayfish can breach barriers by swimming backward. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Str. 1, 52056 Aachen, Germany (b) Department for Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany (c) Edelkrebsprojekt NRW, Neustra[sz]e 7, 53902 Bad Munstereifel, Germany Article History: Received 11 January 2012; Revised 3 December 2012; Accepted 8 December 2012
    Keywords: Water Resource Management -- Analysis ; Water Resources -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0006-3207
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Cleaner Production, 01 October 2016, Vol.133, pp.378-388
    Description: Due to the coal-dominated energy structure and increasing numbers of vehicles, gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions are increasing in many cities in China. These emissions have the potential to threaten human health, especially when aggregated in human settlement environments located in areas of rapid industrialization and urbanization. In this paper, an urban aggregating health risk assessment framework based on a multiple-pathways exposure model, dose–risk relationships and scenario analysis, using dust as an environmental medium is proposed and examined for future study. In a case study of Nanjing, several dust samples were collected from different functional areas and the aggregate risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in each sampling unit was assessed. The results indicated that non-carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk in Nanjing are currently acceptable, but cannot be ignored in the long term. The carcinogenic risk in the west of Nanjing was relatively high, but still acceptable, while it was lower in central and southeast Nanjing and lowest in the northeast. These results can be further utilized for urban planning. Future urban construction in Nanjing, especially residential construction, should be expanded to the south of the city rather than the west, to minimize the human health risk caused by industries.
    Keywords: Aggregate Risk ; Pahs ; Clea Model ; Human Settlement Environment ; Nanjing ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0959-6526
    E-ISSN: 1879-1786
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