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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, 2014, Vol.73, pp.540-551
    Keywords: Energy Metabolism – Analysis ; Socioeconomics – Analysis ; Energy Consumption – Analysis
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, October 2014, Vol.73, pp.540-551
    Description: Cities consume 80% of the world׳s energy; therefore, analyzing urban energy metabolism and the resulting carbon footprint provides basic data for formulating target carbon emission reductions. While energy metabolism includes both direct and indirect consumptions among sectors, few researchers have studied indirect consumption due to a lack of data. In this study, we used input–output analysis to calculate the energy flows among directly linked sectors. Building on this, we used ecological network analysis to develop a model of urban energy flows and also account for energy consumption embodied by the flows among indirectly linked sectors (represented numerically as paths with a length of 2 or more). To illustrate the model, monetary input–output tables for Beijing from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed to determine the embodied energy consumption and associated carbon footprints of these sectors. This analysis reveals the environmental pressure based on the source (energy consumption) and sink (carbon footprint) values. Indirect consumption was Beijing׳s primary form, and the carbon footprint therefore resulted mainly from indirect consumption (both accounting for ca. 60% of the total, though with considerable variation among sectors). To reduce emissions, the utilization efficiency of indirect consumption must improve.
    Keywords: Energy Metabolism ; Embodied Energy ; Carbon Footprint ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    E-ISSN: 1873-6777
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 10 May 2017, Vol.351, pp.51-62
    Description: China’s strategy for synergetic development of the Jing-Jin-Ji urban agglomeration is providing a great opportunity for this region. The development of urban agglomeration has promoted energy transmission and transference within the urban system. Therefore, identifying the mechanisms of energy flow processes within the agglomeration is important for integrated and sustainable regional development. Using the concept of “urban metabolism”, we constructed an 18-sector network model that represented sectors and energy flow as nodes and pathways, respectively. Next, based on the multi-regional input-output table of China in 2010, we converted monetary values into physical units. Then, by combining these physical units with ecological network analysis, we detailed energy flow processes and calculated energy consumption on sectoral and regional scales. The results showed that the greatest amount of energy was consumed by industry. Beijing was the dominant integrated energy consumer, and most of this energy was consumed by the other services sector. Furthermore, the wholesale and retail sector, and the other services sector in Beijing, and the industry sectors in Tianjin and Hebei, were core sectors in the agglomeration. Tianjin and Hebei were net energy exporters, while Beijing acted as a net importer. This research provides a scientific basis for industrial structure adjustment and optimized energy utilization in the future synergetic development of the agglomeration.
    Keywords: Urban Metabolism ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Input-Output Analysis ; Integrated Energy ; Jing-Jin-Ji ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, Jan 15, 2014, Vol.468-469, p.642(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.047 Byline: Yan Zhang, Hongmei Zheng, Brian D. Fath, Hong Liu, Zhifeng Yang, Gengyuan Liu, Meirong Su Abstract: If cities are considered as "superorganisms", then disorders of their metabolic processes cause something analogous to an "urban disease". It is therefore helpful to identify the causes of such disorders by analyzing the inner mechanisms that control urban metabolic processes. Combining input-output analysis with ecological network analysis lets researchers study the functional relationships and hierarchy of the urban metabolic processes, thereby providing direct support for the analysis of urban disease. In this paper, using Beijing as an example, we develop a model of an urban metabolic system that accounts for the intensity of the embodied ecological elements using monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, and use this data to compile the corresponding physical input-output tables. This approach described the various flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes and let us build an ecological network model with 32 components. Then, using two methods from ecological network analysis (flow analysis and utility analysis), we quantitatively analyzed the physical input-output relationships among urban components, determined the ecological hierarchy of the components of the metabolic system, and determined the distribution of advantage-dominated and disadvantage-dominated relationships, thereby providing scientific support to guide restructuring of the urban metabolic system in an effort to prevent or cure urban "diseases". Article History: Received 16 May 2013; Revised 8 August 2013; Accepted 17 August 2013 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: Simon James Pollard
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, June 24, 2015, Vol.306, p.174(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.05.005 Byline: Yan Zhang, Hongmei Zheng, Brian D. Fath Abstract: * The Lubei system is dominated by exploitation and control relationships. * The circular structure plays an important role in the sulfur flows. * The ecological structure of the system forms a pyramidal hierarchy. Author Affiliation: (a) State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Xinjiekouwai Street No. 19, Beijing 100875, China (b) Biology Department, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252, USA (c) Advanced Systems Analysis Program, International Institute for Applied System Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
    Keywords: Sulfur Compounds – Case Studies ; Pollution Control – Case Studies ; Industrial Districts – Case Studies
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Applied Surface Science, 01 May 2012, Vol.258(14), pp.5305-5311
    Description: ► We introduce a simple and efficient approach for removal of oxide barrier layer of AAO membranes. ► Pore diameter and morphology of AAO membranes can be precisely controlled by this novel approach. ► Shape of AAO membrane pore prepared by tradition method is truncated cone shaped. ► Pore shape of AAO membrane fabricated by novel method is cylindrical. ► Truncated cone shaped pores of AAO templates can be used to fabricate one-dimensional gradient metal nanowires. The well aligned porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane is fabricated by a two-step anodization method. The oxide barrier layer of AAO membrane must be removed to get through-hole membrane for synthesizing nanowires and nanotubes of metals, semiconductors and conducting polymers. Removal of the barrier layer of oxide and pore-extending is of significant importance for the preparation of AAO membrane with through-hole pore morphology and desired pore diameter. The conventional method for pore opening is that AAO membrane after removing of aluminum substrate is immersed in chemical etching solution, which is completely empirical and results in catastrophic damage for AAO membrane frequently. A very simple and efficient approach based on capillary action for detecting pore opening of AAO membrane is introduced in this paper, this method can achieve the detection for pore opening visually and control the pore diameter precisely to get desired morphology and the pore diameter of AAO membrane. Two kinds of AAO membranes with different pore shape were obtained by different pore opening methods. In addition, one-dimensional gradient gold nanowires are also fabricated by electrodeposition based on AAO membranes.
    Keywords: Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane ; Pore-Opening ; Pore-Extending ; Oxide Barrier Layer ; Gold Nanowires ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0169-4332
    E-ISSN: 1873-5584
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 24 June 2015, Vol.306, pp.174-184
    Description: China's Shandong Lubei eco-industrial park was approved for construction in 2003, just after the first national eco-industrial demonstration parks were confirmed by China's State Environmental Protection Administration in 2002. It has therefore been recognized around the world as a successful example of an industrial symbiosis system. The park's success results from the harmonious and coordinated relationships among its members. Analyzing the ecological characteristics of these relationships and identifying the resulting advantages provide a basis for improving the park's efficiency and examining other parks. In this paper, we analyzed the flows of sulfur in the Lubei park (as an example of typical flows) using ecological network analysis to describe this industrial symbiosis system. The integrated analysis of the utility resulting from direct and indirect exchanges of byproducts and wastes can reflect the ecological relationships among members within the system. Based on these ecological relationships, members can be divided into producers, primary consumers, and secondary consumers; the integral flow weight for each level of the hierarchy can then be compared to reveal the system's overall ecological structure. By examining the exchanges of resources within the system, we can describe the ecological connotations of the symbiosis and how these ecological relationships influence the overall development and resource flows within the system.
    Keywords: Industrial Symbiosis ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Utility Analysis ; Lubei Eco-Industrial Park ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 10 October 2016, Vol.337, pp.29-38
    Description: The consumption of food, energy, and industrial products in cities results in large quantities of excess nitrogen circulating in socio-ecological systems. However, details about how nitrogen flows and transforms within urban systems are unclear. In this study, we analyzed the nitrogen processes of Beijing considering the influences from human activities and nature under the framework of urban metabolism. Ecological network analysis was used to track the integral (direct + indirect) flows and to compare the contribution of direct and indirect flows at both the scale of each component and of the whole urban system during the period from 1996 to 2012. We found that Atmosphere, Household, and Industry had the most interactions with other nodes in the network. The integral flow from Industry to Atmosphere, which was consistently at 200 Gg, was the largest at five time points; the flow from Household to Sewage treatment grew fastest, and in 2012, increased to 5.9 times its 1996 value; the flow from Industry to Farmland decreased most obviously, and in 2012, it decreased to 12.9% of the value in 1996. Moreover, the indirect effects were dominant for the whole system in Beijing with a ratio of indirect to direct flow equal to 1.2. Surface Water and Forest had the strongest indirect effects maintaining a ratio of almost 2. Meanwhile, exploitation and competition relations were most frequent and their proportions were much larger than the proportion of mutualism relations. Through our results, integral flows were found to identify accurately the crucial process of nitrogen metabolism and our results showed how these ecological relationships influence the urban nitrogen flows within the system.
    Keywords: Urban Ecology ; Nitrogen Cycles ; Metabolism ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Ecological Relationship ; Beijing ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, November 2015, Vol.86, pp.651-663
    Description: Chinese regions frequently exchange materials, but regional differences in economic development create unbalanced flows of these resources. In this study, we examined energy by assessing embodied energy consumption to describe the energy-flow structure in China's seven regions. Based on multi-regional monetary input–output tables and energy statistical yearbooks for Chinese provinces in 2002 and 2007, we accounted for both direct and indirect energy consumption, respectively, and the integral input and output of the provinces. Most integral inputs of energy flowed from north to south or from east to west, whereas integral output flows were mainly from northeast to southwest. This differed from the direct flows, which were predominantly from north to south and west to east. This demonstrates the importance of calculating both direct and indirect energy flows. Analysis of the distance and direction traveled by the energy consumption centers of gravity showed that the centers for embodied energy consumption and inputs moved southeast because of the movements of the centers of the Eastern region. However, the center for outputs moved northeast because the movement of the Central region. These analyses provide a basis for identifying how regional economic development policies influence the embodied energy consumption and its flows among regions.
    Keywords: Urban Ecology ; Embodied Energy ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Multi-Regional Input–Output ; China ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    E-ISSN: 1873-6777
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 24 November 2015, Vol.316, pp.144-154
    Description: Global climate change has aroused widespread interest in reducing carbon emissions and increasing carbon sequestration. Thus, an urban carbon inventory must consider both emissions and sequestration. In this context, we analyzed the main contributors to the flows that comprise a city's carbon metabolic processes employing methods and concepts from ecological science. The carbon emissions and sequestration by urban carbon metabolic processes can be compared to ecological catabolism and anabolism, respectively. We used empirical coefficients to estimate the rates of carbon catabolism and anabolism and calculate the resulting carbon imbalance index. Our analysis reveals the contributions of individual metabolic actors and the distribution of the metabolic flows among them. Taking Beijing as a case study, we found that the catabolic rate of the metabolic actors was more than five times the anabolic rate from 1995 to 2010, leading to a carbon imbalance index that was twice the average Chinese level. The major catabolic actors were the other services and domestic sectors. These catabolic rates were primarily influenced by the flows of electricity, heating energy consumption, and mobile energy consumption. The overall carbon imbalance resulted from greatly reduced metabolic flows in farmland anabolism due to conversion of farmland into urban land. Identifying the metabolic actors and flows in this manner will inform government mitigation efforts by identifying where reduction is required and guiding planning of appropriate mitigation actions. Our study also provides directions for conservation of the urban ecological environment.
    Keywords: Urban Metabolism ; Catabolism ; Anabolism ; Technological Metabolism ; Carbon Accounting ; Carbon Imbalance ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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