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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, March, 2013, Vol.77(2), p.372(10)
    Description: A typical soil shrinkage curve is S-shaped and composed of four phases termed structural, proportional, residual, and zero shrinkage. However, many studies have not found all four soil shrinkage phases despite investigating the full spectrum of soil moisture content. The objectives of this paper were to determine different soil shrinkage types based on the presence of shrinkage phases and to define relationships between the parameters of different shrinkage types and soil properties. A total of 270 sets of shrinkage data were collected from published (N = 245) and our unpublished work (N = 25), covering a wide range of soil types, sample sizes, and measurement methods. According to the presence of different shrinkage phases, six types of soil shrinkage curves were classified using the shrinkage model proposed by Peng and Horn (2005). Soil shrinkage types generally depended on soil structure, but not on the measurement method. The coefficient of linear extensibility (COLE) had a positive relation with saturated soil bulk density (r = 0.50, P 〈 0.001), clay content (r = 0.20, P 〈 0.05), and soil organic carbon (SOC) content (r = 0.46, P 〈 0.001). This paper is the first to propose six soil shrinkage types that will improve our understanding of the relationship between soil structure and soil water content.
    Keywords: Shrinkage (Materials) -- Analysis ; Soil Moisture -- Environmental Aspects ; Soil Research
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2015, Vol.517(7536), p.553
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    Source: Nature Publishing Group
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 1/2015, Vol.517(7536), pp.553-553
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Publishing Group (via CrossRef)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2011, Vol.340(1), pp.59-72
    Description: Over the last few decades, due to increase in grazing intensity, animal trampling has led to soil structure deterioration in Inner Mongolia, China. We investigated two different steppe ecosystems: Leymus chinensis (LCh, characterized by relatively higher precipitation) and Stipa grandis (SG) and two grazing intensities: ungrazed since 1979 (UG79) and grazed (continuously grazed, CG, at the Stipa grandis site and winter grazed, WG, at Leymus chinensis ). Soil mechanical and hydraulic properties of semiarid steppe soils from each site and treatment were determined for soil aggregates and disturbed and bulk soil samples from different depths (4–8, 18–22, 30–34 and 56–60 cm for disturbed and bulk samples and 0–15 cm for the aggregates). Grazing causes a significant increase in tensile strength of aggregates and in the precompression stress of the bulk soil as well as a decrease in air and saturated hydraulic conductivity, irrespective of the vegetation type. Furthermore, exclusion from grazing led to more pronounced recovery of soil strength and pore continuity and hydraulic conductivity at the LCh site but it also depended on the moisture conditions of the sites. Under wetter conditions as well as after repeated freezing and thawing the soil strength declined.
    Keywords: Grazing ; Precompression stress ; Aggregate tensile strength ; Repellency index ; Steppe
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2011, Vol.340(1), pp.89-102
    Description: Long-term monitoring of soil properties reveals site-specific ecosystem shifts in soil processes due to land use and climate changes. This paper aims to study the effects of physical landscape changes associated with grazing on soil thermal and moisture regime at the plot scale in a semiarid Leymus chinensis steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. The investigated sites were subjected to three grazing intensities: ungrazed since 1979 (UG79), moderately grazed only in winter time (WG), and heavily grazed (HG). At each plot, we recorded the soil moisture and temperature over a 6-year period that spanned between June 2004 and September 2009 and experienced a large range in precipitation (162 to 362 mm). Based on these monitoring data, we divided a year into four hydric periods: (1) growing period (late April to August); (2) transitional period from summer to winter (September–October); (3) winter time (November–first March); and (4) transitional period from winter to summer (March–April). In general, soil moisture in grazed sites was lower than in the ungrazed site, particularly for the 30–50 cm soil layer. Seasonal fluctuation of the soil moisture, due to variable precipitation and atmospheric demands, was most significant in the topsoil (0–10 cm) and was less pronounced in deeper soil. Regardless of hydric seasons, soil moisture was significantly influenced by grazing intensity, whereas soil temperature was slightly influenced. With increasing grazing intensity, soil water storage decreased remarkably. Consequently, grazing reduced plant available water and therefore grassland productivity, which are linked to a great extent with the trampling-induced soil structure change and soil moisture regime.
    Keywords: Long-term monitoring ; Grazing intensity ; Soil moisture ; Soil temperature ; Plant available water ; Semiarid steppe
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Nature, Jan 29, 2015, Vol.517(7536), p.553(1)
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Nature, Jan 29, 2015, Vol.517(7536), p.553(1)
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, 2010, Vol.111(1), pp.1-2
    Keywords: Agriculture
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    E-ISSN: 1879-3444
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, March-April, 2014, Vol.78(2), p.408(14)
    Description: Reducing the traffic intensity and the mitigation of unnecessary traffic especially with heavy vehicles and high ground contact stress are basic requirements for preventing harmful soil compaction. This study focuses on quantifying traffic intensity and evaluating soil compaction risks during silage maize (Zea mays L.) harvest. Based on GPS data recorded by farm vehicles used on two study fields, wheel track patterns and the corresponding contact stresses have been modeled, using empirical approaches. Modeling the wheel track patterns considers the vehicle characteristics (e.g., axle width, tire type and size, and machine weight), and the changes in wheel load and contact stress during loading. The modeling results reveal that up to 62.8% of the field area had been trafficked during a single harvest. Between 16.4 and 26.8% of the field had been subjected to contact stresses exceeding 100 kPa. The actual vehicle-induced stresses calculated for the wheel track patterns were applied to model the stress distribution inside of the soil according to a method described by Horn and Fleige. The susceptibility of wheeled soil horizons to soil compaction was derived from a ratio between precompression stress and soil stress, which provides a useful measure of effective soil strength. Based on three scenarios, this article discusses how geospatial simulations might contribute to soil sustainability through an improved management of field traffic. Simulation results suggest that the risk of plastic subsoil deformation might be reduced from about 70% (related to the wheel track area) at water saturation to 〈5% at a matric potential of pF 2.5.
    Keywords: Corn -- Environmental Aspects ; Compacting -- Research ; Soil Stabilization -- Research ; Soil Research
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
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  • 10
    In: Nature, 2007, Vol.448(7150), p.130
    Keywords: Abstracting & Indexing As Topic ; Biological Science Disciplines ; Databases, Factual ; Humans ; Information Storage & Retrieval;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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