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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, April, 2012, Vol.87(3), p.137(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.12.004 Byline: Gwenaelle Lashermes (a), Enrique Barriuso (a), Sabine Houot (a) Keywords: Composting; Fluoranthene; Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS); Nonylphenol (NP); Glyphosate; Non-extractable residues Abstract: a* The dissipation pathway of.sup.14C-organic pollutants varies during composting. a* Total mineralization as CO.sub.2 explains linear alkylbenzene sulfonate dissipation. a* The formation of non-extractable residues also involved in nonylphenol dissipation. a* Both pathways involved for glyphosate and very little dissipation for fluoranthene. a* The proportion of easily available pollutant is always low in the final compost. Author Affiliation: (a) INRA, UMR1091, Environnement et Grandes Cultures, INRA-AgroParisTech, F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France Article History: Received 25 July 2011; Revised 30 November 2011; Accepted 1 December 2011
    Keywords: Sulfonic Acids -- Environmental Aspects ; Herbicides -- Environmental Aspects ; Pollutants -- Environmental Aspects ; Alkylphenols -- Environmental Aspects ; Alkylbenzene -- Environmental Aspects ; Alkylbenzene Sulfonate -- Environmental Aspects
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, April 2012, Vol.87(2), pp.137-143
    Description: ► The dissipation pathway of C-organic pollutants varies during composting. ► Total mineralization as CO explains linear alkylbenzene sulfonate dissipation. ► The formation of non-extractable residues also involved in nonylphenol dissipation. ► Both pathways involved for glyphosate and very little dissipation for fluoranthene. ► The proportion of easily available pollutant is always low in the final compost. The organic pollutants (OPs) present in compostable organic residues can be recovered in the final composts leading to environmental impacts related to their use in agriculture. However, the composting process may contribute to their partial dissipation that is classically evaluated through the concentration decrease in extractable OPs, without identification of the responsible mechanisms as mineralization or stabilization of OP as non-extractable residues (NER) or bound residues. The dissipation of four C-labeled OPs (fluoranthene; 4- -nonylphenol, NP; sodium linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate, LAS; glyphosate) was assessed during composting of sewage sludge and green waste. The dissipation of LAS largely resulted from its mineralization (51% of initial LAS), whereas mineralization was intermediate for NP (29%) and glyphosate (24%), and negligible for fluoranthene. The NER pathway mostly concerned NP and glyphosate, with 45% and 37% of the recovered C being found as NER at the end of composting, respectively. In the final composts, the proportions of water soluble residues of OPs considered as readily available were 〈11% of recovered C-OPs. However, most fluoranthene remained solvent extractable (72%) and potentially available, whereas only 18% of glyphosate and less than 7% of both NP and LAS remained solvent extractable in the final compost.
    Keywords: Composting ; Fluoranthene ; Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) ; Nonylphenol (Np) ; Glyphosate ; Non-Extractable Residues ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Management, March, 2012, Vol.95, p.S238-S244
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.10.042 Byline: Antoine Cellier (a), Cedric Francou (b), Sabine Houot (c), Christine Ballini (a), Thierry Gauquelin (a), Virginie Baldy (a) Abstract: In Mediterranean region, forest fires are a major problem leading to the desertification of the environment. Use of composts is considered as a solution for soil and vegetation rehabilitation. In this study, we determined under laboratory conditions the effects of three urban composts and their mode of application (laid on the soil surface or mixed into the soil) on soil restoration after fire: a municipal waste compost (MWC), a compost of sewage sludge mixed with green waste (SSC) and a green waste compost (GWC). Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralisation, total microbial biomass, fungal biomass and soil characteristics were measured during 77-day incubations in microcosms. The impact of composts input on hydrological behaviour related to erodibility was estimated by measuring runoff, retention and percolation (i.e. infiltration) of water using a rainfall simulator under laboratory conditions. Input of composts increased organic matter and soil nutrient content, and enhanced C and N mineralisation and total microbial biomass throughout the incubations, whereas it increased sporadically fungal biomass. For all these parameters, the MWC induced the highest improvement while GWC input had no significant effect compared to the control. Composts mixed with soil weakly limited runoff and infiltration whereas composts laid at the soil surface significantly reduced runoff and increased percolation and retention, particularly with the MWC. Author Affiliation: (a) Institut Mediterraneen d'Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, UMR CNRS 6116, Aix-Marseille Universite, Centre Saint-Charles - case 4, 3, place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 03, France (b) VEOLIA Environment - Research and Innovation, 291 Avenue Dreyfous Ducas, F78520 Limay, France (c) Environment and Arable Crops, Unite Mixte de Recherche INRA-INAPG, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France Article History: Received 29 September 2009; Revised 2 September 2010; Accepted 19 October 2010
    Keywords: Sludge -- Usage ; Forest Fires -- Usage ; Urban Renewal -- Usage ; Runoff -- Usage
    ISSN: 0301-4797
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Oct, 2013, Vol.65, p.144(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.05.023 Byline: Maha Chalhoub, Patricia Garnier, Yves Coquet, Bruno Mary, Francois Lafolie, Sabine Houot Abstract: Regular application of composts on cropped soils has been shown to restore soil organic matter contents. The effect of repeated applications of three urban composts on the nitrogen (N) dynamics in a cropped loamy soil was compared to farmyard manure application and a control receiving no amendment. Each amendment application brought on average 250-400 kg ha.sup.-1 of total N. After five applications, total organic N increased in amended soils from 9 to 27% compared to control and the increase of soil organic N corresponded to 32-79% of total N brought by the amendments. The PASTIS model was used to describe the N balance in the soil-plant system during the 2 years after a sixth amendment application and provided correct predictions of N dynamics in cropped plots. The N availability increased in all treatments receiving organic amendments. The N availability in the soils amended with urban composts or manure was predominantly driven by the biodegradability of the organic amendments, their mineral N content and by the cropping conditions. Composts with high biodegradability exhibited higher proportion of N recovery by plants (21% for the municipal solid waste compost) during the year following their application, while more stabilised composts (biowaste compost, co-compost of sludge and green wastes) increased the N availability mainly through the increase of soil organic N content and mineralisation after several compost applications (6-8% of the soil organic N increase). Mature composts behaved comparably to FYM, except that for FYM very little N from the last application was available. Regular compost applications equivalent to 200 kg N ha.sup.-1 every other year could increase N availability for crops of 50-70 kg N ha.sup.-1 over the 2 years of the crop rotation. However, the most stabilised composts led to a higher crop N recovery but also to potential higher amounts of leached N compared to less mature composts. Author Affiliation: (a) INRA, UMR 1091 INRA-AgroParisTech Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (b) AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 INRA-AgroParisTech Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (c) INRA, US 1158 Agro-Impact, F-02000 Barenton Bugny, France (d) INRA, UMR1114 INRA-UAPV EMMAH, F-84914 Avignon, France Article History: Received 17 October 2012; Revised 19 May 2013; Accepted 20 May 2013
    Keywords: Loams -- Technology Application ; Cropping Systems -- Technology Application ; Municipal Solid Wastes -- Usage ; Municipal Solid Wastes -- Technology Application
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Sept, 2012, Vol.52, p.49(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.03.023 Byline: Clement Peltre (a), Bent T. Christensen (b), Sophie Dragon (c), Christian Icard (c), Thomas Katterer (d), Sabine Houot (a) Abstract: Multi-compartment soil carbon (C) simulation models such as RothC are widely used for predicting changes in C stocks of arable soils. However, rigorous routines for establishing entry pools that account for the diversity of exogenous organic matter (EOM) applied to croplands are still lacking. We obtained data on changes in soil C stocks after repeated applications of EOM from four long-term experiments (LTEs): Askov K2 (Denmark, 31 yrs), Qualiagro (France, 11 yrs), SERAIL (France, 14 yrs) and Ultuna (Sweden, 52 yrs). The adjustment of the partition coefficients of total organic C in EOM (EOM-TOC) into the labile, resistant and humified entry pools of RothC (f.sub.DPM, f.sub.RPM, f.sub.HUM, respectively) provided a successful fit to the accumulation of EOM-derived C in the LTE soils. Equations estimating the EOM partition coefficients in the RothC model were based on an indicator (I.sub.ROC) of the EOM-TOC potentially retained in soil. I.sub.ROC was derived from the C found in the soluble, lignin + cutin-like and cellulose-like Van Soest fractions and the proportion of EOM-TOC mineralized during 3 days of incubation. Using the EOM partition coefficients derived from these laboratory analyses resulted in RothC simulations with only slightly larger errors than simulations based on partition coefficients fitted from LTE soil data, except for EOMs that caused very large accumulations of C in soil (e.g. peat) possibly due to factors not accounted for in the RothC model, such as change in soil pH. The proposed partitioning of EOM-TOC allows the potential soil C storage after EOM applications to be predicted regardless of field location and specific composition of EOMs. Author Affiliation: (a) INRA, UMR 1091 Environment and Arable Crops, INRA-AgroParisTech, F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France (b) Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, AU Foulum, P.O.Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark (c) Ctifl/SERAIL Experimental Station, 123 chemin du Finday, F-69126 Brindas, France (d) Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden Article History: Received 1 February 2012; Revised 14 March 2012; Accepted 19 March 2012
    Keywords: Peat -- Usage ; Universities And Colleges ; Computer Simulation ; Soil Carbon ; Soil Acidity ; Lignin
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, February 2011, Vol.43(2), pp.431-437
    Description: Twelve differently-managed silty soils from North-Western France were chosen to compare two common methods of quantifying soil microbial biomass: Chloroform fumigation and extraction-labile carbon (CL_C) and microbial double stranded DNA (dsDNA). We also determined the contributions of each of the fungal, bacterial, and plant kingdoms to the total community dsDNA using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction with kingdom-specific ribosomal primer sets. Regardless of the method, the highest microbial biomasses were associated with long-term untilled plots. Site (locations) specificities could also be detected, especially in conventionally cultivated lands. Regardless of site, a strong linear relationship could be drawn between CL_C and dsDNA in tilled lands (  = 0.91,  = 15,  = 0.01) and in grasslands (  = 0.78,  = 21,  = 0.01). Moreover, we propose a logarithmic model describing all of our silty soils, irrespective of management. In order to explain the non-linearity (log) of this relationship, we tested the hypothesis of a weak plant dsDNA contribution in total dsDNA in comparison with the well-documented root cell contribution to CL_C quantifications. Plant dsDNA never exceeded 2.6% of total dsDNA content for all of the soils studied. Among groups examined, the bacterial dsDNA contribution to the community dsDNA pool was the most site- and/or pedoclimatic-dependent. Fungi constituted a major component of total microbial biomass in grassland or in land with permanent plant cover where their proportion reached almost 50% of total dsDNA. More precisely, fungal dsDNA concentration was highly related to tillage. Our study demonstrated the expediency of the total microbial dsDNA quantification in agricultural silty soils rather than the time-consuming quantification of CL_C. Quantifying the relative contribution of bacterial or fungal biomass in total dsDNA by real-time PCR allows to access to a new level of knowledge of the soil microbial biomass and to reveal the balances between those two kingdoms according to soils or farming practices. ► A strong logarithmic relationship can be drawn between Chloroform Labile Carbon and soil dsDNA for tilled lands and grasslands. ► The contribution of fungal, bacterial and plant dsDNA to total dsDNA extracted from soil can be estimated by real time PCR using universal primers for each kingdom. ► Fungal dsDNA concentration is highly related to tillage.
    Keywords: Land Management ; Grassland ; Microbial Biomass ; Chloroform-Labile C ; Microbial Dsdna ; Real-Time Pcr ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 November 2014, Vol.499, pp.546-559
    Description: Transport processes in soils are strongly affected by heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity at the local scale within agricultural fields. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro (INRA–Veolia partnership 1998–2013) explores the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by tillage practices and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence of heterogeneity due to soil tillage and compost application affects water flow and pesticide dynamics in soil during a long-term period. The study was done on a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW) applied once every 2 years since 1998. The plot was cultivated with a biannual rotation of winter wheat–maize (except 1 year of barley) and a four-furrow moldboard plow was used for tillage. In each plot, wick lysimeter outflow and TDR probe data were collected at different depths from 2004, while tensiometer measurements were also conducted during 2007/2008. Isoproturon concentration was measured in lysimeter outflow since 2004. Detailed profile description was used to locate different soil structures in the profile, which was then implemented in the HYDRUS-2D model. Four zones were identified in the plowed layer: compacted clods with no visible macropores (Δ), non-compacted soil with visible macroporosity (Γ), interfurrows created by moldboard plowing containing crop residues and applied compost (IF), and the plow pan (PP) created by plowing repeatedly to the same depth. Isoproturon retention and degradation parameters were estimated from laboratory batch sorption and incubation experiments, respectively, for each structure independently. Water retention parameters were estimated from pressure plate laboratory measurements and hydraulic conductivity parameters were obtained from field tension infiltrometer experiments. Soil hydraulic properties were optimized on one calibration year (2007/08) using pressure head, water content and lysimeter outflow data, and then tested on the whole 2004/2010 period. Lysimeter outflow and water content dynamics in the soil profile were correctly described for the whole period (model efficiency coefficient: 0.99) after some correction of LAI estimates for wheat (2005/06) and barley (2006/07). Using laboratory-measured degradation rates and assuming degradation only in the liquid phase caused large overestimation of simulated isoproturon losses in lysimeter outflow. A proper order of magnitude of isoproturon losses was obtained after considering that degradation occurred in solid (sorbed) phase at a rate 75% of that in liquid phase. Isoproturon concentrations were found to be highly sensitive to degradation rates. Neither the laboratory-measured isoproturon fate parameters nor the independently-derived soil hydraulic parameters could describe the actual multiannual field dynamics of water and isoproturon without calibration. However, once calibrated on a limited period of time (9 months), HYDRUS-2D was able to simulate the whole 6-year time series with good accuracy.
    Keywords: Soil Heterogeneity ; Water Flow ; Isoproturon ; Numerical Modeling ; Hydrus-2d ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, March 2018, Vol.616-617, pp.658-668
    Description: A new model that was able to simulate the behaviours of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during composting and after the addition of the composts to agricultural soil is presented here. This model associates modules that describe the physical, biological and biochemical processes involved in PAH dynamics in soils, along with a module describing the compost degradation resulting in PAH release. The model was calibrated from laboratory incubations using three C-PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, and three different composts consisting of two mature and one non-mature composts. First, the labelled PAHs were added to the compost over 28 days, and spiked composts were then added to the soil over 55 days. The model calculates the proportion of biogenic and physically bound residues in the non-extractable compartment of PAHs at the end of the compost incubation to feed the initial conditions of the model for soil amended with composts. For most of the treatments, a single parameter set enabled to simulate the observed dynamics of PAHs adequately for all the amended soil treatments using a Bayesian approach. However, for fluoranthene, different parameters that were able to simulate the growth of a specific microbial biomass had to be considered for mature compost. Processes that occurred before the compost application to the soil strongly influenced the fate of PAHs in the soil. Our results showed that the PAH dissipation during compost incubation was higher in mature composts because of the higher specific microbial activity, while the PAH dissipation in amended soil was higher in the non-mature compost because of the higher availability of PAHs and the higher co-metabolic microbial activity.
    Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon ; Model ; Soil ; Compost ; Bounded Residue ; Bayesian Approach ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(10), p.e47002
    Description: The water budget of soil, the uptake in plants and the leaching to groundwater of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were simulated simultaneously using a physiological plant uptake model and a tipping buckets water and solute transport model for soil. Simulations were compared to results from a ten-year experimental field study, where four organic amendments were applied every second year. Predicted concentrations slightly decreased (Cd) or stagnated (Pb) in control soils, but increased in amended soils by about 10% (Cd) and 6% to 18% (Pb). Estimated plant uptake was lower in amended plots, due to an increase of K d (dry soil to water partition coefficient). Predicted concentrations in plants were close to measured levels in plant residues (straw), but higher than measured concentrations in grains. Initially, Pb was mainly predicted to deposit from air into plants (82% in 1998); the next years, uptake from soil became dominating (30% from air in 2006), because of decreasing levels in air. For Cd, predicted uptake from air into plants was negligible (1–5%).
    Keywords: Research Article ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Computer Science ; Engineering ; Chemistry ; Plant Biology ; Computer Science
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    In: Global Change Biology, February 2014, Vol.20(2), pp.633-640
    Description: The impact of climate change on the stability of soil organic carbon () remains a major source of uncertainty in predicting future changes in atmospheric levels. One unsettled issue is whether the mineralization response to temperature depends on mineralization rate. Long‐term (〉25 years) bare fallow experiments () in which the soil is kept free of any vegetation and organic inputs, and their associated archives of soil samples represent a unique research platform to examine this issue as with increasing duration of fallow, the lability of remaining total decreases. We retrieved soils from experiments situated at Askov (Denmark), Grignon (France), Ultuna (Sweden), and Versailles (France) and sampled at the start of the experiments and after 25, 50, 52, and 79 years of bare fallow, respectively. Soils were incubated at 4, 12, 20, and 35 °C and the evolved monitored. The apparent activation energy () of was then calculated for similar loss of at the different temperatures. The was always higher for samples taken at the end of the bare‐fallow period, implying a higher temperature sensitivity of stable than of labile . Our results provide strong evidence for a general relationship between temperature sensitivity and stability upon which significant improvements in predictive models could be based.
    Keywords: Activation Energy ; Long‐Term Bare Fallow Experiments ; Soil Carbon Dynamic ; Stable Soil Carbon ; Temperature Sensitivity
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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