Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia, June 2015, Vol.159(2), pp.166-77
The aim of this review is to provide the information about molecular basis of hypoxia-induced chemoresistance, focusing on the possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic use. Hypoxia is a common feature of tumors and represents an independent prognostic factor in many cancers. It is the result of imbalances in the intake and consumption of oxygen caused by abnormal vessels in the tumor and the rapid proliferation of cancer cells. Hypoxia-induced resistance to cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, melphalan, 5-flouoruracil, gemcitabine, and docetaxel has been reported in a number of experiments. Adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia has important biological effects. The most studied factor responsible for these effects is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) that significantly contributes to the aggressiveness and chemoresistance of different tumors. The HIF-1 complex, induced by hypoxia, binds to target genes, thereby increasing the expression of many genes. In addition, the expression of hundreds of genes can be also decreased in response to hypoxia in HIF-1 dependent manner, but without the detection of HIF-1 in these genes' promoters. HIF-1 independent mechanisms for drug resistance in hypoxia have been described, however, they are still rarely reported. The first clinical studies focusing on diagnosis of hypoxia and on inhibition of hypoxia-induced changes in cancer cells are starting to yield results. The adaptation to hypoxia requires many genetic and biochemical responses that regulate one another. Hypoxia-induced resistance is a very complex field and we still know very little about it. Different approaches to circumvent hypoxia in tumors are under development.
Hif-1 ; Chemoresistance ; Hypoxia ; Hypoxia-Induced Chemoresistance ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm -- Physiology ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, Alpha Subunit -- Physiology ; Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Tumor Hypoxia -- Physiology
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