Cancer Research, 07/15/2016, Vol.76(14 Supplement), pp.282-282
KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations are among the most important oncogenic drivers in many major cancer types, including melanoma, lung, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer. There is currently no effective therapy for the treatment of RAS mutant cancers. LY3009120, a pan-RAF and RAF dimer inhibitor currently in phase I clinical trial, has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation of RAS- or BRAF-mutant tumor cells in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo. An unbiased screen for compounds that synergize with LY3009120 in RASBRAF mutant cancers identified inhibitors of CDK4 among the top hits. In this study, we found that combined inhibition of RAF and CDK4 and 6 by LY3009120 and abemaciclib cooperatively reduced viability of tumor cells with KRAS, NRAS or BRAF mutation in vitro. In animal models, the LY3009120 and abemaciclib combination exhibited synergistic regression of tumor growth in multiple xenograft models with KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF mutation. Molecular mechanistic analysis revealed that pan-RAF inhibitor treatment suppressed the cyclin D1 upregulation which was mediated through CDK4 and CDK6 inhibition by abemaciclib, and the combination treatment cooperatively demonstrated more complete inhibition of RB phosphorylation. These results were further verified by CDK4 and CDK6 siRNA knockdown and another CDK4 and CDK6 selective inhibitor palbociclib. Importantly, the more complete phospho-RB inhibition and cyclin D1 suppression by LY3009120 and abemaciclib combinational treatment led to more significant cell cycle G0G1 arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells. These preclinical findings suggest that the combinational inhibition of RAF and CDK4 and CDK6 signaling by LY3009120 and abemaciclib is synergistic and should be further studied compared to single agents in the treatment of cancer in patients with KRAS, NRAS or BRAF mutations.
Synergism ; Apoptosis ; Cell Cycle ; Retinoblastoma Protein ; Animal Models ; Pancreatic Cancer ; Tumors ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 ; Tumor Cells ; Clinical Trials ; Melanoma ; K-Ras Protein ; Raf Protein ; Sirna ; Phosphorylation ; Regression Analysis ; Xenografts ; Cell Proliferation ; Mutation ; Cyclin D1 ; Tumor Suppressors;