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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Nov, 2012, Vol.43(11), p.4237(10)
    Description: Byline: Nikolaj Krasokha (1), Sebastian Weber (1,2), Stephan Huth (1), Kathrin Zumsande (2), Werner Theisen (1) Abstract: This work deals with gas--solid interactions between a high-alloyed steel powder and the surrounding atmosphere during continuous heating. It is motivated by the recently developed corrosion-resistant CrMnCN austenitic cast steels. Here, powder metallurgical processing would be desirable to manufacture highly homogeneous parts and/or novel corrosion-resistant metal-matrix composites. However, the successful use of this new production route calls for a comprehensive investigation of interactions between the sintering atmosphere and the metallic powder to prevent undesirable changes to the chemical composition, e.g., degassing of nitrogen or evaporation of manganese. In this study, dilatometric measurements combined with residual gas analysis, high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations provided detailed information about the influence of different atmospheric conditions on the microstructure, constitution, and densification behavior of a gas-atomized CrMnCN steel powder during continuous heating. Intensive desorption of nitrogen led to the conclusion that a vacuum atmosphere is not suitable for powder metallurgical (PM) processing. Exposure to an N.sub.2-containing atmosphere resulted in the formation of nitrides and lattice expansion. Experimental findings have shown that the N content can be controlled by the nitrogen partial pressure. Furthermore, the reduction of surface oxides because of a carbothermal reaction at elevated temperatures and the resulting enhancement of the powder's densification behavior are discussed in this work. Author Affiliation: (1) Chair of Materials Technology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitatsstr. 150, 44801, Bochum, Germany (2) Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109, Berlin, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 17/04/2012 Online Date: 30/05/2012 Article note: Manuscript submitted August 30, 2011.
    Keywords: Oxides -- Analysis ; Thermodynamics -- Analysis ; Sintering -- Analysis ; Nitrides -- Analysis ; Corrosion (Chemistry) -- Analysis ; Powders (Particulate matter) -- Analysis ; Steel -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1073-5623
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(9), p.e0204318
    Description: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Microneedling therapy is a widely used technique in dermatology. However, little is known about the underlying molecular effects of this therapy on extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, and inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine morphological and molecular changes caused by microneedling treatment in a standardized in vitro full-thickness 3D model of human skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A microneedling device was used to treat full-thickness 3D skin models. Specimens were harvested at specified time points and qRT-PCR and microarray studies were performed. Frozen sections were examined histologically. RESULTS:Microneedling treatment caused morphological changes in the skin model resulting in an almost complete recovery of the epidermis five days after treatment. Microarray analysis identified an upregulation of genes that are associated with tissue remodeling and wound healing (e.g. COL3A1, COL8A1, TIMP3), epithelial proliferation and differentiation (KRT13, IGF1), immune cell recruitment (CCL11), and a member of the heat shock protein family (HSPB6). On the other hand, we detected a downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL1α, IL1β, IL24, IL36γ, IL36RN), and antimicrobial peptides (e.g. S100A7A, DEFB4). These data were confirmed by independent RT-PCR analyses. CONCLUSION:We present for the first time the direct molecular effects of microneedling therapy on epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts using a standardized 3D skin model. Treatment resulted in histological alterations and changed the expression of various genes related to epidermal differentiation, inflammation, and dermal remodeling. This data suggests that skin microneedling plays a role in dermal remodeling, increases epidermal differentiation, and might also have a direct effect on collagen synthesis. These findings may increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of human skin repair induced by microneedling therapy and will allow comparisons with competing applications, such as ablative laser therapies.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Experimental Dermatology, Sept, 2015, Vol.24(9), p.663(6)
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/exd.12704/abstract Byline: Sebastian Huth, Ruth Heise, Claudia S. Vetter-Kauczok, Claudia Skazik, Yvonne Marquardt, Katharina Czaja, Ruth Knuchel, Hans F. Merk, Edgar Dahl, Jens M. Baron Keywords: hyaluronan; inflammatory skin diseases; ITIH5 knockout mouse; ITIH5; murine 3D skin model Abstract Inter-[alpha]-trypsin inhibitors are protease inhibitors that are thought to be important regulators in various acute-phase processes. They are composed of one light chain (bikunin) and different heavy chains (ITIHs). The only function known so far of ITIHs is the covalent linkage to hyaluronan (HA). As there is virtually no knowledge on the distribution and function of ITIH proteins in skin tissue, we performed a systematic characterization of ITIH expression in healthy and diseased skin. Using GeneChip.sub.[R] Human Exon 1.0 ST expression profiling, we found that ITIH5 represents the major ITIH family member expressed in human skin. Moreover, the use of quantitative reverse transcription PCR and a customized ITIH5-specific antibody indicated that ITIH5 is predominantly produced by dermal fibroblasts. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a clearly detectable ITIH5 protein expression in normal skin. Interestingly, ITIH5 expression was significantly up-regulated in inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, 3D skin models employing murine Itih5.sub.-/- epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts as well as skin specimens of Itih5.sub.-/- mice revealed a significantly altered epidermal structure compared to wild-type controls. Hence, we can strengthen the presumption that ITIH5 may constitute a novel regulatory molecule of the human skin that could play an important role in inflammation via its interaction with HA. Article Note: Equal first authors. Equally contributing senior authors.
    Keywords: Proteases -- Analysis ; Proteins -- Analysis ; Trypsin -- Analysis ; Skin Diseases -- Analysis ; Protease Inhibitors -- Analysis ; Hyaluronic Acid -- Analysis ; Skin -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0906-6705
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2015, Vol.38, p.121(4)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2015.08.002 Byline: Sebastian von Huth, Anne Lindebo Ovrehus, Kim Hein Lindahl, Isik Somuncu Johansen Abstract: * We describe two cases of erythema induratum of Bazin (EIB), a cutaneous form of TB * Cases had no signs of active TB, but had a positive Interferon Gamma Release Assay * The cutaneous lesions disappeared during anti-tuberculous treatment * EIB should be considered as a sign of TB in patients with persistent skin lesions Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Denmark (b) Department of Clinical Pathology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark Article History: Received 19 May 2015; Revised 30 July 2015; Accepted 1 August 2015
    Keywords: Biological Response Modifiers ; Erythema ; Interferon Gamma ; Tuberculosis
    ISSN: 1201-9712
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    In: Annals of Neurology, October 2014, Vol.76(4), pp.550-557
    Description: Objective Patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy lack neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). nNOS mediates physiological sympatholysis, thus ensuring adequate blood supply to working muscle. In mice lacking dystrophin, restoration of nNOS effects by a phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor (sildenafil) improves skeletal and cardiac muscle performance. Sildenafil also improves blood flow in patients with BMD. We therefore hypothesized that sildenafil would improve blood flow, maximal work capacity, and heart function in patients with BMD. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design with two 4-week periods of treatment, separated by 2-week washout was used. We assessed brachial artery blood flow during maximal handgrip exercise, 6-minute walk test, maximal oxidative capacity, and life quality; cardiac function was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at rest and during maximal handgrip exercise. Muscle nNOS and PDE5 were tested with Western blotting in 5 patients. Results Sixteen patients completed all skeletal muscle evaluations, and 13 completed the cardiac MRI investigations. Sildenafil had no effect on any of the outcome parameters. No serious adverse effects were recorded. PDE5 and nNOS were deficient in 5 of 5 biopsies. Interpretation Despite positive evidence from animal models of dystrophinopathy and physiological findings in patients with BMD, this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study showed no effect of sildenafil on blood flow, maximal work capacity, and heart function in adults with BMD. This discrepancy may be explained by a significant downregulation of PDE5 in muscle. Ann Neurol 2014;76:550-557 [PUBLICATION ]
    Keywords: Muscular Dystrophy ; Rodents ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance–NMR;
    ISSN: 0364-5134
    E-ISSN: 1531-8249
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  • 6
    In: Experimental Dermatology, September 2018, Vol.27(9), pp.1009-1014
    Description: Atopic dermatitis () is a chronically relapsing, pruritic inflammation of the skin with dryness and disturbed skin barrier function. Recently, we established that ‐31 treatment of human 3D skin models resulted in a disrupted skin barrier phenotype resembling . In this model, we found that ‐31 interferes with the differentiation of keratinocytes and inhibits the expression of terminal differentiation markers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a ceramide‐containing water‐in‐oil skin care ointment on the physical skin barrier structure and function in disrupted skin barrier models, generated either by using primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes () or HaCaT cells. We observed that the physical skin barrier of the models recovered after daily topical treatment with the ceramide‐containing ointment. Topical application of the ointment prevented downregulation of filaggrin and disorganization of other differentiation markers, such as keratin 10 and β4‐integrin, as demonstrated by immunohistological analysis. The expression of Ki67 was also upregulated in response to the ointment. Furthermore, functional studies revealed that local application of the ointment diminished the increased uptake of fluorescently labelled recombinant allergens of timothy grass (phl p1) in our model. In conclusion, our data revealed that topical application of a ceramide‐containing skin care ointment reduced ‐31 induced impairments of the physical skin barrier and skin barrier function in an in vitro model of the disrupted skin barrier. This standardized model can be utilized in the future to monitor ex vivo effects of various topical therapies on skin morphology, physiology, and gene expression.
    Keywords: Atopic Eczema ; Local Therapy ; Skin Barrier ; Skin Equivalent ; Skin Physiology
    ISSN: 0906-6705
    E-ISSN: 1600-0625
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, February 2017, Vol.31(2), pp.526-543
    Description: The response of the skin to harmful environmental agents is shaped decisively by the status of the immune system. Keratinocytes constitutively express and secrete the chemokine-like mediator, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), more strongly than dermal fibroblasts, thereby creating a MIF gradient in skin. By using global and epidermis-restricted Mif-knockout (Mif and K14-Cre; Mif) mice, we found that MIF both recruits and maintains antigen-presenting cells in the dermis/epidermis. The reduced presence of antigen-presenting cells in the absence of MIF was associated with accelerated and increased formation of nonmelanoma skin tumors during chemical carcinogenesis. Our results demonstrate that MIF is essential for maintaining innate immunity in skin. Loss of keratinocyte-derived MIF leads to a loss of control of epithelial skin tumor formation in chemical skin carcinogenesis, which highlights an unexpected tumor-suppressive activity of MIF in murine skin.-Brocks, T., Fedorchenko, O., Schliermann, N., Stein, A., Moll, U. M., Seegobin, S., Dewor, M., Hallek, M., Marquardt, Y., Fietkau, K., Heise, R., Huth, S., Pfister, H., Bernhagen, J., Bucala, R., Baron, J. M., Fingerle-Rowson, G. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor protects from nonmelanoma epidermal tumors by regulating the number of antigen-presenting cells in skin.
    Keywords: Cd44 ; Cd74 ; Dmba/Tpa ; Chemokine ; Skin Carcinogenesis ; Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors -- Metabolism ; Skin -- Cytology ; Skin Neoplasms -- Chemically Induced
    ISSN: 08926638
    E-ISSN: 1530-6860
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  • 8
    Language: Danish
    In: Ugeskrift for laeger, 30 March 2015, Vol.177(14), pp.V12140655
    Description: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) denotes infection of the meninges with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In Denmark, TBM is rare, but requires correct handling and rapid treatment. We describe a case of TBM in a previously healthy 19-year-old man from Somalia, whose primary symptoms were fever, headache and altered mental state.
    Keywords: Tuberculosis, Meningeal ; Hydrocephalus -- Microbiology ; Personality Disorders -- Microbiology
    E-ISSN: 1603-6824
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, September 2015, Vol.38, pp.121-124
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2015.08.002 Byline: Sebastian von Huth [svhuth@gmail.com] (a,*), Anne Lindebo AaAaAeAyvreh [anne.oevrehus@rsyd.dk] (a), Kim Hein Lindahl [kim.hein.lindahl@rsyd.dk] (b), Isik Somuncu Johansen [isik@dadlnet.dk] (a) Keywords Tuberculosis; Erythema induratum; Bazin; Cutaneous tuberculosis; IGRA Highlights * We describe two cases of erythema induratum of Bazin (EIB), a cutaneous form of TB * Cases had no signs of active TB, but had a positive Interferon Gamma Release Assay * The cutaneous lesions disappeared during anti-tuberculous treatment * EIB should be considered as a sign of TB in patients with persistent skin lesions Summary Tuberculosis remains a global disease burden, counting more than 9 million new cases per year. Tuberculosis is caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex. Though most commonly affecting the lungs, any organ can become a site of tuberculous infection. Cutaneous tuberculosis is rare, representing 1-2% of all cases of tuberculosis. There are numerous different cutaneous manifestations of tuberculosis. We describe two cases of erythema induratum of Bazin, a so-called tuberculid manifestation of cutaneous TB. Both cases are patients from endemic areas. In the cases presented, there were no signs of other organs affected, and cutaneous lesions disappeared during anti-tuberculous treatment. Abbreviations EIB, erythema induratum of Bazin; IGRA, Interferon Gamma Release Assay; PCR, polymerase-chain reaction; TB, Tuberculosis Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Denmark (b) Department of Clinical Pathology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark * Corresponding author. Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, Indgang 18 Penthouse 2. sal, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. Tel.: +45 2023 3878. Article History: Received 19 May 2015; Revised 30 July 2015; Accepted 1 August 2015
    Keywords: Tuberculosis ; Erythema Induratum ; Bazin ; Cutaneous Tuberculosis ; Igra ; Medicine ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1201-9712
    E-ISSN: 1878-3511
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Gynecologic and obstetric investigation, 2017, Vol.82(5), pp.462-467
    Description: To investigate normal human placental growth longitudinally throughout the second and third trimesters using MRI. Twenty normal, first-time singleton pregnancies were scanned 7 times between the 14th and 38th week of gestation, at 4-week intervals, using MRI. Placental volumes were measured in both sagittal and transversal slices. All placentas were weighed after delivery to make a comparative study. Sixteen of the 20 women had increasing placental volumes from the 14th to 38th week of gestation. The 6th and 7th scan showed that 4 women had placentas of the same size. The mean placental volume increases linearly from the 14th till the 38th week of gestation, with a constant mean growth rate of 29.97 ml/week. The median placental volume extrapolated to delivery was to 856 ml (range 602-1,050 ml). The median weight of the exsanguinated placenta after delivery was 640 g (range 500-787 g). All pregnancies were carried to term, resulting in the delivery of healthy infants with good correlation between placental size and birth weight (R = 0.56, p = 0.009). Placental growth was measured systematically in a longitudinal study through the second and third trimesters using MRI. MRI provides a safe and feasible method to measure placental growth. The mean placental growth was linear throughout the second and third trimesters.
    Keywords: Mri ; Obstetric ; Placenta ; Pregnancy ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Placenta -- Diagnostic Imaging
    ISSN: 03787346
    E-ISSN: 1423-002X
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