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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Political Economy, September 2018, Vol.54, pp.198-225
    Description: Although the relationship between trade and the success of international sanctions has been a topic of many debates in political economy over the past 30 years, the effect of sanctions on foreign direct investment (FDI) is still largely unexplored. Using the data for 184 countries from 1970 to 2010 and bias-corrected estimators, this study tests the effect of sanction imposition on foreign investment. I find that the effect of sanctions on foreign investment indeed changes over time, depending on sanction costs, primary sanction imposer, and decade. High-cost sanctions lead to a significant decrease in FDI in the short run, although they do not have a long-run effect. In many sanctions episodes in the 1990s, FDI has been negatively affected in the short run, although this effect has partially dissipated in the long run. Sanctions episodes from other decades, on average, did not have a significant effect on foreign investment.
    Keywords: Economic Sanctions ; Coercion ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Common Correlated Effects Estimator ; Synthetic Controls Method ; Political Science ; Economics
    ISSN: 0176-2680
    E-ISSN: 1873-5703
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, September 2014, Vol.33(4), pp.977-1006
    Description: Accurate policy evaluation is central to optimal policymaking, but difficult to achieve. Most often, analysts have to work with observational data and cannot directly observe the counterfactual of a policy to assess its effect accurately. In this paper, we craft a quasi‐experimental design and apply two relatively new methods—the difference‐in‐differences estimation and the synthetic controls method—to the policy debate on whether corporate tax cuts increase foreign direct investment (FDI). The taxation–FDI relationship has attracted wide attention because of mixed findings. We exploit a quasi‐experimental design for Russian regions, which were granted autonomy to reduce corporate profit tax in 2003, enabling them to simultaneously experiment with different tax policies. We estimate both the average and local treatment effects of two types of tax cuts on FDI inflows. We find that, on average, relative to the absence of tax cuts, nondiscriminatory tax cuts on direct investment profit increase FDI, but discriminatory tax cuts on selected government‐sanctioned investment projects do not. Yet for both types of tax cuts, local treatment effects vary dramatically from region to region. Our research has important implications for the design of tax policy and fiscal incentive, and the assessment of fiscal policy reforms.
    Keywords: Corporate Taxation ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Policy Analysis ; Policy Making ; Fiscal Policy ; Tax Incentives ; Russian Federation ; Economics;
    ISSN: 0276-8739
    E-ISSN: 1520-6688
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: SSRN Electronic Journal, 2017
    ISSN: SSRN Electronic Journal
    E-ISSN: 1556-5068
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(1), p.e84417
    Description: Malignant melanoma is a life-threatening skin cancer increasingly diagnosed in the western world. In advanced disease the prognosis is grave. Growth and metastasis formation in melanomas are regulated by a network of cytokines, cytokine-receptors, and adhesion molecules. However, little is...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(1), p.e29925
    Description: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are two major signaling molecules involved in growth and activation of mast cells (MC) and basophils (BA). We examined the effects of the dual PI3-kinase/mTOR blocker NVP-BEZ235 on growth of normal and neoplastic BA and MC as well as immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent cell activation. Growth of MC and BA were determined by measuring 3 H-thymidine uptake and apoptosis. Cell activation was determined in histamine release experiments and by measuring upregulation of CD63 and CD203c after challenging with IgE plus anti-IgE or allergen. We found that NVP-BEZ235 exerts profound inhibitory effects on growth of primary and cloned neoplastic MC. In the MC leukemia cell line HMC-1, NVP-BEZ235 showed similar IC 50 values in the HMC-1.1 subclone lacking KIT D816V (0.025 µM) and the HMC-1.2 subclone expressing KIT D816V (0.005 µM). Moreover, NVP-BEZ235 was found to exert strong growth-inhibitory effects on neoplastic MC in a xenotransplant-mouse model employing NMR1-Foxn1 nu mice. NVP-BEZ235 also exerted inhibitory effects on cytokine-dependent differentiation of normal BA and MC, but did not induce growth inhibition or apoptosis in mature MC or normal bone marrow cells. Finally, NVP-BEZ235 was found to inhibit IgE-dependent histamine release in BA and MC (IC 50 0.5–1 µM) as well as anti-IgE-induced upregulation of CD203c in BA and IgE-dependent upregulation of CD63 in MC. In summary, NVP-BEZ235 produces growth-inhibitory effects in immature neoplastic MC and inhibits IgE-dependent activation of mature BA and MC. Whether these potentially beneficial drug effects have clinical implications is currently under investigation.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Immunology ; Molecular Biology ; Cell Biology ; Developmental Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, November 2017, Vol.61(11)
    Description: The multidrug-resistant 30 subclone of extraintestinal pathogenic sequence type 131 (ST131-30) has spread worldwide. This clone expresses a conserved lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O antigen, O25b. Previously, we described monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the O25b antigen and characterized them as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In this study, evidence is provided that besides the previously shown complement-mediated bactericidal effect, an O25b-specific humanized MAb, A1124, also enhances opsonophagocytic uptake by the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Both phagocyte-dependent killing and phagocyte-independent killing, triggered by A1124, were confirmed in human whole blood. Furthermore, A1124 was shown to neutralize endotoxin activity of purified LPS of clinical isolates. This activity was demonstrated using both RAW 264.7 cells and a human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) reporter cell line, as well as in a murine model of endotoxemia using purified LPS for challenge. Significant protective efficacy of A1124 at low doses (〈1 mg/kg of body weight) was shown in murine and rat models of bacteremia. The contribution of the bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects was dissected in the mouse bacteremia model through depletion of complement with cobra venom factor (CVF). Protective efficacy was lost in complement-depleted mice, suggesting the essential role of complement-mediated activities for protection in this model. These data suggest that A1124 exhibits different mechanisms of action, namely, direct complement-mediated and opsonophagocytic killing as well as endotoxin neutralization in various challenge models. Which of these activities are the most relevant in a clinical setting will need to be addressed by future translational studies.
    Keywords: Escherichia Coli ; St131 ; Complement-Mediated Killing ; Endotoxin Neutralization ; Mechanism of Action ; Monoclonal Antibody ; Opsonization ; Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Pharmacology ; Antibodies, Monoclonal -- Pharmacology ; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial -- Drug Effects ; Escherichia Coli Infections -- Drug Therapy ; Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli -- Drug Effects
    ISSN: 00664804
    E-ISSN: 1098-6596
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  • 7
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research
    Language: English
    Description: The "Aggregate Data, Regions of Russia (RoR), 1990-2010" study is a collection of aggregate statistical data for the Russian regions, made available in English. It includes a large range of variables that characterize a wide scope of economic and social factors for the period from 1990 to 2010. This collection comprises data from 82 regions of Russia on topics including trade, production, demography, labor, investment, climate, crime, education, health care, culture, banks, insurance, services, communication, and many industries....
    Source: DataCite
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  • 8
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research
    Language: English
    Description: The "Aggregate Data, Regions of Russia (RoR), 1990-2010" study is a collection of aggregate statistical data for the Russian regions, made available in English. It includes a large range of variables that characterize a wide scope of economic and social factors for the period from 1990 to 2010. This collection comprises data from 82 regions of Russia on topics including trade, production, demography, labor, investment, climate, crime, education, health care, culture, banks, insurance, services, communication, and many industries....
    Source: DataCite
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: SSRN Electronic Journal, 2017
    ISSN: SSRN Electronic Journal
    E-ISSN: 1556-5068
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: SSRN Electronic Journal, 2017
    ISSN: SSRN Electronic Journal
    E-ISSN: 1556-5068
    Source: CrossRef
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