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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied Surface Science, Dec 15, 2012, Vol.263, p.230(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.09.035 Byline: Junji Ito (a)(b), Yasunari Hanaki (a), Qing Shen (b)(c)(d), Taro Toyoda (b)(c) Keywords: Platinum; Aluminum oxide; Photoexcited electron; Transient grating technique; Carrier dynamics; Electron transfer Abstract: a* We determined the decay time of photoexcited electrons of Pt/Al.sub.2O.sub.3. a* Faster decay of excited electrons in Pt/Al.sub.2O.sub.3 leads to its faster oxidation rate. a* Decreasing excited electron lifetime in Pt/Al.sub.2O.sub.3 may decrease Pt consumption in catalytic convertors. Author Affiliation: (a) Advanced Materials Laboratory, Nissan Research Center, NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD., 1 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa 237-8523, Japan (b) Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan (c) Department of Engineering Science, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan (d) PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan Article History: Received 2 June 2012; Revised 30 August 2012; Accepted 9 September 2012
    Keywords: Aluminum Oxide ; Electrons
    ISSN: 0169-4332
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied Surface Science, 15 December 2012, Vol.263, pp.230-235
    Description: ► We determined the decay time of photoexcited electrons of Pt/Al O . ► Faster decay of excited electrons in Pt/Al O leads to its faster oxidation rate. ► Decreasing excited electron lifetime in Pt/Al O may decrease Pt consumption in catalytic convertors. In order to decrease the consumption of precious metals used in the catalytic converters used in automobiles, we studied the relationship between the catalytic activity of Pt/alumina (Pt/Al O ) and the relaxation process of photoexcited electrons. Firstly, we studied the relationship between the size of the Pt particles in Pt/Al O and catalytic performance. Secondly, the relationship between the size of the Pt particles in Pt/Al O and the decay time of the excited electrons was studied using an improved transient grating (TG) technique. The results showed that faster decay of the excited electrons leads to greater oxidation rates. The decay time obtained with the improved TG technique gives an indication of the time that the exited electrons take to return to the ground state. According to studies utilizing FT-IR, one of the processes necessary for quickly generating CO with Pt is that the electron in the Pt O bond moves to the Pt side and that the Pt becomes Pt metal. Thus, the decay time obtained with the improved TG technique corresponds to the process whereby Pt returns to Pt metal. Thus, we found that the consumption of precious metals can be reduced by increasing the speed of the decay of the excited electrons.
    Keywords: Platinum ; Aluminum Oxide ; Photoexcited Electron ; Transient Grating Technique ; Carrier Dynamics ; Electron Transfer ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0169-4332
    E-ISSN: 1873-5584
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 3
    In: Cerebral Cortex, 2011, Vol. 21(11), pp.2482-2497
    Description: During natural vision, primates perform frequent saccadic eye movements, allowing only a narrow time window for processing the visual information at each location. Individual neurons may contribute only with a few spikes to the visual processing during each fixation, suggesting precise spike timing as a relevant mechanism for information processing. We recently found in V1 of monkeys freely viewing natural images, that fixation-related spike synchronization occurs at the early phase of the rate response after fixation-onset, suggesting a specific role of the first response spikes in V1. Here, we show that there are strong local field potential (LFP) modulations locked to the onset of saccades, which continue into the successive fixation periods. Visually induced spikes, in particular the first spikes after the onset of a fixation, are locked to a specific epoch of the LFP modulation. We suggest that the modulation of neural excitability, which is reflected by the saccade-related LFP changes, serves as a corollary signal enabling precise timing of spikes in V1 and thereby providing a mechanism for spike synchronization.
    Keywords: Free Viewing ; Local Field Potential ; Phase Locking ; Primary Visual Cortex ; Spike Synchrony
    ISSN: 1047-3211
    E-ISSN: 1460-2199
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 02/01/2013, Vol.73(3 Supplement), pp.C84-C84
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC Neuroscience, 01 July 2011, Vol.12(Suppl 1), p.P132
    Description: Living organisms do not only passively receive sensory stimuli from the external world, but also actively explore their surroundings using their sensory organs such as sniffing for odor sensation, whisking for touch sensation, and eye-movements for visual sensation. While neuronal activities underlying active sensing in olfaction and vibrissa sensation have been studied in detail, the activities related to active vision have remained largely unknown. In a recent study, we studied spike synchrony between neurons recorded from the primary visual cortex (V1) of monkeys while they perform visual exploration of natural scene images with self-paced, voluntary eye-movements and found that the V1 cells show excess synchrony around the onset of their response to visual fixation [1]. In the subsequent study, we further examined LFP activities recorded simultaneously with the spike data and found the evidence that the oscillatory LFP activity in the beta frequency band (10-25 Hz) related to the initiation of saccadic eye-movements modulates the timing of single spikes and supports the occurrence of spike synchrony of the V1 cells [2].
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1471-2202
    E-ISSN: 1471-2202
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2010, Vol.87(5), pp.1783-1789
    Description: A novel cell surface display system in Aspergillus oryzae was established by using a chitin-binding module (CBM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an anchor protein. CBM was fused to the N or C terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the fusion proteins (GFP-CBM and CBM-GFP) were expressed using A. oryzae as a host. Western blotting and fluorescence microscopy analysis showed that both GFP-CBM and CBM-GFP were successfully expressed on the cell surface. In addition, cell surface display of triacylglycerol lipase from A. oryzae (tglA), while retaining its activity, was also successfully demonstrated using CBM as an anchor protein. The activity of tglA was significantly higher when tglA was fused to the C terminus than N terminus of CBM. Together, these results show that CBM used as a first anchor protein enables the fusion of both the N and/or C terminus of a target protein.
    Keywords: Cell surface display ; Aspergillus oryzae ; Chitin-binding module ; Triacylglycerol lipase
    ISSN: 0175-7598
    E-ISSN: 1432-0614
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Physical review letters, 14 January 2002, Vol.88(2), pp.028701
    Description: As a model of temporally evolving networks, we consider a globally coupled logistic map with variable connection weights. The model exhibits self-organization of network structure, reflected by the collective behavior of units. Structural order emerges even without any interunit synchronization of dynamics. Within this structure, units spontaneously separate into two groups whose distinguishing feature is that the first group possesses many outwardly directed connections to the second group, while the second group possesses only a few outwardly directed connections to the first. The relevance of the results to structure formation in neural networks is briefly discussed.
    Keywords: Condensed Matter - Soft Condensed Matter ; Condensed Matter - Statistical Mechanics ; Quantitative Biology;
    ISSN: 0031-9007
    E-ISSN: 10797114
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  • 8
    Language: Japanese
    In: 北海道支部講演会講演概要集, 2014, Vol.2014.53(0), pp.139-140
    Description: 今まで研究してきた時間割作成システムでは,入力条件が各学年のクラス数,1週間で行う各教科の授業数,各科目を担当出来る教師数のみであったが入力条件を増やすことにより,時間割作成における自由度があがった.また従来の研究では,作成できたのは生徒目線の時間割のみであったが先生目線の時間割も同時に作成出来るようにした事により,先生方の科目の担当クラスや会議の時間,担任のクラスの設定等も可能になったため,より使用者のニーズにあった時間割作成システムとなっている.
    Keywords: Timetabling System ; Input Condition ; Limitation Condition ; Csv File
    ISSN: 2424-273X
    ISSN: The Proceedings of Conference of Hokkaido Branch
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan), 01 October 2017, Vol.56(19), pp.2689-2690
    Keywords: False Localizing Sign ; Myelopathy ; Ossification ; Posterior Atlantoaxial Membrane
    ISSN: 09182918
    E-ISSN: 1349-7235
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in systems neuroscience, 2013, Vol.7, pp.1
    Description: Recent studies have emphasized the functional role of neuronal activity underlying oscillatory local field potential (LFP) signals during visual processing in natural conditions. While functionally relevant components in multiple frequency bands have been reported, little is known about whether and how these components interact with each other across the dominant frequency bands. We examined this phenomenon in LFP signals obtained from the primary visual cortex of monkeys performing voluntary saccadic eye movements (EMs) on still images of natural-scenes. We identified saccade-related changes in respect to power and phase in four dominant frequency bands: delta-theta (2-4 Hz), alpha-beta (10-13 Hz), low-gamma (20-40 Hz), and high-gamma (〉100 Hz). The phase of the delta-theta band component is found to be entrained to the rhythm of the repetitive saccades, while an increment in the power of the alpha-beta and low-gamma bands were locked to the onset of saccades. The degree of the power modulation in these frequency bands is positively correlated with the degree of the phase-locking of the delta-theta oscillations to EMs. These results suggest the presence of cross-frequency interactions in the form of phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) between slow (delta-theta) and faster (alpha-beta and low gamma) oscillations. As shown previously, spikes evoked by visual fixations during free viewing are phase-locked to the fast oscillations. Thus, signals of different types and at different temporal scales are nested to each other during natural viewing. Such cross-frequency interaction may provide a general mechanism to coordinate sensory processing on a fast time scale and motor behavior on a slower time scale during active sensing.
    Keywords: Cross-Frequency Coupling ; Local Field Potential ; Natural Vision ; Oscillation ; Saccade
    ISSN: 1662-5137
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