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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    In: European Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 12/19/2017, Vol.9(4), p.25
    ISSN: 1689-8311
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, 07 April 2018, Vol.442, pp.66-78
    Description: In riverine ecosystems primary production is principally possible in two habitats: in the benthic layer by sessile algae and in the surface water by planktonic algae being transported downstream. The relevance of these two habitats generally changes along the rivers' continuum. However, analyses of the interaction of algae in these two habitats and their controlling factors in riverine ecosystems are, so far, very rare. We use a simplified advection-diffusion model system combined with ecological process kinetics to analyse the interaction of benthic and planktonic algae and nutrients along idealised streams and rivers at regional to large scales. Because many of the underlying processes affecting algal dynamics are influenced by depth, we focus particularly on the impact of river depth on this interaction. At constant environmental conditions all state variables approach stable spatial equilibria along the river, independent of the boundary conditions at the upstream end. Because our model is very robust against changes of turbulent diffusion and stream velocity, these spatial equilibria can be analysed by a simplified ordinary differential equation (ode) version of our model. This model variant reveals that at shallower river depths, phytoplankton can exist only when it is subsidised by detaching benthic algae, and in turn, at deeper river depths, benthic algae can exist only in low biomasses which are subsidised by sinking planktonic algae. We generalise the spatial dynamics of the model system using different conditions at the upstream end of the model, which mimic various natural or anthropogenic factors (pristine source, dam, inflow of a waste water treatment plant, and dilution from e.g. a tributary) and analyse how these scenarios influence different aspects of the longitudinal spatial dynamics of the full spatial model: the relation of spatial equilibrium to spatial maximum, the distance to the spatial maximum, and the response length. Generally, our results imply that shallow systems recover within significantly shorter distances from spatially distinct disturbances when compared to deep systems, independent of the type of disturbance.
    Keywords: Nutrients ; Light ; Longitudinal Gradient ; Resilience ; Biology
    ISSN: 0022-5193
    E-ISSN: 1095-8541
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 15 May 2017, Vol.115, pp.162-171
    Description: Ecological theory predicts that the relative importance of benthic to planktonic primary production usually changes along the rivers' continuum from a predomination of benthic algae in lower stream orders to a predomination of planktonic algae at higher orders. Underlying mechanisms driving the interaction between algae in these habitats, its controlling factors and consequences for riverine ecosystems are, however, only partly understood. We present a mechanistic analysis of the governing ecological processes using a simplified, numerical model and examine how abiotic factors and biotic interactions influence benthic and planktonic algae by changing resource competition. We compare the outcome of the model with the results of a factorial mesocosm experiment mimicking the parameter spaces of the model. The results show a remarkable similarity with regard to the temporal development of benthic and pelagic algal biomass and shifting dominance patterns. In particular we analyse the effects of the pathways of nutrient supply (upwelling from the hyporheic zone, direct supply to the surface water, or via both pathways) and grazing in a gradient of river depths. Our results show that detachment of benthic algae, sinking of planktonic algae and the pathway of nutrient supply are key processes determining the respective algal biomass distributions particularly in shallow and intermediate deep systems. Increasing nutrient supply increases algal biomasses, but does not change the general pattern of the interactions. Decreasing light supply decreases the dominance of planktonic algae, but increases dissolved nutrients. At intermediate to high grazing rates algal biomass can be controlled by grazers, but however, at high grazing rates, dissolved nutrients accumulate in the surface water. Our results indicate that nutrient pathways, resource competition and internal control by grazing need to be considered explicitly for the understanding and explanation of eutrophication phenomena in riverine ecosystems. As a consequence, ecologically effective eutrophication management of running water systems has to go beyond the control of nutrient emissions or the achievement of limiting threshold values in the receiving waters, but requires the consideration of the nutrient pathways (surface water versus groundwater) and the shifting biological controls from lower to higher order stream ecosystems.
    Keywords: Light ; Sinking ; Detachment ; Depth ; Resource Competition ; Ecological Management ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pediatrics, 2014, Vol.173(11), pp.1407-1412
    Description: Subocclusive hymenal variants, such as microperforate or septate hymen, impair somatic functions (e.g., vaginal intercourse or menstrual hygiene) and can negatively impact the quality of life of young women. We know little about the prevalence and inheritance of subocclusive hymenal variants. So far, eight cases of familial occurrence of occlusive hymenal anomalies (imperforate hymen) have been reported. In one of these cases, monozygotic twins were affected. We are reporting the first case of subocclusive hymenal variants (microperforate hymen and septate hymen) in 16-year-old white dizygotic twins. In addition, we review and discuss the current evidence. Conclusion : The mode of inheritance of hymenal variants has not been determined so far. Because surgical corrections of hymenal variants should be carried out in asymptomatic patients (before menarche), gynecologists and pediatricians should keep in mind that familial occurrences may occur.
    Keywords: Hymenal anomalies ; Microperforate hymen ; Septate hymen ; Imperforate hymen ; Genital anomalies in twins
    ISSN: 0340-6199
    E-ISSN: 1432-1076
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The American Naturalist April 2010, Vol.175(4), pp.E91-E104
    Description: Abstract: Most phytoplankters face opposing vertical gradients in light versus nutrient supplies but have limited capacities for vertical habitat choice. We therefore explored a dynamical model of negatively buoyant algae inhabiting a one‐dimensional water column to ask how water column depth and turbulence constrain total (areal) phytoplankton biomass. We show that the population persistence boundaries in water column depth–turbulence space are set by sinking losses and light limitation but that nutrients are most limiting to total biomass in water columns that are neither too shallow or too weakly mixed (where sinking losses prevail) nor too deep and turbulent (where light limitation prevails). In shallow waters, the most strongly limiting process is nutrient influx to the bottom of the water column (e.g., from sediments). In deep waters, the most strongly limiting process is turbulent upward transport of nutrients to the photic zone. Consequently, the highest total biomasses are attained in turbulent waters at intermediate water column depths and in deep waters at intermediate turbulences. These patterns are insensitive to the assumption of fixed versus flexible algal carbon‐to‐nutrient stoichiometry, and they arise irrespective of whether the water column is a surface layer above a deep water compartment or has direct contact with sediments.
    Keywords: Physical sciences -- Earth sciences -- Hydrology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Mechanics ; Biological sciences -- Ecology -- Biomass ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Nutritional science ; Physical sciences -- Earth sciences -- Geology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Marine biology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany ; Biological sciences -- Ecology -- Biomass ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Nutritional science ; Physical sciences -- Earth sciences -- Hydrology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Mechanics ; Biological sciences -- Ecology -- Biomass ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Nutritional science ; Physical sciences -- Earth sciences -- Geology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Marine biology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany ; Biological sciences -- Ecology -- Biomass ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Nutritional science;
    ISSN: 00030147
    E-ISSN: 15375323
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  • 6
    In: European Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 03/21/2013, Vol.5(1), p.71
    Description: In a series of recent papers John martin Fischer argues that the so- called molinist solution to the problem of reconciling divine omniscience with human freedom does not offer such a solution at all. Instead, he maintains, molina simply presupposes theological compatibilism. However, Fischer construes the problem in terms of sempiternalist omniscience, whereas classical molinism adopts atemporalism. I argue that, moreover, an atemporalist reformulation of Fischer’s argument designed to show that molinism is not even consistent is unsuccessful as well, since it employs a transfer principle about causal inaccessibility that molina rightfully rejects.
    Keywords: Religion;
    ISSN: 1689-8311
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Episteme, 06/2016, Vol.13(2), pp.167-185
    Description: ABSTRACT One of the key tenets of Linda Zagzebski's book Epistemic Authority: A Theory of Trust, Authority, and Autonomy in Belief (2012) is the “Preemption Thesis for epistemic authority.” It says that, when an agent realizes that an epistemic authority believes that p, the epistemically rational response for her is to adopt the authority's belief and to replace all of her previous reasons relevant to whether p by the reason that the authority believes that p. I argue that such a “Hobbesian approach” to epistemic authority yields problematic results. This becomes especially virulent when we apply Preemption to cases in which the agent and the authority share their belief (same-belief cases), or in which both have either a positive or a negative graded doxastic attitude toward a given proposition. As an alternative I propose what I call a “Socratic approach,” according to which epistemic authorities will not only motivate us to adopt their beliefs, but also provide us with higher-order reasons for re-assigning our own considerations their proper place in the web of reasons for and against the view in question, thereby fostering our overall understanding of the topic.
    Keywords: Philosophy;
    ISSN: 1742-3600
    E-ISSN: 1750-0117
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    In: Theoria, September 2011, Vol.77(3), pp.201-213
    Description: Alvin Goldman and Erik Olsson have recently proposed a novel solution to the value problem in epistemology, i.e., to the question of how to account for the apparent surplus value of knowledge over mere true belief. Their “conditional probability solution” maintains that even simple process reliabilism can account for the added value of knowledge, since forming true beliefs in a reliable way raises the objective probability that the subject will have more true belief of a similar kind in the future. I argue that this proposal confronts significant internal problems and implicitly invokes higher‐level epistemic conditions that run against the spirit of externalism.
    Keywords: Value Of Knowledge ; Reliabilism ; Value Problem ; Swamping Problem ; A. Goldman ; E. Olsson
    ISSN: 0040-5825
    E-ISSN: 1755-2567
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  • 9
    In: Theoria, September 2011, Vol.77(3), pp.223-237
    Description: In “Process Reliabilism and the Value Problem” I argue that Erik Olsson and Alvin Goldman's conditional probability solution to the value problem in epistemology is unsuccessful and that it makes significant internalist concessions. In “Kinds of Learning and the Likelihood of Future True Beliefs” Olsson and Martin Jönsson try to show that my argument does “not in the end reduce the plausibility” of Olsson and Goldman's account. Here I argue that, while Olsson and Jönsson clarify and amend the conditional probability approach in a number of helpful ways, my case against it remains intact. I conclude with a constructive proposal as to how their account may be steered in a more promising direction.
    Keywords: Reliabilism ; Value Problem ; Value Of Knowledge ; Swamping Problem ; Conditional Probability Solution
    ISSN: 0040-5825
    E-ISSN: 1755-2567
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  • 10
    In: Analysis, 2012, Vol. 72(3), pp.491-498
    Description: Keith DeRose has argued that ‘the knowledge account of assertion – according to which what one is in a position to assert is what one knows – … provides a … powerful positive argument in favor of contextualism’ (2009: 80). The truth is that it yields a powerful argument against contextualism, at least against its most popular, anti-sceptical versions. The following argument shows that, if we conjoin (such versions of) epistemic contextualism with an appropriate meta-linguistic formulation of the knowledge account of assertion, contextualism cannot coherently be stated.
    Keywords: Philosophy;
    ISSN: 0003-2638
    E-ISSN: 1467-8284
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