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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 09 January 2018, Vol.115(2), pp.E273-E282
    Description: AAA+ disaggregases solubilize aggregated proteins and confer heat tolerance to cells. Their disaggregation activities crucially depend on partner proteins, which target the AAA+ disaggregases to protein aggregates while concurrently stimulating their ATPase activities. Here, we report on two potent ClpG disaggregase homologs acquired through horizontal gene transfer by the species and subsequently abundant clone C. ClpG exhibits high, stand-alone disaggregation potential without involving any partner cooperation. Specific molecular features, including high basal ATPase activity, a unique aggregate binding domain, and almost exclusive expression in stationary phase distinguish ClpG from other AAA+ disaggregases. Consequently, ClpG largely contributes to heat tolerance of primarily in stationary phase and boosts heat resistance 100-fold when expressed in This qualifies ClpG as a potential persistence and virulence factor in .
    Keywords: AAA+ Protein ; Hsp100 ; Heat Tolerance ; Mobile Genetic Element ; Protein Disaggregation ; Adaptation, Physiological ; Hot Temperature ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Pseudomonas Aeruginosa -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(1), p.e29672
    Description: Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the defense against infected and transformed cells through the engagement of multiple germline-encoded activation receptors. Stimulation of the Fc receptor CD16 alone is sufficient for NK cell activation, whereas other receptors, such as 2B4 (CD244) and DNAM-1 (CD226), act synergistically. After receptor engagement, protein kinases play a major role in signaling networks controlling NK cell effector functions. However, it has not been characterized systematically which of all kinases encoded by the human genome (kinome) are involved in NK cell activation. ; A kinase-selective phosphoproteome approach enabled the determination of 188 kinases expressed in human NK cells. Crosslinking of CD16 as well as 2B4 and DNAM-1 revealed a total of 313 distinct kinase phosphorylation sites on 109 different kinases. Phosphorylation sites on 21 kinases were similarly regulated after engagement of either CD16 or co-engagement of 2B4 and DNAM-1. Among those, increased phosphorylation of FYN, KCC2G (CAMK2), FES, and AAK1, as well as the reduced phosphorylation of MARK2, were reproducibly observed both after engagement of CD16 and co-engagement of 2B4 and DNAM-1. Notably, only one phosphorylation on PAK4 was differentally regulated. ; The present study has identified a significant portion of the NK cell kinome and defined novel phosphorylation sites in primary lymphocytes. Regulated phosphorylations observed in the early phase of NK cell activation imply these kinases are involved in NK cell signaling. Taken together, this study suggests a largely shared signaling pathway downstream of distinct activation receptors and constitutes a valuable resource for further elucidating the regulation of NK cell effector responses.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Immunology ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(7), p.e40896
    Description: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for controlling peripheral tolerance by the active suppression of various immune cells including conventional T effector cells (Teffs). Downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR), more than 500 protein kinases encoded by the human genome have to be considered in signaling cascades regulating the activation of Tregs and Teffs, respectively. Following TCR engagement, Tregs posses a number of unique attributes, such as constitutive expression of Foxp3, hyporesponsiveness and poor cytokine production. Furthermore, recent studies showed that altered regulation of protein kinases is important for Treg function. These data indicate that signaling pathways in Tregs are distinctly organized and alterations at the level of protein kinases contribute to the unique Treg phenotype. However, kinase-based signaling networks in Tregs are poorly understood and necessitate further systematic characterization. In this study, we analyzed the differential expression of kinases in Tregs and Teffs by using a kinase-selective proteome strategy. In total, we revealed quantitative information on 185 kinases expressed in the human CD4 + T cell subsets. The majority of kinases was equally abundant in both T cell subsets, but 11 kinases were differentially expressed in Tregs. Most strikingly, Tregs showed an altered expression of cell cycle kinases including CDK6. Quantitative proteomics generates first comparative insight into the kinase complements of the CD4 + Teff and Treg subset. Treg-specific expression pattern of 11 protein kinases substantiate the current opinion that TCR-mediated signaling cascades are altered in Tregs and further suggests that Tregs exhibit significant specificities in cell-cycle control and progression.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Immunology ; Molecular Biology ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 19 April 2011, Vol.108(16), pp.6674-9
    Description: Plastids are DNA-containing organelles unique to plant cells. In Arabidopsis, one-third of the genes required for embryo development encode plastid-localized proteins. To help understand the role of plastids in embryogenesis and postembryonic development, we characterized proteins of the mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family, which in animal models, comprises DNA-binding regulators of mitochondrial transcription. Of 35 Arabidopsis mTERF proteins, 11 are plastid-localized. Genetic complementation shows that at least one plastidic mTERF, BELAYA SMERT' (BSM), is required for embryogenesis. The main postembryonic phenotypes of genetic mosaics with the bsm mutation are severe abnormalities in leaf development. Mutant bsm cells are albino, are compromised in growth, and suffer defects in global plastidic gene expression. The bsm phenotype could be phenocopied by inhibition of plastid translation with spectinomycin. Plastid translation is essential for cell viability in dicotyledonous species such as tobacco but not in monocotyledonous maize. Here, genetic interactions between BSM and the gene encoding plastid homomeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC2 suggest that there is a functional redundancy in malonyl-CoA biosynthesis that permits bsm cell survival in Arabidopsis. Overall, our results indicate that biosynthesis of malonyl-CoA and plastid-derived systemic growth-promoting compounds are the processes that link plant development and plastid gene expression.
    Keywords: Arabidopsis -- Metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins -- Metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant -- Physiology ; Plant Leaves -- Metabolism ; Plastids -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 01/01/2013, Vol.73(1 Supplement), pp.B30-B30
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of clinical investigation, November 2013, Vol.123(11), pp.4755-68
    Description: Cross-priming of CD8+ T cells and generation of effector immune responses is pivotal for tumor immunity as well as for successful anticancer vaccination and therapy. Dead and dying cells produce signals that can influence Ag processing and presentation; however, there is conflicting evidence regarding the immunogenicity of necrotic cell death. We used a mouse model of sterile necrosis, in which mice were injected with sterile primary necrotic cells, to investigate a role of these cells in priming of CD8+ T cells. We discovered a molecular mechanism operating in Ag donor cells that regulates cross-priming of CD8+ T cells during primary sterile necrosis and thereby controls adaptive immune responses. We found that the cellular peptidases dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP-3) and thimet oligopeptidase 1 (TOP-1), both of which are present in nonimmunogenic necrotic cells, eliminated proteasomal degradation products and blocked Ag cross-presentation. While sterile necrotic tumor cells failed to induce CD8+ T cell responses, their nonimmunogenicity could be reversed in vitro and in vivo by inactivation of DPP-3 and TOP-1. These results indicate that control of cross-priming and thereby immunogenicity of primary sterile necrosis relies on proteasome-dependent oligopeptide generation and functional status of peptidases in Ag donor cells.
    Keywords: Cross-Priming ; Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases -- Immunology ; Metalloendopeptidases -- Immunology ; Necrosis -- Immunology ; T-Lymphocytes -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 00219738
    E-ISSN: 1558-8238
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(3), p.e18184
    Description: The characterization of factors contributing to the formation and development of surface-associated bacterial communities known as biofilms has become an area of intense interest since biofilms have a major impact on human health, the environment and industry. Various studies have demonstrated that motility, including swimming, swarming and twitching, seems to play an important role in the surface colonization and establishment of structured biofilms. Thereby, the impact of chemotaxis on biofilm formation has been less intensively studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a very complex chemosensory system with two Che systems implicated in flagella-mediated motility. In this study, we demonstrate that the chemotaxis protein CheR1 is a methyltransferase that binds S -adenosylmethionine and transfers a methyl group from this methyl donor to the chemoreceptor PctA, an activity which can be stimulated by the attractant serine but not by glutamine. We furthermore demonstrate that CheR1 does not only play a role in flagella-mediated chemotaxis but that its activity is essential for the formation and maintenance of bacterial biofilm structures. We propose a model in which motility and chemotaxis impact on initial attachment processes, dispersion and reattachment and increase the efficiency and frequency of surface sampling in P. aeruginosa .
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Microbiology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(2)
    Description: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) obtain immunosuppressive capacity by the upregulation of forkhead box protein 3 ( Foxp3 ), and persistent expression of this transcription factor is required to maintain their immune regulatory function and ensure immune homeostasis. Stable Foxp3 expression is achieved through epigenetic modification of the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR), an evolutionarily conserved non-coding element within the Foxp3 gene locus. Here, we present molecular data suggesting that TSDR enhancer activity is restricted to T cells and cannot be induced in other immune cells such as macrophages or B cells. Since NF-κB signaling has been reported to be instrumental to induce Foxp3 expression during Treg development, we analyzed how NF-κB factors are involved in the molecular regulation of the TSDR. Unexpectedly, we neither observed transcriptional activity of a previously postulated NF-κB binding site within the TSDR nor did the entire TSDR show any transcriptional responsiveness to NF-κB activation at all. Finally, the NF-κB subunit c-Rel revealed to be dispensable for epigenetic imprinting of sustained Foxp3 expression by TSDR demethylation. In conclusion, we show that NF-κB signaling is not substantially involved in TSDR-mediated stabilization of Foxp3 expression in Tregs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Biochemistry, 20 February 2018, Vol.57(7), pp.1130-1143
    Description: The well-studied enterobacterium Escherichia coli present in the human gut can reduce trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) to trimethylamine during anaerobic respiration. The TMAO reductase TorA is a monomeric, bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (bis-MGD) cofactor-containing enzyme that belongs to the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family of molybdoenzymes. We report on a system for the in vitro reconstitution of TorA with molybdenum cofactors (Moco) from different sources. Higher TMAO reductase activities for TorA were obtained when using Moco sources containing a sulfido ligand at the molybdenum atom. For the first time, we were able to isolate functional bis-MGD from Rhodobacter capsulatus formate dehydrogenase (FDH), which remained intact in its isolated state and after insertion into apo-TorA yielded a highly active enzyme. Combined characterizations of the reconstituted TorA enzymes by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and direct electrochemistry emphasize that TorA activity can be modified by changes in the Mo coordination sphere. The combination of these results together with studies of amino acid exchanges at the active site led us to propose a novel model for binding of the substrate to the molybdenum atom of TorA.
    Keywords: Coenzymes -- Metabolism ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System -- Metabolism ; Escherichia Coli -- Metabolism ; Escherichia Coli Proteins -- Metabolism ; Metalloproteins -- Metabolism ; Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating -- Metabolism ; Pteridines -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00062960
    E-ISSN: 1520-4995
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: BMC Research Notes, 01 June 2011, Vol.4(1), p.180
    Description: Abstract Background The luxS gene in Shewanella oneidensis was shown to encode an autoinducer-2 (AI-2)-like molecule, the postulated universal bacterial signal, but the impaired biofilm growth of a luxS deficient mutant could not be restored by AI-2, indicating it might not have a signalling role in this organism. Findings Here, we provide further evidence regarding the metabolic role of a luxS mutation in S. oneidensis. We constructed a luxS mutant and compared its phenotype to a wild type control with respect to its ability to remove AI-2 from the medium, expression of secreted proteins and biofilm formation. We show that S. oneidensis has a cell-dependent mechanism by which AI-2 is depleted from the medium by uptake or degradation at the end of the exponential growth phase. As AI-2 depletion is equally active in the luxS mutant and thus does not require AI-2 as an inducer, it appears to be an unspecific mechanism suggesting that AI-2 for S. oneidensis is a metabolite which is imported under nutrient limitation. Secreted proteins were studied by iTraq labelling and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) detection. Differences between wild type and mutant were small. Proteins related to flagellar and twitching motility were slightly up-regulated in the luxS mutant, in accordance with its loose biofilm structure. An enzyme related to cysteine metabolism was also up-regulated, probably compensating for the lack of the LuxS enzyme. The luxS mutant developed an undifferentiated, loosely-connected biofilm which covered the glass surface more homogenously than the wild type control, which formed compact aggregates with large voids in between. Conclusions The data confirm the role of the LuxS enzyme for biofilm growth in S. oneidensis and make it unlikely that AI-2 has a signalling role in this organism.
    Keywords: Quorum Sensing ; Autoinducer-2 ; Shewanella Oneidensis ; Luxs ; Biofilm ; Secretome ; Biology
    ISSN: 1756-0500
    E-ISSN: 1756-0500
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