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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology, May 2014, Vol.165(1), pp.186-95
    Description: In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), root hairs are formed in cell files over the cleft of underlying cortex cells. This pattern is established by a well-known gene regulatory network of transcription factors. In this study, we show that WRKY75 suppresses root hair development in nonroot hair files and that it represses the expression of TRIPTYCHON and CAPRICE. The WRKY75 protein binds to the CAPRICE promoter in a yeast one-hybrid assay. Binding to the promoter fragment requires an intact WRKY protein-binding motif, the W box. A comparison of the spatial expression of WRKY75 and the localization of the WRKY75 protein revealed that WRKY75 is expressed in the pericycle and vascular tissue and that the WRKY75 RNA or protein moves into the epidermis.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genes, Plant ; Arabidopsis -- Genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins -- Metabolism ; Body Patterning -- Genetics ; Plant Roots -- Genetics ; Transcription Factors -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00320889
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biochemistry, 15 May 2012, Vol.51(19), pp.3960-2
    Description: α-Synuclein is abundantly present in Lewy bodies, characteristic of Parkinson's disease. Its exact physiological role has yet to be determined, but mitochondrial membrane binding is suspected to be a key aspect of its function. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling allowed for a locally resolved analysis of the protein-membrane binding affinity for artificial phospholipid membranes, supported by a study of binding to isolated mitochondria. The data reveal that the binding affinity of the N-terminus is nonuniform.
    Keywords: Cell Membrane -- Metabolism ; Alpha-Synuclein -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00062960
    E-ISSN: 1520-4995
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 30 March 2012, Vol.287(14), pp.11164-73
    Description: Synthesis, storage, and turnover of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in adipocytes are critical cellular processes to maintain lipid and energy homeostasis in mammals. TAGs are stored in metabolically highly dynamic lipid droplets (LDs), which are believed to undergo fragmentation and fusion under lipolytic and lipogenic conditions, respectively. Time lapse fluorescence microscopy showed that stimulation of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes causes progressive shrinkage and almost complete degradation of all cellular LDs but without any detectable fragmentation into micro-LDs (mLDs). However, mLDs were rapidly formed after induction of lipolysis in the absence of BSA in the culture medium that acts as a fatty acid scavenger. Moreover, mLD formation was blocked by the acyl-CoA synthetase inhibitor triacsin C, implicating that mLDs are synthesized de novo in response to cellular fatty acid overload. Using label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy, we demonstrate that LDs grow by transfer of lipids from one organelle to another. Notably, this lipid transfer between closely associated LDs is not a rapid and spontaneous process but rather occurs over several h and does not appear to require physical interaction over large LD surface areas. These data indicate that LD growth is a highly regulated process leading to the heterogeneous LD size distribution within and between individual cells. Our findings suggest that lipolysis and lipogenesis occur in parallel in a cell to prevent cellular fatty acid overflow. Furthermore, we propose that formation of large LDs requires a yet uncharacterized protein machinery mediating LD interaction and lipid transfer.
    Keywords: Lipolysis ; Adipocytes -- Metabolism ; Lipids -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00219258
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chemical communications (Cambridge, England), 18 February 2012, Vol.48(15), pp.2104-6
    Description: Monitoring of the formation of stable fluorescent nanoparticles from controlled mixing of a THF solution of poly(fluorene ethynylene)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) in a microfluidic laminar flow crossjunction by spatially resolved fluorescence spectroscopy reveals the time scale of particle formation as well as incorporation of small molecule guests and the role of solvent mixing.
    Keywords: Fluorenes -- Chemistry ; Fluorescent Dyes -- Chemistry ; Nanoparticles -- Chemistry ; Polyethylene Glycols -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 13597345
    E-ISSN: 1364-548X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 15 July 2018, Vol.201(2), pp.663-674
    Description: Myeloid cells can be beneficial as well as harmful in tissue regenerative responses. The molecular mechanisms by which myeloid cells control this critical decision of the immune system are not well understood. Using two different models of physiological acute or pathological chronic skin damage, in this study we identified myeloid cell-restricted STAT3 signaling as important and an injury context-dependent regulator of skin fibrosis. Targeted disruption of STAT3 signaling in myeloid cells significantly accelerated development of pathological skin fibrosis in a model of chronic bleomycin-induced tissue injury, whereas the impact on wound closure dynamics and quality of healing after acute excision skin injury was minor. Chronic bleomycin-mediated tissue damage in control mice provoked an antifibrotic gene signature in macrophages that was characterized by upregulated expression of IL-10, SOCS3, and decorin. In contrast, in STAT3-deficient macrophages this antifibrotic repair program was abolished whereas TGF-β1 expression was increased. Notably, TGF-β1 synthesis in cultured control bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) was suppressed after IL-10 exposure, and this suppressive effect was alleviated by STAT3 deficiency. Accordingly, coculture of IL-10-stimulated control BMDMs with fibroblasts suppressed expression of the TGF-β1 downstream target connective tissue growth factor in fibroblasts, whereas this suppressive effect was lost by STAT3 deficiency in BMDMs. Our findings highlight a previously unrecognized protective role of myeloid cell-specific STAT3 signaling in immune cell-mediated skin fibrosis, and its regulatory pathway could be a potential target for therapy.
    Keywords: Skin ; Bone Marrow ; Skin Injuries ; Decorin ; Connective Tissue Growth Factor ; Damage Detection ; Molecular Modelling ; Immune System ; Skin ; Animal Models ; Interleukin 10 ; Macrophages ; Molecular Chains ; Bone Marrow ; Bleomycin ; Fibrosis ; Immune System ; Fibroblasts ; Gene Expression ; Repair ; Bone Marrow ; Stat3 Protein ; Fibroblasts ; Macrophages ; Animal Tissues ; Myeloid Cells ; Fibrosis ; Downstream Effects ; Signaling ; Connective Tissues ; Immune System;
    ISSN: 00221767
    E-ISSN: 1550-6606
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 08 April 2013, Vol.52(15), pp.4265-4268
    Description: : Terminal alkenes are used as chemical reporters and ligation partners for 1,2,4,5‐tetrazines in a Diels–Alder reaction with inverse electron demand (DARinv). Combination with strain‐promoted azide–alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) allows the visualization of two different glycan structures in one experiment.
    Keywords: Bioorthogonal Reactions ; Carbohydrates ; Click Chemistry ; Metabolic Engineering ; Tetrazines
    ISSN: 1433-7851
    E-ISSN: 1521-3773
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 08 April 2013, Vol.52(15), pp.4265-8
    Description: Keywords: bioorthogonal reactions; carbohydrates; click chemistry; metabolic engineering; tetrazines ***** No abstract is available for this article. ***** Author Affiliation: University of Konstanz, Department of Chemistry and Konstanz Research School Chemical Biology (KoRS-CB), 78457 Konstanz (Germany) Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, CBF, Charite Universitatsmedizin, 14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany) University of Konstanz, Department of Chemistry and Konstanz Research School Chemical Biology (KoRS-CB), 78457 Konstanz (Germany) Article Note: This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 969), the University of Konstanz, the Konstanz Research School Chemical Biology, the Wilhelm Sander-Stiftung (L.D.N., W.R.), and the Sonnenfeld-Stiftung, Berlin (L.D.N.). We thank Prof. M. Wie[sz]ler for helpful discussions regarding the Diels-Alder chemistry and the Bioimaging Center of the University of Konstanz and Prof. A. Zumbusch for providing the fluorescence microscopy instrumentation. Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article As a service to our authors and readers, this journal provides supporting information supplied by the authors. Such materials are peer reviewed and may be re-organized for online delivery, but are not copy-edited or typeset. Technical support issues arising from supporting information (other than missing files) should be addressed to the authors.
    Keywords: Color ; Staining and Labeling ; Polysaccharides -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 14337851
    E-ISSN: 1521-3773
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of lipid research, December 2013, Vol.54(12), pp.3419-29
    Description: During the adipogenic differentiation process of mesenchymal stem cells, lipid droplets (LDs) grow slowly by transferring lipids between each other. Recent findings hint at the possibility that a fusion pore is involved. In this study, we analyze lipid transfer data obtained in long-term label-free microscopy studies in the framework of a Hagen-Poiseuille model. The data obtained show a LD fusion process in which the lipid transfer directionality depends on the size difference between LDs, whereas the respective rates depend on the size difference and additionally on the diameter of the smaller LDs. For the data analysis, the viscosity of the transferred material has to be known. We demonstrate that a viscosity-dependent molecular rotor dye can be used to measure LD viscosities in live cells. On this basis, we calculate the diameter of a putative lipid transfer channel which appears to have a direct dependence on the diameter of the smaller of the two participating LDs.
    Keywords: Adipogenic Differentiation ; Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy ; Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging ; Lipids ; Microscopy ; Adipocytes -- Cytology ; Organelles -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00222275
    E-ISSN: 1539-7262
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of biophotonics, June 2011, Vol.4(6), pp.435-41
    Description: Photobleaching of organic fluorophores commonly used in fluorescence microscopy puts a limit to the number of images which can be acquired. Label-free imaging techniques therefore offer advantages both for rapid image acquisition and for long-term observations. CARS microscopy is a label-free imaging technique offering molecule specific contrast. Here we demonstrate that CARS microscopy allows video-rate tracking of intracellular transport of lipid droplets, but also continuous long-term observation of cells over several hours.
    Keywords: Lipids -- Chemistry ; Microscopy -- Methods ; Microscopy, Fluorescence -- Methods ; Spectrum Analysis, Raman -- Methods
    E-ISSN: 1864-0648
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Chemical communications (Cambridge, England), 07 August 2010, Vol.46(29), pp.5289-91
    Description: By a stepwise synthesis strategy biofunctionalized Pyrrolopyrrole Cyanines (PPCy) with an asymmetric substitution pattern were obtained. These exhibit extremely strong and narrowband NIR absorption and fluorescence. Internalization of a peptide bound PPCy is demonstrated using live cell microscopy.
    Keywords: Fluorescent Dyes -- Chemistry ; Pyrroles -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 13597345
    E-ISSN: 1364-548X
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