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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: The American Journal of Physiology, May, 1999, Vol.276(5), p.G1137(8)
    Description: Liver injury is known to occur when reactive oxygen species is generated by activated Kupffer cells following liver preservation, shock or endotoxemia. However, no pharmacological interventions for protecting liver cells from the action of Kupffer cells have yet been found. To test the idea that cell-induced oxidant injury can be prevented by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the mechanism of cytoprotection by ANP is investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Results suggest that ANP signaling could provide the basis for a new pharmacological approach for protecting liver cells.
    Keywords: Liver -- Injuries ; Laboratory Rats -- Physiological Aspects ; Perfusion (Physiology) -- Research ; Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity -- Research ; Ischemia -- Physiological Aspects ; Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate -- Physiological Aspects ; Natriuretic Peptides -- Physiological Aspects
    ISSN: 0002-9513
    ISSN: 15221547
    E-ISSN: 15221547
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: High Temperatures-High Pressures, 2000, Vol.32(1), pp.73-81
    ISSN: 0018-1544
    E-ISSN: 1472-3441
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 3
    Language: German
    In: Chemie Ingenieur Technik, February 1988, Vol.60(2), pp.120-122
    ISSN: 0009-286X
    E-ISSN: 1522-2640
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 01/1992, Vol.37(1), pp.114-119
    ISSN: 0021-9568
    E-ISSN: 1520-5134
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1991, Vol.62(1), pp.115-139
    Description: The P , ϱ and T behaviour of four nitrogen—hydrogen mixtures (0.8505 N 2 , 0.7501 N 2 , 0.4998 N 2 and 0.2503 N 2 ) was measured in the temperature range 270–353 K and pressures up to 30 MPa. Measurements were carried out with a Burnett apparatus and an optical device, also termed a grating interferometer. The experimental results were used to obtain tables of compressibility factors for each mixture. The compressibility factors obtained by the two methods, the Burnett and optical experiments, are accurate to ±0.1%. For pressures below 10 MPa the accuracy of the Burnett data is estimated to be ±0.07%. The P , ϱ and T data were used to determine the second and third virial coefficients, B and C , for each mixture. Unlike interaction virial coefficients, B 12 , C 112 and C , 122 were determined from the mixture virial coefficients by using the like interaction virial coefficients, B 11 , B 22 , C 111 and C 222 , of the pure components from Jaeschke and Hinze. The deduced values of B 12 are accurate to ±0.4 cm 3 mol −1 . These values agree excellently with the B 12 results determined from the P , ϱ and T data of Michels and Wassenaar.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0378-3812
    E-ISSN: 1879-0224
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Fluid Phase Equilibria, 1991, Vol.64, pp.263-280
    Description: The P , ϱ, T behaviour of three ethane + nitrogen mixtures (0.7515 C 2 H 6 , 0.5004 C 2 H 6 and 0.2503 C 2 H 6 ) was determined from P , n , T measurements for the isotherms 270, 290, 310, 330 and 350 K and for pressures up to 28 MPa. The refractive index n and the pressure P of the mixtures were measured with two coupled laser interferometers. The experimental P , n , N data were combined with the higher-order refractivity virial coefficients B R and C R of the Lorentz—Lorenz expansion to calculate the density ϱ. The experimental results were used to obtain tables of compressibility factors for each mixture. The P , ϱ, T data were reduced to obtain the second and third virial coefficients, B and C , for each mixture. Unlike interaction virial coefficients, B 12 , C 112 and C 122 , were determined from the mixture virial coefficients by using the like interaction virial coefficients of the pure components from Jaeschke and Hinze. The compressibility factors are considered accurate to 0.1%, and unlike interaction second virial coefficients to ±1.5 cm 3 mol −1 . The values agree excellently with the B 12 results determined from the P , ϱ, T data of Reintsema et al. and the value at 311 K from Calvin and Reed.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0378-3812
    E-ISSN: 1879-0224
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: SPE Production Engineering, 8/1/1991, Vol.6(03), pp.343-349
    ISSN: 0885-9221
    Source: Society of Petroleum Engineers (via CrossRef)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: SPE Production Engineering, 8/1/1991, Vol.6(03), pp.350-355
    Description: In this paper a GERG (Groupe Europeen de Recherches Gazieres) equation of state (EOS) is presented to calculate the compressibility factor of natural gases. The equation, which does not require detailed gas analysis, can predict the compressibility factor when three of the four following gas properties are known: the gross calorific value, the relative density, and the mole fractions of N₂ and CO₂. The new equation, known as the SGERG-88 virial equation, is based on ideas presented in an earlier study. The new equation, however, applies to wider ranges of temperature and pressure and can be applied to gases containing hydrogen if the mole fraction of the hydrogen is known. The equation was tested on natural gases purchased, transported, and marketed by the European gas companies. Excellent agreement between computed and experimental compressibility factors was found. This difference is, in most cases (94% of the data points), less than 0.1% in the temperature range of 265 to 335 K and for pressures up to 12 MPa. Journal Article.
    Keywords: Natural Gas General And Miscellaneous//Mathematics, Computing, And Information Scienceeurope ; Natural Gas Industry ; Natural Gas ; Compressibility ; Transport ; Natural Gas Fields ; Virial Equation ; Chemical Properties ; Equations Of State ; Market ; Natural Gas Wells ; Performance Testing ; Research Programs ; Energy Sources ; Equations ; Fluids ; Fossil Fuels ; Fuel Gas ; Fuels ; Gas Fuels ; Gases ; Geologic Deposits ; Industry ; Mechanical Properties ; Mineral Resources ; Natural Gas Deposits ; Resources ; Testing ; Wells;
    ISSN: 0885-9221
    Source: Society of Petroleum Engineers (via CrossRef)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 07 July 2010, Vol.132(26), pp.8846-7
    Description: There is currently a tremendous interest in developing bioorthogonal "click chemistry" methods for the modification of biopolymers. Very recently, inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reactions have received attention, but to date they have not been applied to nucleic acids. Here we describe the first example of DNA modification by inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction. We synthesized four different building blocks for 3'-terminal, 5'-terminal, and internal incorporation of norbornene dienophiles into oligonucleotides. These DNA strands were either directly reacted with suitably derivatized tetrazine dienes or first subjected to enzymatic manipulations. We demonstrate that the inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction allows efficient site-specific post-synthetic conjugation, often at a 1:1 stoichiometry, without any side reaction. The reaction works in aqueous media at room temperature, and no transition metals are required. Both short chemically synthesized oligonucleotides and long enzymatically amplified DNA strands were successfully conjugated.
    Keywords: Electrons ; DNA -- Chemical Synthesis ; DNA Adducts -- Chemical Synthesis
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Bioconjugate chemistry, 2012, Vol.23(7), pp.1382-1386
    Description: Bioorthogonal reactions are of high interest in biosciences as they allow the introduction of fluorescent dyes, affinity tags, or other unnatural moieties into biomolecules. The site-specific attachment of two or more different labels is particularly demanding and typically requires laborious multistep syntheses. Here, we report that the most popular cycloaddition in bioconjugation, the copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne click reaction (CuAAC), is fully orthogonal to the inverse electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction (DAinv). We demonstrate that both bioorthogonal reactions can be conducted concurrently in a one-pot reaction by just mixing all components. Orthogonality has been established even for highly reactive trans-cyclooctene-based dienophiles (with rate constants up to 380 000 M–1 s–1). These properties allow for the convenient site-specific one-step preparation of oligonucleotide FRET probes and related reporters needed in cellular biology and biophysical chemistry.
    Keywords: Natural Sciences ; Biological Sciences ; Biochemistry And Molecular Biology ; Naturvetenskap ; Biologiska Vetenskaper ; Biokemi Och Molekylärbiologi
    ISSN: 1043-1802
    E-ISSN: 15204812
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