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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of cell biology, 18 August 2014, Vol.206(4), pp.461-72
    Description: Microtubules are cytoskeletal filaments that are dynamically assembled from α/β-tubulin heterodimers. The primary sequence and structure of the tubulin proteins and, consequently, the properties and architecture of microtubules are highly conserved in eukaryotes. Despite this conservation, tubulin is subject to heterogeneity that is generated in two ways: by the expression of different tubulin isotypes and by posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Identifying the mechanisms that generate and control tubulin heterogeneity and how this heterogeneity affects microtubule function are long-standing goals in the field. Recent work on tubulin PTMs has shed light on how these modifications could contribute to a "tubulin code" that coordinates the complex functions of microtubules in cells.
    Keywords: Microtubules -- Metabolism ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational -- Physiology ; Tubulin -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219525
    E-ISSN: 1540-8140
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The journal of physical chemistry. B, 30 August 2012, Vol.116(34), pp.10379-86
    Description: We analyze the structural formation of a polymer chain inside of an attractive sphere depending on the attraction strength. Our model is composed of a coarse-grained polymer and an attractive sphere potential. Within this frame, multicanonical Monte Carlo simulations are employed to identify the global minimum energies for a polymer chain interacting with the attractive inner wall of the sphere. Different compact structures are found with varying attraction strengths, among which are spherical, three/two, or monolayer. The conformational properties of these structures are presented.
    Keywords: Quantum Theory ; Polymers -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 15206106
    E-ISSN: 1520-5207
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nurse Education Today, November 2012, Vol.32(8), pp.920-923
    Description: Information literacy is an important foundation for evidence-based nursing practice. Librarians, the experts in information literacy, are important collaborators in the process of teaching nursing students information literacy skills. In this article we describe a service learning project, offered in a third year nursing research course, designed to teach information literacy and to enhance students' appreciation of the role of evidence in nursing practice. Students worked in groups, and under the guidance of a nursing instructor and librarian, to answer a question posed by practice-based partners. Through the project students learned essential skills of refining a question, identifying systematic search strategies, gleaning essential information from a study and using a bibliographic management tool. Evaluation of the project indicated that although the project was challenging and labour intensive students felt they learned important skills for their future practice. Several recommendations for further enhancing the collaboration are made.
    Keywords: Baccalaureate Nursing Students ; Interprofessional Relations ; Evidence-Based Practice ; Information Literacy ; Medicine ; Nursing
    ISSN: 0260-6917
    E-ISSN: 1532-2793
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Wildlife Management, February 2013, Vol.77(2), pp.405-413
    Description: Northern bobwhites thrive in fine‐grained landscapes with a diversity of early succession woodland, grassland, and agriculture‐associated habitat types. Bobwhite conservation has proved challenging in the increasingly coarse‐grained Midwestern landscape as simplified agricultural cropping systems are implemented at larger spatial scales. Regardless, managing agricultural landscapes on private lands is the primary opportunity to restore bobwhite populations in the Midwestern United States. Although bobwhite habitat requirements are well understood, habitat selection in contemporary Midwestern landscapes is not well understood, especially on private lands where populations are declining. We used compositional analysis to investigate second‐ (study area) and third‐ (home range) order habitat selection by radiomarked bobwhite coveys on 4 private land study areas in southwestern Ohio. Mean covey home range size was 26.1 ± 2.2 ha ( = 48). Although home ranges were established in areas with more grassland cover, bobwhites most strongly selected early succession woody habitat (e.g., fencerows and ditches) at all scales, and selection for grassland diminished between the study area and home range scales. Grassland selection varied among sites and was strongest on sites with more row crop area. Woodlots were avoided at the study area scale, but were selected within home ranges. Grassland cover, like that provided by contemporary conservation programs, is an essential component of bobwhite habitat in the Midwest, but our results suggest more emphasis should be placed on early succession woody cover. Woody cover associated with fencerows, ditches, and woodlots adjacent to food sources and breeding habitat will likely improve non‐breeding season survival, which is an influential vital rate in northern populations. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.
    Keywords: Agricultural Landscape ; Colinus Virginianus ; Compositional Analysis ; Northern Bobwhite ; Ohio ; Private Land ; Woody Cover
    ISSN: 0022-541X
    E-ISSN: 1937-2817
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Trends in Neurosciences, August 2010, Vol.33(8), pp.362-372
    Description: In the past decades, a range of post-translational modifications has been discovered on tubulins, the major constituents of microtubules. Pioneering studies have described the occurrence and dynamics of these modifications and provided first insights into their potential functions in regulating the microtubule cytoskeleton. By contrast, several tubulin-modifying enzymes were only discovered in the last few years, and studies on molecular mechanisms and cellular functions of tubulin modifications are just beginning to emerge. This review highlights the roles of tubulin modifications in neurons. Recent studies are also discussed in relation to how the combinatorial use of tubulin modifications could generate a dynamic microtubule code, and how such a code might regulate basic as well as higher-order neuronal functions.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0166-2236
    E-ISSN: 1878-108X
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  • 6
    In: Journal of Popular Culture, August 2013, Vol.46(4), pp.772-788
    Description: Whether intentional by the writer/director Coen brothers or not, The Big Lebowski reveals how subjective the terms "information" and "facts" truly are in the twenty-first century; a world of nonstop news and ubiquitous talking heads. What is truth to one person is not necessarily truth to another--what...
    Keywords: Motion Picture Criticism ; Popular Culture ; Whites ; Siblings ; Truth;
    ISSN: 0022-3840
    E-ISSN: 1540-5931
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science, 2012, Vol.336(6079), pp.344-347
    Description: Recent studies have shown that the polar bear matriline (mitochondrial DNA) evolved from a brown bear lineage since the late Pleistocene, potentially indicating rapid speciation and adaption to arctic conditions. Here, we present a high-resolution data set from multiple independent loci across the nuclear...
    Keywords: Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Klinisk Medicin ; Neurologi ; Medical And Health Sciences ; Clinical Medicine ; Neurology ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Klinisk Medicin ; Kirurgi ; Medical And Health Sciences ; Clinical Medicine ; Surgery
    ISSN: 1095-9203
    ISSN: 00368075
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Current Biology, 04 December 2017, Vol.27(23), pp.R1287-R1292
    Description: Among the different types of cytoskeletal components, microtubules arguably accumulate the greatest diversity of post-translational modifications (PTMs). Acetylation of lysine 40 (K40) of α-tubulin has received particular attention because it is the only tubulin PTM to be found in the lumen of microtubules: most other tubulin PTMs are found at the outer surface of the microtubule. As a consequence, the enzyme catalyzing K40 acetylation needs to penetrate the narrow microtubule lumen to find its substrate. Acetylated microtubules have been considered to be stable, long-lived microtubules; however, until recently, there was little information about whether the longevity of these microtubules is the cause or the consequence of acetylation. Current advances suggest that this PTM helps the microtubule lattice to cope with mechanical stress, thus facilitating microtubule self-repair. These observations now shed new light on the structural integrity of microtubules, as well as on the mechanisms and biological functions of tubulin acetylation. Here, we discuss recent insights into how acetylation is generated in the lumen of microtubules, and how this ‘hidden’ PTM can control the properties and functions of microtubules. In this Review, Janke and Montagnac discuss recent insights into the mechanisms responsible for acetylation in the lumen of microtubules and the effects of this luminal post-translational modification on the properties and functions of microtubules.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0960-9822
    E-ISSN: 1879-0445
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Physical review letters, 25 March 2016, Vol.116(12), pp.128301
    Description: Using a combination of the multicanonical Monte Carlo algorithm and the replica-exchange method, we investigate the influence of bending stiffness on the conformational phases of a bead-stick homopolymer model and present the pseudophase diagram for the complete range of semiflexible polymers, from flexible to stiff. Although it is a simple model, we observe a rich variety of conformational phases, reminiscent of conformations observed for synthetic polymers or biopolymers. Depending on the bending stiffness, the model exhibits different pseudophases like bent, hairpin, or toroidal. In particular, we find thermodynamically stable knots and unusual transitions into these knotted phases with a clear phase coexistence, but almost constant mean total energy, and hence almost no latent heat.
    Keywords: Bending ; Knots ; Phases ; Stiffness ; Order Parameters ; Constants ; Polymers ; Latent Heat ; Plasma Physics (General) (So) ; Physics (General) (Ah);
    ISSN: 00319007
    E-ISSN: 1079-7114
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Physical review letters, 19 December 2014, Vol.113(25), pp.255701
    Description: We study self-avoiding walks on three-dimensional critical percolation clusters using a new exact enumeration method. It overcomes the exponential increase in computation time by exploiting the clusters' fractal nature. We enumerate walks of over 10^{4} steps, far more than has ever been possible. The scaling exponent ν for the end-to-end distance turns out to be smaller than previously thought and appears to be the same on the backbones as on full clusters. We find strong evidence against the widely assumed scaling law for the number of conformations and propose an alternative, which perfectly fits our data.
    Keywords: Models, Chemical
    ISSN: 00319007
    E-ISSN: 1079-7114
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