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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 2010, Vol.44(4), pp.1288-1296
    Description: A study was conducted to understand the role of cell concentration and metabolic state in the transport and deposition behaviour of with and without substrate addition. Column experiments using the short-pulse technique (pulse was equivalent to 0.028 pore volume) were performed in quartz sand operating under saturated conditions. For comparison, experiments with microspheres and inactive (killed) bacteria were also conducted. The effluent concentrations, the retained particle concentrations and the cell shape were determined by fluorescent microscopy. For the transport of metabolically-active without substrate addition a bimodal breakthrough curve was observed, which could be explained by the different breakthrough behaviour of the rod-shaped and coccoidal cells of . The 70:30 rod/coccoid ratio in the influent drastically changed during the transport and it was about 20:80 in the effluent and in the quartz sand packing. It was assumed that the active rod-shaped cells were subjected to shrinkage into coccoidal cells. The change from active rod-shaped cells to coccoidal cells could be explained by oxygen deficiency which occurs in column experiments under saturated conditions. Also the substrate addition led to two consecutive breakthrough peaks and to more bacteria being retained in the column. In general, the presence of substrate made the assumed stress effects more pronounced. In comparison to microspheres and inactive (killed) bacteria, the transport of metabolically-active bacteria with and without substrate addition is affected by differences in physiological state between rod-shaped and the formed stress-resistant coccoidal cells of .
    Keywords: Bacteria Transport ; Colloid Deposition ; Cell Morphology ; Physiological State ; Pseudomonas Fluorescens ; Oxygen Stress ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Psycho-Oncology, Sept, 2012, Vol.21(9), p.(1)
    Description: Byline: Linda D. Muusses, Julia C.M. Weert, Sandra Dulmen, Jesse Jansen Abstract Objective Fulfilling patients' information needs can help them cope with illness and improve their well-being. Little research has been conducted on the characteristics of patients using different information sources. This study aims to get insight into which information sources patients receiving chemotherapy for the first time use and which factors (background characteristics, psychological factors, information needs and source reliability) explain the use of different mass-media information sources. Methods Three hundred forty-five patients receiving chemotherapy in ten hospitals in the Netherlands completed a questionnaire. Use of 16 sources (mass-media and interpersonal) was measured with a five-point Likert scale. Regression analyses were conducted to test whether use of the three most frequently used mass-media sources could be explained by socio-demographic, medical and psychological factors, unfulfilled information needs and perceived reliability of the source. Results Treatment guide, brochures and Internet were the most frequently used mass-media sources. Medical specialists, nurses, and family and/or friends were the most common interpersonal sources. Using the treatment guide was found to be associated with treatment goal, unfulfilled information needs and source reliability. Using brochures was associated with cancer-related stress responses, coping style and source reliability. Using Internet was associated with age, education, coping style and source reliability. Conclusions This study developed a model to explain the use of mass-media information sources by patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. The use of different information sources is associated with different factors, indicating that each source offers specific opportunities to tailor information to the patient's needs. Copyright A[c] 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Correspondence: Department of Social Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail: LD.Muusses@psy.vu.nl
    Keywords: Stress (Psychology) -- Analysis ; Chemotherapy -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1057-9249
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Patient Education and Counseling, September 2013, Vol.92(3), pp.388-397
    Description: To evaluate what information and communication aspects older cancer patients (≥65) consider important in preparing for chemotherapy treatment (CT), the extent to which this corresponds with what oncology nurses consider important, and the extent to which nurses attend to these aspects during real-life educational visits in oncology. The QUOTE was used to have patients ( = 116) and nurses ( = 123) rate the importance of 66 aspects of patient education. Subsequently, the implementation of these 66 aspects during videotaped nursing visits ( = 155) with older cancer patients receiving CT for the first time was examined. Older cancer patients attached most importance to ‘treatment-related information’, ‘rehabilitation information’, ‘affective communication’ and discussing ‘realistic expectations’. Nurses placed great importance to almost all aspects except to discussing ‘realistic expectations’. Discrepancies were found between expressed importance and the actual performance during the videotaped consultations, particularly in discussing realistic expectations, coping information, interpersonal communication, and tailored communication. Results pointed to aspects that need improvement to ensure high quality patient education tailored to the patients’ needs. To make sure older cancer patients’ needs are met, more attention should be paid to the development of interventions supporting both needs assessment and fulfillment.
    Keywords: Health Communication ; Information Needs ; Patient–Provider Interaction ; Older Patients ; Cancer ; Chemotherapy Treatment ; Quality of Communication ; Video Recordings ; Medicine ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0738-3991
    E-ISSN: 1873-5134
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  • 4
    In: Journal of Neurochemistry, April 2017, Vol.141(1), pp.86-99
    Description: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important part of the innate immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS). The antimicrobial peptide, psoriasin, modulates glial cell activity, but the exact underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We show that psoriasin not only induced pro‐inflammatory cytokines, but also neurotrophin expression. In addition, we detected functional interactions between psoriasin and the antioxidative stress transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2). The induction of Nrf2‐dependent anti‐inflammatory enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO‐1) could contribute to the antioxidative and anti‐inflammatory properties of psoriasin.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial Peptides ; Glia ; Innate Immunity ; Nrf2 ; Psoriasin ; S100a7
    ISSN: 0022-3042
    E-ISSN: 1471-4159
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Linguistik Online, April, 2014, Vol.66(4), p.91(20)
    Description: The question of how we can define salience, what properties it includes and how we can quantify it have been discussed widely over the past thirty years but we still have more questions than answers about this phenomenon, e. g. not only how salience arises, but also how we can define it. However, despite the lack of a clear definition, salience is often taken into account as an explanatory factor in language change. The scientific discourse on salience has in most cases revolved around phonetic features, while hardly any variables on other linguistic levels have been investigated in terms of their salience. Hence, one goal of this paper is to argue for an expanded view of salience in the sociolinguistic context. This article investigates the variation and change of two groups of variables in Carlisle, an urban speech community in the north west of England. I analyse the variable (TH) and in particular the replacement of /[voiceless dental fricative]/ with [f] which is widely known as TH-fronting. The use of three discourse markers is also examined. Both groups of features will then be discussed in the light of sociolinguistic Adapted from the source document
    Keywords: Salience (74535) ; Sociolinguistics (80200) ; Sociophonetics (80205) ; British English (09700) ; Regional Dialects (72100) ; England (21800) ; Speech Communities (82410) ; Language Change (41850) ; Phonetic Analysis (64675) ; Sociolinguistics; Sociolinguistics ; Article;
    ISSN: 1615-3014
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    In: English Today, 2018, Vol.34(1), pp.52-55
    Description: Predicting the future of English has been an exercise linguists have engaged with in academic settings for a long time, e.g. Sélincourt (1928), Jagger (1940), Quirk (1972) and Kortmann (2001). Mair (2013: 314) remarks that ‘in spite of the known risks involved in the task, there is no dearth of prophets in the linguistic community’. While he does not discuss the ‘known risks’ in his chapter, he does show that a lot of these predictions have not become true over the course of time.
    Keywords: United Kingdom–UK ; Language ; English ; Linguistics ; Trends ; Predictions ; English Language;
    ISSN: 0266-0784
    E-ISSN: 1474-0567
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Water research, 2010, Vol.44, pp.1288-1296
    Description: In the special issue: Transport and Fate of Colloids and Microbes in Granular Aqueous Environments / Edited by David Dixon, Nathalie Tufenkji and Monica B. Emelko. Includes references ; p. 1288-1296.
    Keywords: Pseudomonas Fluorescens ; Colloids ; Oxygen ; Microbial Contamination ; Porous Media ; Metabolism ; Drinking Water ; Saturated Conditions
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 17 December 2013, Vol.110(51), pp.20633-8
    Description: Diatoms of the iron-replete continental margins and North Atlantic are key exporters of organic carbon. In contrast, diatoms of the iron-limited Antarctic Circumpolar Current sequester silicon, but comparatively little carbon, in the underlying deep ocean and sediments. Because the Southern Ocean is the major hub of oceanic nutrient distribution, selective silicon sequestration there limits diatom blooms elsewhere and consequently the biotic carbon sequestration potential of the entire ocean. We investigated this paradox in an in situ iron fertilization experiment by comparing accumulation and sinking of diatom populations inside and outside the iron-fertilized patch over 5 wk. A bloom comprising various thin- and thick-shelled diatom species developed inside the patch despite the presence of large grazer populations. After the third week, most of the thinner-shelled diatom species underwent mass mortality, formed large, mucous aggregates, and sank out en masse (carbon sinkers). In contrast, thicker-shelled species, in particular Fragilariopsis kerguelensis, persisted in the surface layers, sank mainly empty shells continuously, and reduced silicate concentrations to similar levels both inside and outside the patch (silica sinkers). These patterns imply that thick-shelled, hence grazer-protected, diatom species evolved in response to heavy copepod grazing pressure in the presence of an abundant silicate supply. The ecology of these silica-sinking species decouples silicon and carbon cycles in the iron-limited Southern Ocean, whereas carbon-sinking species, when stimulated by iron fertilization, export more carbon per silicon. Our results suggest that large-scale iron fertilization of the silicate-rich Southern Ocean will not change silicon sequestration but will add carbon to the sinking silica flux.
    Keywords: Evolutionary Arms Race ; Geo-Engineering ; Top-Down Control ; Ecosystem ; Oceans and Seas ; Carbon -- Metabolism ; Diatoms -- Physiology ; Iron -- Metabolism ; Phytoplankton -- Physiology ; Silicon -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, March 2014, Vol.35(3), pp.741-754
    Description: We compared the performance of normal-reading ( = 14) and dyslexic children ( = 14) in a chronometric mental rotation task (cMRT) using letters, animals and pseudo-letters, which are objects that look like letters. In a typical chronometric mental rotation task two items are presented simultaneously on a screen whereby the right item is a rotated version of the left item and could be the same or a mirror version of the left item. The mental rotation paradigm is an appropriate method to test predictions of two different approaches trying to explain the problems for dyslexics when reading. According to the functional coordination deficit (FCD) model dyslexics show a failure in suppression of symmetry in the representation of graphemic material and therefore cannot decide whether the letter is normal or mirrored because of an ambiguous mapping between phoneme and grapheme representations. Therefore, the deficits of dyslexic children regarding mental rotation performance are restricted to the stimulus “letters”. According to findings that propose the involvement of the cerebellum in mental rotation tasks and a cerebellar deficit in dyslexia, an impaired mental rotation is expected affecting all types of stimuli. To investigate the involvement of the cerebellum, motor performance was additionally assessed because the cerebellum plays an important role in motor functions and motor imagery. For the cMRT we found that the dyslexic children show both slower reaction times regarding the stimulus “letters” and “pseudo-letters” and increased overall reaction times compared to non-dyslexic children. The mental rotation effect was more pronounced in dyslexic children than in normal readers. In contrast to previous approaches, the results of our study support the idea that poor results in mental rotation result from deficits in mental rotation itself rather than from a decision problem after mental rotation which supports the predictions of the cerebellar deficit hypothesis. However, since the impairment of dyslexics regarding mental rotation performance is letter-specific and motor results show no differences between dyslexic and non-dyslexic children, further approaches next to the cerebellar deficit hypothesis must be taken into account, especially in consideration of the fact that there are a number of causes for the failure in reading.
    Keywords: Mental Rotation ; Motor Performance ; Developmental Dyslexia ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0891-4222
    E-ISSN: 1873-3379
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2007, Vol.45(5), pp.1071-1075
    Description: Treatment for obesity is still running short, particularly on the long term. However, some people do take advantage of treatments and are able to retain their weight loss. What makes the difference between those who can keep their weight loss and those who cannot? One possible predictor of relapse in obesity treatment is impulsivity. Overall, obese people are found to be more impulsive than lean people, especially obese binge eaters. Intuitively, it would make sense that the most impulsive people are less able to keep control over eating behaviour. Therefore, impulsivity could serve as an obstacle for treatment. In the present study impulsivity was measured with a behavioural task (the stop signal task) in 26 obese children. Overweight of the children was measured before and after treatment and at 6 and 12 months follow ups. The results show that impulsivity was related to overweight at all moments: The most impulsive children were the most overweight ones; even after 12 months. Moreover, impulsivity predicted therapy success: the most impulsive children lost less weight. Impulsivity appears to contribute to the difference between succeeding or failing in attempts to lose weight.
    Keywords: Impulsivity ; Obesity ; Treatment ; Childhood ; Medicine ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0005-7967
    E-ISSN: 1873-622X
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