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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 12 June 2015, Vol.348(6240), pp.1217
    Description: Steffen et al. (Research Articles, 13 February 2015, p. 736) recently assessed current global freshwater use, finding it to be well below a corresponding planetary boundary. However, they ignored recent scientific advances implying that the global consumptive use of freshwater may have already crossed the associated planetary boundary.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Climate Change ; Earth (Planet) ; Ozone Depletion
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science, Dec 4, 2015, Vol.350(6265), p.1248(4)
    Description: Flow regulation and irrigation alter local freshwater conditions, but their global effects are highly uncertain. We investigated these global effects from 1901 to 2008, using hydroclimatic observations in 100 large hydrological basins. Globally, we find consistent and dominant effects of increasing relative evapotranspiration from both activities, and decreasing temporal runoff variability from flow regulation. The evapotranspiration effect increases the long-term average human consumption of fresh water by 3563 [+ or -] 979 [km.sup.3]/ year from 1901-1954 to 1955-2008. This increase raises a recent estimate of the current global water footprint of humanity by around 18%, to 10,688 [+ or -] 979 [km.sup.3]/year. The results highlight the global impact of local water-use activities and call for their relevant account in Earth system modeling.
    Keywords: Evapotranspiration – Analysis ; Hydraulic Flow – Analysis ; Irrigation (Agriculture) – Analysis ; Water Consumption – Analysis
    ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 04 December 2015, Vol.350(6265), pp.1248-51
    Description: Flow regulation and irrigation alter local freshwater conditions, but their global effects are highly uncertain. We investigated these global effects from 1901 to 2008, using hydroclimatic observations in 100 large hydrological basins. Globally, we find consistent and dominant effects of increasing relative evapotranspiration from both activities, and decreasing temporal runoff variability from flow regulation. The evapotranspiration effect increases the long-term average human consumption of fresh water by 3563 ± 979 km(3)/year from 1901-1954 to 1955-2008. This increase raises a recent estimate of the current global water footprint of humanity by around 18%, to 10,688 ± 979 km(3)/year. The results highlight the global impact of local water-use activities and call for their relevant account in Earth system modeling.
    Keywords: Agricultural Irrigation ; Drinking ; Fresh Water ; Water Supply -- Standards
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 4
    In: Nature Neuroscience, 2010, Vol.14(2), p.246
    Description: When events occur at predictable instants, anticipation improves performance. Knowledge of event timing modulates motor circuits and thereby improves response speed. By contrast, the neuronal mechanisms that underlie changes in sensory perception resulting from expectation are not well understood. We developed a behavioral procedure for rats in which we manipulated expectations about sound timing. Valid expectations improved both the speed and the accuracy of the subjects' performance, indicating not only improved motor preparedness but also enhanced perception. Single-neuron recordings in primary auditory cortex showed enhanced representation of sounds during periods of heightened expectation. Furthermore, we found that activity in auditory cortex was causally linked to the performance of the task and that changes in the neuronal representation of sounds predicted performance on a trial-by-trial basis. Our results indicate that changes in neuronal representation as early as primary sensory cortex mediate the perceptual advantage conferred by temporal expectation.
    Keywords: Auditory Cortex -- Physiology ; Auditory Pathways -- Physiology ; Auditory Perception -- Physiology ; Neurons -- Physiology ; Time Perception -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 1097-6256
    E-ISSN: 15461726
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, February 2013, Vol.56(5), pp.361-367
    Description: This column addresses the importance of acknowledging the knowledge‐making practice of Chicana bloggers. The author argues the online practices of Chicanas can be used to determine ways to develop 21st‐century literacies of students, especially students of color. The author presents findings from a case study of three Chicana bloggers that reveal several critical practices involving naming and labeling conventions, visual site design, content choices, and social connections. These strategies demonstrate how these bloggers use digital technology to establish their ethnic and political identity online.
    Keywords: Digital/Media Literacies ; New Literacies ; Literature ; Poetry ; Motivation/Engagement ; Interest ; Research Methodology ; Case Study ; Strategies ; Methods ; And Materials ; Instructional Technology ; Struggling Learners ; Self‐Perception ; Self‐Concept ; Theoretical Perspectives ; Critical Literacy ; Sociocultural ; To Learners In Which Of The Following Categories Does Your Work Apply? ; Adolescence ; College/University Students ; Adult
    ISSN: 1081-3004
    E-ISSN: 1936-2706
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 24 April 2012, Vol.134(18)
    Description: Synthesis of a high surface area meso-structured Pt thin film that exhibits higher specific activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than commercial carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C) is described for as catalyst for platinum-based polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The improved catalyst activity and stability could facilitate the development of a high-performance gas diffusion electrode that is resistant to corrosion even under the harsh conditions of start-up, shut-down, and/or hydrogen starvation.
    Keywords: Catalysis (Heterogeneous), Solar (Fuels), Photosynthesis (Natural and Artificial), Bio-Inspired, Electrodes - Solar, Defects, Charge Transport, Materials and Chemistry By Design, Synthesis (Novel Materials) ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0002-7863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, Vol.109(38), pp.15277-15282
    Description: Transcriptional profiling has been widely used as a tool for unveiling the coregulations of genes in response to genetic and environmental perturbations. These coregulations have been used, in a few instances, to infer global transcriptional regulatory models. Here, using the large amount of transcriptomic information available for the bacterium Escherichia coli , we seek to understand the design principles determining the regulation of its transcriptome. Combining transcriptomic and signaling data, we develop an evolutionary computational procedure that allows obtaining alternative genomic transcriptional regulatory network (GTRN) that still maintains its adaptability to dynamic environments. We apply our methodology to an E. coli GTRN and show that it could be rewired to simpler transcriptional regulatory structures. These rewired GTRNs still maintain the global physiological response to fluctuating environments. Rewired GTRNs contain 73% fewer regulated operons. Genes with similar functions and coordinated patterns of expression across environments are clustered into longer regulated operons. These synthetic GTRNs are more sensitive and show a more robust response to challenging environments. This result illustrates that the natural configuration of E. coli GTRN does not necessarily result from selection for robustness to environmental perturbations, but that evolutionary contingencies may have been important as well. We also discuss the limitations of our methodology in the context of the demand theory. Our procedure will be useful as a novel way to analyze global transcription regulation networks and in synthetic biology for the de novo design of genomes. ; p. 15277-15282.
    Keywords: Models ; Synthetic Biology ; Operon ; Bacteria ; Transcriptomics ; Escherichia Coli ; Transcriptome ; Transcription (Genetics) ; Physiological Response
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, Vol.109(38), pp.15271-15276
    Description: A grand challenge in synthetic biology is to use our current knowledge of RNA science to perform the automatic engineering of completely synthetic sequences encoding functional RNAs in living cells. We report here a fully automated design methodology and experimental validation of synthetic RNA interaction circuits working in a cellular environment. The computational algorithm, based on a physicochemical model, produces novel RNA sequences by exploring the space of possible sequences compatible with predefined structures. We tested our methodology in Escherichia coli by designing several positive riboregulators with diverse structures and interaction models, suggesting that only the energy of formation and the activation energy (free energy barrier to overcome for initiating the hybridization reaction) are sufficient criteria to engineer RNA interaction and regulation in bacteria. The designed sequences exhibit nonsignificant similarity to any known noncoding RNA sequence. Our riboregulatory devices work independently and in combination with transcription regulation to create complex logic circuits. Our results demonstrate that a computational methodology based on first-principles can be used to engineer interacting RNAs with allosteric behavior in living cells. ; p. 15271-15276.
    Keywords: Models ; Activation Energy ; Synthetic Biology ; Nucleotide Sequences ; Bacteria ; Non-Coding Rna ; Escherichia Coli ; Algorithms ; Hybridization ; Energy
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 06 October 2010, Vol.132(39)
    Description: There is a growing interest in oxygen electrochemistry as conversions between O(2) and H(2)O play an important role in a variety of renewable energy technologies. The goal of this work is to develop active bifunctional catalyst materials for water oxidation and oxygen reduction. Drawing inspiration from a cubane-like CaMn(4)O(x), the biological catalyst found in the oxygen evolving center (OEC) in photosystem II, nanostructured manganese oxide surfaces were investigated for these reactions. Thin films of nanostructured manganese oxide were found to be active for both oxygen reduction and water oxidation, with similar overall oxygen electrode activity to the best known precious metal nanoparticle catalysts: platinum, ruthenium, and iridium. Physical and chemical characterization of the nanostructured Mn oxide bifunctional catalyst reveals an oxidation state of Mn(III), akin to one of the most commonly observed Mn oxidation states found in the OEC.
    Keywords: Catalysis (Heterogeneous), Solar (Fuels), Photosynthesis (Natural and Artificial), Bio-Inspired, Electrodes - Solar, Defects, Charge Transport, Materials and Chemistry By Design, Synthesis (Novel Materials) ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0002-7863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Business Research, November 2013, Vol.66(11), pp.2301-2307
    Description: Top performing salespeople are attracted to organizations that provide opportunities to make full use of their abilities. Responses from 1450 sales directors from a leading direct selling organization were used to examine salesperson's experienced meaningfulness. Results show that experienced meaningfulness is critical to sales because it impacts salesperson's performance, turnover intentions and felt stress. Further, ethical climate and customer demandingness influence experienced meaningfulness perceptions.
    Keywords: Ethical Climate ; Sales Force Ethics ; Customer Behavior ; Sales Management ; Job Related Stress ; Direct Selling ; Business ; Economics
    ISSN: 0148-2963
    E-ISSN: 1873-7978
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