Quaternary International, 07 August 2014, Vol.339-340, pp.232-244
Numerous palaeontological sites containing bear hibernation levels are developed in Europe during the Quaternary. These particular assemblages allowed researchers to study Ursidae evolution, in particular Pleistocene species, and characterize extinct species behavior. These sites are not the only ones which contain bear remains. Large carnivore dens (in particular hyena dens), largely represented in Europe during the Late Pleistocene, include frequently consumed bear remains in their bone accumulations. Bear presence in these bone accumulations is discussed here. Through the observation of age estimations, skeletal part representation and bear bone morphology resulting of carnivore consumption (fragmentation and tooth marks), this study tries to discuss bear as potential prey for the other large predators. Six French assemblages, covering Middle and Late Pleistocene and representing three different types of samples, are presented: 1 – Four hyena dens: Eemian den of Peyre ( cf. = 11), Artenac level 10, at the beginning of Late Pleistocene ( cf. = 63) and wurmian assemblages from Fouvent ( = 17) and Conives ( = 6). 2 – An archaeological site alternating human and carnivore occupations named Grand Abri aux Puces which includes three bear species ( cf. = 11, = 52 and = 2) consumed by two potential predators (wolf and hyena). 3 – Artenac I and II (〉500 ka) considered as bear hibernation levels ( = 918) hunted/scavenging by large felid ( ). This analysis allows us to define and characterize bear consumption ( , , , ) by three large carnivores ( , , ).
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