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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Nature, 2006, Vol.444(7120), p.748
    Description: Growth and development are both fundamental components of demographic structure and life history strategy. Together with information about developmental timing they ultimately contribute to a better understanding of Neanderthal extinction. Primate molar tooth development tracks the pace of life history evolution most closely, and tooth histology reveals a record of birth as well as the timing of crown and root growth. High-resolution micro-computed tomography now allows us to image complex structures and uncover subtle differences in adult tooth morphology that are determined early in embryonic development. Here we show that the timing of molar crown and root completion in Neanderthals matches those known for modern humans but that a more complex enamel-dentine junction morphology and a late peak in root extension rate sets them apart. Previous predictions about Neanderthal growth, based only on anterior tooth surfaces, were necessarily speculative. These data are the first on internal molar microstructure; they firmly place key Neanderthal life history variables within those known for modern humans. [PUBLICATION ]
    Keywords: Birth ; Demography ; Teeth ; Embryogenesis ; Data Processing ; Life History ; Extinction ; Molars ; Computed Tomography ; Dental Roots ; Development ; Evolution ; Primates ; Teeth;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2017, Vol.12(4), pp.e0174216
    Description: Taxonomic over-splitting of extinct or endangered taxa, due to an incomplete knowledge of both skeletal morphological variability and the geographical ranges of past populations, continues to confuse the link between isolated extant populations and their ancestors. This is particularly problematic with the genus Equus. To more reliably determine the evolution and phylogeographic history of the endangered Asiatic wild ass, we studied the genetic diversity and inter-relationships of both extinct and extant populations over the last 100,000 years, including samples throughout its previous range from Western Europe to Southwest and East Asia. Using 229 bp of the mitochondrial hypervariable region, an approach which allowed the inclusion of information from extremely poorly preserved ancient samples, we classify all non-African wild asses into eleven clades that show a clear phylogeographic structure revealing their phylogenetic history. This study places the extinct European wild ass, E. hydruntinus, the phylogeny of which has been debated since the end of the 19th century, into its phylogenetic context within the Asiatic wild asses and reveals recent mitochondrial introgression between populations currently regarded as separate species. The phylogeographic organization of clades resulting from these efforts can be used not only to improve future taxonomic determination of a poorly characterized group of equids, but also to identify historic ranges, interbreeding events between various populations, and the impact of ancient climatic changes. In addition, appropriately placing extant relict populations into a broader phylogeographic and genetic context can better inform ongoing conservation strategies for this highly-endangered species.
    Keywords: Conservation of Natural Resources ; Endangered Species ; Phylogeny ; DNA, Mitochondrial -- Genetics ; Equidae -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Comptes rendus - Palevol, November 2012, Vol.11(8), pp.581-593
    Description: We describe a human partial femoral shaft discovered during speleological exploration of the “grotte de la Tour”, near the prehistoric site of La Chaise-de-Vouthon (Charente, France). The context of discovery is compatible with a hyena den deposit; the associated mammal assemblage suggests a preliminary chronological attribution to MIS 3. Combined information from its outer morphology, cross-sectional geometric properties, and from the high-resolution 3D imaging and quantitative analysis of its inner structural organization shows that this specimen (CDV-Tour 1) is from an adult Neanderthal individual, more likely a male. Nous décrivons une portion de diaphyse fémorale humaine découverte lors de l’exploration spéléologique de la « grotte de la Tour », près du site préhistorique de La Chaise-de-Vouthon (Charente, France). Le contexte de découverte est compatible avec un dépôt de tanière de hyène ; l’assemblage des restes mammifères associés suggère une attribution chronologique au MIS 3. La morphologie externe, les propriétés géométriques des sections et l’analyse quantitative tridimensionnelle à haute résolution de la structure interne montrent que ce spécimen (CDV-Tour 1) appartient à un individu néandertalien adulte, vraisemblablement de sexe masculin.
    Keywords: Grotte de La Tour ; La Chaise-de-Vouthon ; Femoral Shaft ; Neanderthal ; France ; Grotte de La Tour ; La Chaise-de-Vouthon ; Diaphyse Fémorale ; Néandertal ; France ; Geology
    ISSN: 1631-0683
    E-ISSN: 1777571X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary International, 2011, Vol.241(1), pp.26-34
    Description: The four stratigraphic units of the Late Pleistocene (MIS 3) clay-rich deposit of La Chauverie (Charente, SW France) have been characterized for mineral composition. The lower part of this 75 cm-thick karst deposit preserves a mammal fauna typical of temperate climate, followed by an assemblage pointing to a colder phase. The clay fraction of both horizons mostly results from mineral transformations of the clays contained in the sediments of the Paleogene formation surrounding the cave. Because clay mineral properties and changes intimately depend on the physico-chemical conditions and reaction kinetics prevailing at a given time in the soils, they are highly temperature-related. Notably, changes are rapid under temperate conditions, but slow in tundra-like cold contexts. As shown by the altered inherited mica-illite, as well as by the increase of crystallinity of kaolinite particles, at La Chauverie these transformations were marked in the stratigraphically lower part of the deposit formed under temperate conditions. Conversely, as reflected by the reduction of the kaolinite/smectite ratio characterizing the sediments of the upper horizon, the pedological evolution was limited during the subsequent cold phase. Here, both illite/smectite and kaolinite/smectite mixed layers become smectite-richer than their equivalent in the Paleogene. The parallelism between paleontological evidence and mineral signature in recording a relatively rapid (millennial-scale) shift towards colder conditions suggests that clay mineral assemblages from cave deposits can be used to assess paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental dynamics at local scale. Nonetheless, future research should test this potential tool in more appropriate, thicker deposits investigated using other independent paleobiological and geochemical indicators.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 1040-6182
    E-ISSN: 1873-4553
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Quaternaire, 01 March 2018, pp.39-44
    Description: Few neotaphonomic studies of trampling on bones have been made, especially in fine and soft sediments. However, trampling is an important taphonomical agent that can considerably modify a bone assemblage. Moreover, resulting bone modifications can be mistaken with other taphonomical agents, including human butchery behavior that can have great consequences on archeological interpretations. A better understanding of this taphonomical agent is therefore needed. Here we report the results of two trample experiments done to understand the effects of trampling in soft clay and fine sandy sediments on modern bones. It gives a preliminary understanding of trampling effects on bones in swampy-like environments.
    Keywords: Piétinement ; Expérience ; Néotaphonomie ; Traces ; Marécage ; Argile ; Trampling ; Experiment ; Neotaphonomy ; Marks ; Swamp ; Clay ; Geology
    ISSN: 1142-2904
    E-ISSN: 1965-0795
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of taphonomy, 2012, Vol.10(3), pp.291-316
    Description: In several caves, lithic artifacts or human-modified bones have been found as more or less associated with large faunal assemblages accumulated by cave hyenas. Even if these small records remain often hard to interpret, they are essential to understand interactions between human groups and other cave dwellers. Their study can bring new elements of discussion on critical issues such as the intensity of competition for shelter occupation or the potential existence of specific human activities in hyena dens (e.g. scavenging of meat scraps, collecting of bones). Here we present an interdisciplinary work on two Upper Pleistocene hyena dens, Camiac and La Chauverie, where a small number of Middle Paleolithic artifacts have been found. Results are provided by the combination of three disciplines: faunal taphonomy, lithic analyses (including studies of reduction sequences) and spatial analysis (threedimensional plotting, systematic refitting). At Camiac and La Chauverie, our interdisciplinary analysis highlights two distinctive types of human occupations. Sites that first seem to be closely related (hyena dens with scarce lithic artifacts) hide in fact a variety of situations, ranging from the succession of independent occupations of human groups and hyenas to potential traces of short human visits to hyena dens. Finally, by comparing our results with the regional record, we discuss the actual evidence for competition for shelter between cave hyenas and the last Neanderthals in southwestern France.
    Keywords: Hyena Dens ; Spatial Analysis ; Taphonomy ; Stone Tools ; Late Middle Paleolithic ; Southwestern France ; Competition For Shelter ; Neanderthal
    ISSN: 1696-0815
    Source: Fundación Dialnet
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Human Evolution, September 2012, Vol.63(3), pp.452-474
    Description: The recovery at Shi’bat Dihya 1 (SD1) of a dense Middle Paleolithic human occupation dated to 55 ka BP sheds new light on the role of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of the alleged expansion of modern humans out of Africa. SD1 is part of a complex of Middle Paleolithic sites cut by the Wadi Surdud and interstratified within an alluvial sedimentary basin in the foothills that connect the Yemeni highlands with the Tihama coastal plain. A number of environmental proxies indicate arid conditions throughout a sequence that extends between 63 and 42 ka BP. The lithic industry is geared toward the production of a variety of end products: blades, pointed blades, pointed flakes and Levallois-like flakes with long unmodified cutting edges, made from locally available rhyolite. The occasional exploitation of other local raw materials, that fulfill distinct complementary needs, highlights the multi-functional nature of the occupation. The slightly younger Shi’bat Dihya 2 (SD2) site is characterized by a less elaborate production of flakes, together with some elements (blades and pointed flakes) similar to those found at SD1, and may indicate a cultural continuity between the two sites. The technological behaviors of the SD1 toolmakers present similarities with those documented from a number of nearly contemporaneous assemblages from southern Arabia, the Levant, the Horn of Africa and North Africa. However, they do not directly conform to any of the techno-complexes typical of the late Middle Paleolithic or late Middle Stone Age from these regions. This period would have witnessed the development of local Middle Paleolithic traditions in the Arabian Peninsula, which suggests more complex settlement dynamics and possible population interactions than commonly inferred by the current models of modern human expansion out of Africa.
    Keywords: Arabian Peninsula ; Yemen ; Wadi Surdud Site Complex ; Middle Paleolithic ; Osl Dating ; Lithic Technology ; Settlement Dynamics ; Anthropology ; Biology
    ISSN: 0047-2484
    E-ISSN: 1095-8606
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary International, 15 April 2011, Vol.241, pp.1-2
    Keywords: Sciences of the Universe ; Earth Sciences ; Geology
    ISSN: 1040-6182
    E-ISSN: 1873-4553
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Geologica Acta, 2014, Vol.12(2), pp.127-135
    Description: Early Cretaceous ornithomimosaurian theropod dinosaurs have been reported from various localities in Asia, whereas they remain poorly represented and extremely rare in North America, Africa and Europe. So far, the only known European ornithomimosaur is Pelecanimimus from the Barremian of...
    Keywords: Sciences of the Universe ; Earth Sciences ; Dinosauria ; Theropoda ; Ornithomimosauria ; Early Cretaceous ; Europe ; Palaeogeography ; Geology
    ISSN: 1695-6133
    E-ISSN: 1696-5728
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary International, 07 August 2014, Vol.339-340, pp.232-244
    Description: Numerous palaeontological sites containing bear hibernation levels are developed in Europe during the Quaternary. These particular assemblages allowed researchers to study Ursidae evolution, in particular Pleistocene species, and characterize extinct species behavior. These sites are not the only ones which contain bear remains. Large carnivore dens (in particular hyena dens), largely represented in Europe during the Late Pleistocene, include frequently consumed bear remains in their bone accumulations. Bear presence in these bone accumulations is discussed here. Through the observation of age estimations, skeletal part representation and bear bone morphology resulting of carnivore consumption (fragmentation and tooth marks), this study tries to discuss bear as potential prey for the other large predators. Six French assemblages, covering Middle and Late Pleistocene and representing three different types of samples, are presented: 1 – Four hyena dens: Eemian den of Peyre ( cf.  = 11), Artenac level 10, at the beginning of Late Pleistocene ( cf.  = 63) and wurmian assemblages from Fouvent (  = 17) and Conives (  = 6). 2 – An archaeological site alternating human and carnivore occupations named Grand Abri aux Puces which includes three bear species ( cf.  = 11,  = 52 and  = 2) consumed by two potential predators (wolf and hyena). 3 – Artenac I and II (〉500 ka) considered as bear hibernation levels (  = 918) hunted/scavenging by large felid ( ). This analysis allows us to define and characterize bear consumption ( , , , ) by three large carnivores ( , , ).
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 1040-6182
    E-ISSN: 1873-4553
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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