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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry, 17 July 2012, Vol.84(14), pp.6061-9
    Description: Ion beam analysis (IBA) is a cluster of techniques including Rutherford and non-Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Recently, the ability to treat multiple IBA techniques (including PIXE) self-consistently has been demonstrated. The utility of IBA for accurately depth profiling thin films is critically reviewed. As an important example of IBA, three laboratories have independently measured a silicon sample implanted with a fluence of nominally 5 × 10(15) As/cm(2) at an unprecedented absolute accuracy. Using 1.5 MeV (4)He(+) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), each lab has demonstrated a combined standard uncertainty around 1% (coverage factor k = 1) traceable to an Sb-implanted certified reference material through the silicon electronic stopping power. The uncertainty budget shows that this accuracy is dominated by the knowledge of the electronic stopping, but that special care must also be taken to accurately determine the electronic gain of the detection system and other parameters. This RBS method is quite general and can be used routinely to accurately validate ion implanter charge collection systems, to certify SIMS standards, and for other applications. The generality of application of such methods in IBA is emphasized: if RBS and PIXE data are analysed self-consistently then the resulting depth profile inherits the accuracy and depth resolution of RBS and the sensitivity and elemental discrimination of PIXE.
    Keywords: Charge Transfer -- Analysis ; Electron Emission -- Research ; Silicon Compounds -- Chemical Properties ; Silicon Compounds -- Electric Properties ; Silicon Compounds -- Spectra ; Spectral Analysis (Signal analysis) -- Analysis ; Thin Films -- Chemical Properties ; Thin Films -- Spectra;
    ISSN: 00032700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, Nov 15, 2012, Vol.112(10), p.103110-1-103110-5
    Description: Structural analyses studies are conducted for examining the generation of the silicon co-implanted with carbon and high energy proton for the formation of the lasing G-centre. The impacts of substrate pre-amorphisation on the G-centre luminescence intensity and formation properties are also examined.
    Keywords: Backscattering -- Technology Application ; Ion Implantation -- Methods ; Photoluminescence -- Usage ; Silicon Compounds -- Optical Properties ; Silicon Compounds -- Thermal Properties ; Transmission Electron Microscopes -- Usage
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nanotechnology, 2016, Vol.27(28), p.285103 (8pp)
    Description: There are many possible biomedical applications for titania nanoparticles (NPs) doped with rare earth elements (REEs), from dose enhancement and diagnostic imaging in radiotherapy, to biosensing. However, there are concerns that the NPs could disintegrate in the body thus releasing toxic REE ions to undesired locations. As a first step, we investigate how accurately the Ti/REE ratio from the NPs can be measured inside human cells. A quantitative analysis of whole, unsectioned, individual human cells was performed using proton microprobe elemental microscopy. This method is unique in being able to quantitatively analyse all the elements in an unsectioned individual cell with micron resolution, while also scanning large fields of view. We compared the Ti/REE signal inside cells to NPs that were outside the cells, non-specifically absorbed onto the polypropylene substrate. We show that the REE signal in individual cells co-localises with the titanium signal, indicating that the NPs have remained intact. Within the uncertainty of the measurement, there is no difference between the Ti/REE ratio inside and outside the cells. Interestingly, we also show that there is considerable variation in the uptake of the NPs from cell-to-cell, by a factor of more than 10. We conclude that the NPs enter the cells and remain intact. The large heterogeneity in NP concentrations from cell-to-cell should be considered if they are to be used therapeutically.
    Keywords: Menschliche Zelle ; Nanopartikel ; Seltene Erden ; Radiotherapie ; Quantitative Analyse ; Polypropylen ; Titan ; Sehbereich ; Titandioxid ; Biomedizinische Anwendung ; Mikrosonde ; Heterogenität ; Engineering ; Physics;
    ISSN: 0957-4484
    E-ISSN: 1361-6528
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, Dec 15, 2012, Vol.525, p.1(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2012.07.109 Byline: B.R. Wakeling, B. Degamber, G. Kister, D.W. Lane, M.J. Bailey, C. Jeynes Keywords: Cadmium sulphide; Chemical bath deposition; In situ monitor; Optical fibre Abstract: The CdS window layer in thin film solar cells is frequently grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Deposited films are typically less than 100nm thick and the inability to identify the exact start of the deposition can make CBD an imprecise process. This paper describes the construction and testing of a simple optical fibre sensor that detects the start of the deposition process and also allows for its mechanism to be studied. The in situ optical fibre monitoring technique utilises the change in optical reflectance off the glass/deposited film/precursor solution interfaces at an operating wavelength of 1550nm. A theoretical expression for the reflection of light from the interface is discussed and compared with experimental results. The monitoring technique shows the presence of two different deposition mechanisms. This result is confirmed by film densities calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and an optical model for ellipsometry measurements which indicates that the deposited CdS films consist of a double layer structure with a porous layer on top of a dense under layer. The application of the theoretical expression is optimised by assuming the refractive index of the CdS layer to be 2.02. The ellipsometry model shows that the refractive index of the CdS deposited is 2.14 for a two layer model of the film that included a porous upper layer through the effective medium approximation. Article History: Received 5 August 2011; Revised 26 June 2012; Accepted 2 July 2012
    Keywords: Thin Films -- Optical Properties ; Thin Films -- Analysis ; Cadmium -- Optical Properties ; Cadmium -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Applied Surface Science, 01 January 2012, Vol.258(6), pp.2043-2046
    Description: ► Ar ion irradiation induces chemical reaction in Al/Ti multilayers at room temperature. ► Reaction is triggered by thermal spikes and enhanced by chemical driving forces. ► The resulting structure has a graded composition of metals and intermetallics. ► The applied processing is interesting for nanoalloying of multilayered structures. Interactions induced in Al/Ti multilayers by implantation of Ar ions at room temperature were investgated. Initial structures consisted of (Al/Ti) × 5 multilayers deposited by d.c. ion sputtering on Si(1 0 0) wafers, to a total thickness of ∼250 nm. They were irradiated with 200 keV Ar ions, to the fluences from 5 × 10 to 4 × 10 ions/cm . It was found that ion irradiation induced a progressed intermixing of the multilayer constituents and Al–Ti nanoalloying for the highest applied fluence. The resulting nanocrystalline structure had a graded composition with non-reacted or interdiffused Al and Ti, and γ-AlTi and AlTi intermetallic phases. Most intense reactivity was observed around mid depth of the multilayers, where most energy was deposited by the impact ions. It is presumed that Al–Ti chemical reaction is triggered by thermal spikes and further enhanced by chemical driving forces. The applied processing can be interesting for fabrication of tightly bond multilayered structures with gradual changes of their composition and properties.
    Keywords: Al/Ti Multilayers ; Ion Irradiation ; Nanoalloying ; Intermetallic Phases ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0169-4332
    E-ISSN: 1873-5584
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B, 01 September 2017, Vol.406, pp.30-31
    Description: The quantity of material in thin films can be measured reliably, non-destructively, and at an absolute traceable accuracy with a combined standard uncertainty of 1% by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). We have demonstrated a measurement protocol for the determination of quantity of material by RBS that has been accredited at this accuracy to the ISO 17025 standard by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS). The method is entirely traceable to SI units relying on no artefacts, and thus qualifies as a as defined by the ISO Guide 35:1985 (paragraph 9.4.1).
    Keywords: Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry ; Accuracy ; Quantity of Material ; ISO Standards ; Metrology ; Physics
    ISSN: 0168-583X
    E-ISSN: 1872-9584
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, 15 December 2012, Vol.525, pp.1-5
    Description: The CdS window layer in thin film solar cells is frequently grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Deposited films are typically less than 100 nm thick and the inability to identify the exact start of the deposition can make CBD an imprecise process. This paper describes the construction and testing of a simple optical fibre sensor that detects the start of the deposition process and also allows for its mechanism to be studied. The in situ optical fibre monitoring technique utilises the change in optical reflectance off the glass/deposited film/precursor solution interfaces at an operating wavelength of 1550 nm. A theoretical expression for the reflection of light from the interface is discussed and compared with experimental results. The monitoring technique shows the presence of two different deposition mechanisms. This result is confirmed by film densities calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and an optical model for ellipsometry measurements which indicates that the deposited CdS films consist of a double layer structure with a porous layer on top of a dense under layer. The application of the theoretical expression is optimised by assuming the refractive index of the CdS layer to be 2.02. The ellipsometry model shows that the refractive index of the CdS deposited is 2.14 for a two layer model of the film that included a porous upper layer through the effective medium approximation. ► Optical fibre sensors can be used as an in situ monitor for chemical bath deposition. ► The optical fibre sensor can precisely detect the start of film growth. ► Ellipsometry showed the CdS films had a porous outermost layer over a dense layer. ► Lincot and Borges' three stages of chemical bath deposition growth were confirmed.
    Keywords: Cadmium Sulphide ; Chemical Bath Deposition ; In Situ Monitor ; Optical Fibre ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    E-ISSN: 1879-2731
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 15 November 2012, Vol.112(10)
    Description: We investigate a new approach for efficient generation of the lasing G-centre (carbon substitutional-silicon self-interstitial complex) which crucially is fully compatible with standard silicon ultra-large-scale integration technology. Silicon wafers were implanted with carbon and irradiated with high energy protons to produce self-interstitials that are crucial in the formation of the G-centre. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the structure of the post-implanted silicon samples and to investigate the behaviour of the self-interstitials and damage introduced by the carbon and proton implantation. The effect of substrate pre-amorphisation on the G-centre luminescence intensity and formation properties was also investigated by implanting Ge prior to the carbon and proton irradiation. Photoluminescence measurements and RBS results show a significantly higher G-centre peak intensity and silicon yield, respectively, in samples without pre-amorphisation.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B, Jan 15, 2012, Vol.271, p.107(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2011.09.020 Byline: C. Jeynes, M.J. Bailey, N.J. Bright, M.E. Christopher, G.W. Grime, B.N. Jones, V.V. Palitsin, R.P. Webb Keywords: Ion beam analysis; Rutherford backscattering; Particle induced X-ray analysis; Thin films; Elemental depth profiling; Mapping; Trace elements; High sensitivity; Accurate analysis; Uncertainty budget; Blind samples; Certified reference materials; Forensics; SIMS standards Abstract: The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information - the secret of "Total IBA" is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far "Total IBA" can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential. Author Affiliation: University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford, United Kingdom Article History: Received 14 June 2011; Revised 20 September 2011
    Keywords: Thin Films -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0168-583X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Nuclear Data Sheets, May 2014, Vol.119, pp.270-272
    Description: The experimental data available for () silicon elastic scattering cross section at angles and energies suitable for Ion Beam Analysis have been reviewed. The spectra of alphas elastically scattered from a thick uniform silicon target were measured with a small step over the entire energy range studied. The analysis of the data was made in the framework of the R-matrix theory, with potential scattering being taken into account using optical model. The obtained results provide the evaluated differential cross sections for silicon () elastic scattering in the energy range from Rutherford scattering up to 5.2 MeV.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0090-3752
    E-ISSN: 1095-9904
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